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Full text of "History of Indiana : containing a history of Indiana and biographical sketches of governors and other leading men. Also a statement of the growth and prosperity of Marshall County, together with a personal and family histry of many of its citizens"

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Gc M. L. 



V.2 I 

1794097 I 


3 1833 01787 2133 














Democrat Printing Company, Madison, Wis. 

Bindery of W. B. Conkey, Chicago, III. 





PbSHIStobic Races 


Chinese, The 

Discovery by Columbus 

Explorations by the Whites... 

Indians, The 

Immigration, The First 

Immigration, The Second 

Pyramids, etc. The 

Relics of the Mound-Builders, 

Savage Customs 

Tartars, The 


National Policies, etc 

American Policy, The 

Atrocity of the Savages 

Burning of Hii ' 

, The 

heme, T: 

British Pol 

GilbauJt, Father 

Hamilton's Career 

Liquor and Gaming Laws.. 
Missionaries, The Catholic 

Ordinance of 17S7 

Pontiac's War 

Ruse Against the Indians.. 
Vigo, Francis 

Opeeations Against the Indi; 

Battle at Peoria Lake 

Campaign of Harrison 

Cession Treaties , 

Defeat of St. Clair 

Defensive Operations 

Expedition of Harmer 

Expedition of Wayne 

Expedition of St. Clair 

Expedition of Williamson.... 

Fort Miami, Battle of 

Harrison and the Indians 

Hopkins' Campaign 

Kickapoo Town, Burning of., 

Maumee, Battle of 

Massacre at Pigeon Iloost 

Mississinewa Town, Battle a1 

Oratory, Tecumseh's 

Prophet Town, Destruction c 

Peace with the Indians 

Siege of Fort Wayne 

Siege of Fort Harrison 


Tippecanoe, Battle of. 

War of 1812 

War of 1SI2, Close of the 

Oeganization of Indiana Teeeitory.. 

Bank, Establishment of. 

Courts, Formation of 

County Otticus, A|.pointmentof 

CorydoD.the Capital 



e. The First 84 


Organization of the State, eti 

Amendment, The Fifteenth.... 

Black Hawk War , 

, The.. 

very . 


Indiana IN the Rebellion 

Batteries of Light Infantry.... 

Battle Record of States 

Call to Arms, The 

Colored Troops of Indiana 

Calls of 18H1 

Field, In the 

Independent Cavalrv Regimen 
Morgan'- •■" 


One Hundred Days' Men, 
Regiments, Formation ot 

Regiments, Sketch of. 

Six Months' Regiments.. 

State Affairs Aftee the Rebellion.. 


Indiana I'n 
Special Law 

State Bank 

State Board of Agricultun 
State Expositions.. 

Wealth and Progress.... 


Education and Benevolence 

Blind Institute, The 

City School System 

Compensation of Teachers,. 

Denominational and Private lusti 

Deafand Dumb Institute 


Enumeration of Scholars 

Family Wor,.|iip 

Free.School Sysieni, The 

Funds, JManagenieut of the 

Female Prison and Reform.atory.. 
House of Kel'iige, The, 
Ilospil ■ — 



Origin of School Funds.. 

Purdue University 

School Statistics 

State University, The 

State Normal School 

State Prison, SoutW 

State Prison, North' 

Total School Funds 





Act to organize 


Boundary lines 

Burr Oak station 


Clerks, county 

Commissioners, county 

Commissioners, first meeting.. 

Coroners, list of 

County asylum 

Court house, first built 



Election, first 

Geology - 

Huckleberry marsb 

Industrial review 



Judges, circuit court 


La Paz. 



Mastodon relics 

Maxinkuckee lake 

Noitfi Sal.-in 

rii--il ii'^. v.'te of county for, 
RailiM.uN. vakieof. Union Tp. 

Green Ti:!!.:;:::;:.:.;::'::: 

Bourbon Tp 


German Tp 

North Tp ■- 

Polk To 


Walnut Tp 

Recorders, list o£ 

Representatives, list of 

Senators, sUi^e, list of 

Settlers, early, of Union Tp. . . 

Center Tp 

Sheriffs, 'list of 76 

Springs and flowing wells 27 

Surveyors, list of 77 

Teegarden 60 

Topographical features 24 

Townshi ps — first division into 29 

Treasurers, list of T6 

Tvner City 69 

Uniontovvn 39 

vVolf Creek 4S 


Bourbon 49 

Center 44 

German 53 

Green 47 

Nortti So 

Polk 5S 

Tippecanoe oO 

Union *^3 

Walnut 64 

West 63 

' , iitural society 102 

1 ,. , ,,.viug »2 

: ^- .. ..::::.... loi 

1 ..: ,u..i_ I , iii.ive methods 

„t 81 

Fertiiity of soil, article on . . . 99 

First threshing machine — 85 

Flax and its uses 87 

History of, in Marshall Co. . SO 
How to cultivate soil, article 

on. 9S 

Maxinkuckee As.sociation.... 103 

Pioneer Farmers' club 103 

Plymouth 105 

AdJitioiis, list of 106 

Banks 114 

Beuevoleut societies 145 

Fires, list, of 112 

Fire companies Ill 

First store and saw-mill 107 

Industrial review 118 

Newspapers 121-132 

Plymotth: page. 

Organization of 105 

Postmasters, list of 113 

Religious societies 138 

Schools 132 

"Sickly season," story of the 109 
Waterworks 117 

Akgos 217 

Business review 228 

Clmrches 226 

ludmtrial review 220 

Newspapers 230- 

Organization 217 

Pliysi. ■ 



ley Wilhaius, the pioneer 219 

Newspapers — , -^sT 

Organization 278 

Physicians 289 

Railroads 295 

Schools 286 

Secret societies 284 

Bremen 315 

Early settlement 315 

Industrial review 317 

Fire department 326 

Merchants, list of 320 

Newspapers 327 

Physicians 327 

Railroads 321 

Religious denominations — 322 

Schools 3*1 

Secret societies 325 



Acker, William J 296 

Armstrong, Daniel B 147 

Bailev, Wellington E 149 

Ball, Phihp J 151 

Balsley, George 32S 

Baker, Abraham iii 

Baker, Hiram 3T1 

Barber, D.M 401 

Barber, Albert 403 

Barber.JohnH 402 

Barber, Edwin S 29, 

Barden, John H 403 

Baty, Robert H 233 

Bauer, John 328 

Baugher. John W 430 

Behrens, John F 152 

Bell. Isaac E 297 

Bender, John S 153 

Beyler, Moses 3i3 

Bland, Marion A 156 

Bock, Leonard 233 

Bodey.Samuel «34 

Boggs, Joseph W 166 

Boggs, Lewis B 2;15 

Bohmer, Albert 373 

Borton, T A 155 

BoweU, JohnB 157 

Bowman, Brook H 320 

Bowser, D.M 3 )0 

Boyce, Uavid 23o 

Bremer, Herbert A lo8 

Brewer. H. C 236 

Brooke, Jerred E 159 

Brooke, Ed. S 159 

Brown, Charles 237 

Bryan, Joseph 237 

Bunch, Nathan E 404 

Burdon, Stacy 161 

Campbell, Henry H 404 

Carabin, Augustia 164 

Carbiener, Jacob 331 

Chancy, C. F 163 

Chapman, Nathaniel 238 

Chase, Roscoe A., Prof.. 163 

Cleaveland, Gilson Strong 161 

Conger, D. S 376 


Conger, William H . .' 376 

Corey, W.D 23» 

Cox, William 240 

Cox, Fernando 241 

Cromley. J. J 416 

Crow, John 241 

Cummins, P.N 376 

Cummings, John C 165 

Cm-tis, Richard 242 

Davis, James M 243 

Dawson, Moses 244 

Deemer,EliW 244 

Denman, D. G 165 

Cillenius, Ervin 298 

Dilley, Martin A «! 

Disher, Peter loo 

Eckert, George 377 

Eiison J. W 299 

Eley,L.D «* 

Elliott, Francis Marion 299 

Emerson, Joseph E 378 

Evans, Robert J 431 

Fink, Morgan S3« 


Fish, S.S 

Flaagg, W.H.J 

FlarL-hentraeer, Anthony. 

Foulke, William H 

Forsythe, Asa 

Fries, Jacob, Jr 

Galbraith, Jacob 

Garver, John S 

Garver. Henry M 

Gass, John P 

Geiselman, Josiah. 
Gibbens, David A.. 

Gibson, David L 

Gilmore. James A. 
Gollatz, Charles H. 
Gordon, William C. 
Gordon. John C — 
Gould, Samuel W . . 

Grant, Jones 

Grass, Mary 

Grass, Jacob 

Grimes, Josiah B.. 
Grossman, .Henry.. 

Guy, James 

Haafc, Joseph 

Hahn, I'eter 

Hallocli, \V. H 

Hamilton, Dr. J. J. 

Knoblock, George W. 
Knoblook, Harmon . . 
Knoeplle, Christian.. 

Koontz, Adam 

Koontz. George 

Lake, Jat-pcr I\l. 



, S, J 


, Jacob 

Heiuke, llelkous 

Helms. Eljeue;;er 

HelmliuKcr, George... 

Herring, N. A 

Hess, Lewis J 

Hess, Erastus 

Hess, J asper N 

Hess, Isaiah..-. 

Hess, Elias 

Hill, WilhamW 

Hmdle, John 

Hoham, John 

Holeni, J. N 

Holem. Adam 

Holem, Jacob 

Holem, Peter 

Holem, Bcu,iamin 

Holland, William 

Hoover, John A 

Horn, Willi, 1111 

Houghton, Tlioiiias... 

Huft-, John 


Hult, Willi nil U 

Huff, .Jam.-, r; 

Hughe-^. rli.iil.-, R .. 

Jacknla'ii', ll'ii;;l'i ....'.'. 

Jilson. J.iliii C 

Jones, Ji.isiah 

Jones, Perry O 

Joseph. Silas H 

Men, John II 

Kautiiiaii JacobC.'.'.. 

Keiser, Simon 

Keller, S.B 

Keilison, Hon. Charles 

Kendall, J. T 

Kendall, William M.., 

Keyser, Zachariah 

Keyser, Absalom 

Kinsey, A 

Kirkley, Marshall 

Kloepfer, Rudolph C. 
Knott, D.C 


Ringle Da 

Shaffer, Fred 

Shakes, Thomas 

Shaw, William 

Shively. Daniel C. .. 
Shoemaker, JohnM. 

Showley, Daniel 

Siders, John W 

Sickman, William H 
Smith, Marquis L. . . 

Smith, D. C 

Snyder, Simon 

Snyder, Benjamin... 

Soice, John , .. 

Soice, Oliver G 

I Whitman, M. D. L 

Wickizer. J. M 

Williamson. Richard. 

Wiltfong, Noah 


sua I Baugher, J. VV., facing 

■iHT 'Kulm, F. H.. facing 

■■rnr I Matcbette, A. C, facing... 

2(17 Moench, L. A., facing 

2U1 Seller, C, and wife, facing. 





HE ordinance for ascertaining the mode of disposing 
of lands in the western territory, of which Indiana was 
then a part, was passed by congress May 20, 1785. It 
provided for geographers and surveyors, and described 
minutely the modus operandi to be observed, which will 
be found in the general history of the state, accompany- 
ing the history of Marshall county. The act passed by 
the legislature for the organization of the county was 
approved February 4, 1836. By whom it was introduced and the 
preliminaries connected with its passage, nothing is now known. 
At that time, what is now Marshall county, was designated as 
"unorganized territory," and of course the inhabitants had no 
representative in the legislature of the state. St. Joseph and La 
Porte counties had been organized six years previous, and it is 
probable the representatives from those counties secured the pas- 
sage of the bill. The act is as follows: 

An Act to Organize the County of Marshall, Approved 
February 4, 1836. 

Section i . Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the state of 
Indiana: That, from and after the ist day of April next, the 
county of Marshall shall enjoy all the rights and jurisdiction 
which belong to separate and independent counties. 
2— B. 


Sec. 2. That Hiram Wheeler and Griffin Treadway, of La 
Porte county, and Samuel C. Sample and Peter Johnson, of St. 
Joseph county, and John Rohrer, of Elkhart county, be, and they 
are hereby appointed commissioners for the purpose of fixing the 
permanent seat of justice for the said county of Marshall, agree- 
ably to the provisions of "an act to establish the seats of justice 
in new counties," approved January 14, 1S24. The commission- 
ers above named, or a majority of them, shall convene at the 
house of Grove Pomeroy, in said county, on the second Monday 
of June next, or as soon thereafter as a majority of them shall 
agree upon. 

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of the sheriff of St. Joseph county 
to notify the commiissioners above named, either by person or in 
writing, of their appointment, and place appointed for them to 
convene; and the board doing county business shall allow said 
sheriff reasonable compensation for said services out of any 
moneys in the treasury in said county of Marshall. 

Sec. 4. Circuit and other courts of said county shall be held 
at the house of Grove Pomeroy, or at any other place in said 
county where said courts may adjourn to, until suitabl-' accommo- 
dations can be furnished at the seat of justice thereof, after 
which the courts shall be holden at the county seat. 

Sec. 5. The agent who shall be appointed to superintend the 
sale of lots at the county seat of said county of Marshall, shall 
reserve ten per cent, out of all donations to said county, and 
shall pay the same over to such person or persons as shall be 
authorized to receive the same for the use of a library for said 

Sec. 6. The board doing county business of Marshall county, 
when elected and qualified, may hold special sessions, not ex- 
ceeding three days, the first year after the organization of said 
count}'-, and shall appoint a lister, and make all other necessary 
appointments, and do and perform all other business which might 
have been necessary' to be performed at any regular session, and 
take all necessary steps to collect the state and county revenue. 

Sec. 7. The said county of Marshall shall be attached to the 
■eighth judicial circuit of the state for judicial purposes. 

Sec. 8. The northern boundary line of the county of Marshall 
shall be extended to an east and west line through the center of 
township 35 north. 

On the 20th day of July, 1836, the county seat was located at 
Plymouth by three of the commissioners named by the legisla- 
ture for that purpose. This was done at a special session of the 
board of commissioners. Their report was as follows: 

July Special Session, iSj6, of Commissioners Court. — Now 
comes Peter Johnson, Griffin Treadway and Samuel C. Sample, 
three of the commissioners appointed by the act entitled, "An 


act to organize the county of Marshall, approved the 4th of 
Februar}^" and make the following report of their doings as 
locating commissioners of the permanent seat of justice of said 
count}'-, to-wit: 
To the Honorable, the Board of Commissioners of the Countvof 


The undersigned, three of the commissioners appointed by an 
act of the general assembly of the stat"^ of Indiana, entitled, 
" An act to organize thecount}- of Marshall, approved February 4, 
1836," respectfully report to your honors, that by an agree- 
ment entered into, by a majority of the commissioners appointed 
by said act, the meeting of said commissioners was agreed to be 
held at the house of Grove Pomeroy, in said county, on Monday, 
the iSth day of July, A. D. 1836, to discharge the duties assigned 
them by said act. 

Whereupon, the undersigned, Peter Johnson, Griffin Treadway 
and Samuel C. Sample, three of said commissioners (Hiram 
Wheeler and John Rohrer, two of the commissioners, having 
failed to attend), having met at the house of Grove Pomeroy, 
on the said iSth day of July, 1S36, for the purpose of perma- 
nently fixing the seat of justice for the said county of Marshall, 
they personally examined all the sites proposed to them, in said 
county, for said seat of justice, and received propositions for 
donations for the same from the different proprietors of lands 
naming and proposing sites, and we, after such examination, and 
seeing and inspecting said propositions, have concluded and de- 
termined to fix, and by these presents do permanentl}' locate, fix 
and establish the seat of justice of said county of Marshall, at 
Plymouth. The site for the public buildings for said county is 
designated on a plat of said town as made by James Blair, John 
Bering and William Polk, proprietors of said town, the names 
being recorded in the county of St. Joseph, Indiana, the said site 
for said public buildings being, by said proprietors donated, 
among other things, to said county. 

And the undersigned do further report that the said Blair, 
Sering and Polk, in consideration of the location of said seat of 
justice at the place aforesaid, have donated to said county, money 
and lands as follows: $1,000 in cash, payable as follows: $350 
down in hand, paid to Peter Schroeder, county agent, in our 
presence; $350 payable in one 3-ear from date, and $350 paj'able 
two years from date, for the pa3'ment of which, said proprietors 
have executed their notes, bearing date herewith, and the said 
proprietors have also donated to said county, the following lots 
in said town, to wit: Lots number i, 6, 10, 18^ 22, 28, 33, 2)7 ^ 45. 
48, 52, 57, 60, 63, 65, 70, 74, 78, 81, 86, QO, 93, 96, 99, 102, loS, 112, 
117, no, 123, 136,129,132, 136, 141, 144, 147, 153, 156 and 159, being 
corner lots, and forty-two in number, and also lots number 5, 14, 


20, 2Q, 38, 50, 56, 65, 69, 73, 82, 88, loi, 1 10 116, 125, 134, 140, 146, 
152 and 1 58, being twenty-one in number, and middle lots, and 
making in all, sixty-three lots. 

And also the said proprietors have donated to said county, 
one acre and four-fifths of an acre of land for a public burying 
ground, lying in the southwest corner of the northwest quarter 
of section thirteen (13), of Michigan road lands, the same lying 
west and south of Plum street, in said town; also two acres, more 
or less, of land for a site for a county seminary, bounded as fol- 
lows: Beginning at the southwest corner of Adams and Plum 
streets, in said towns, thence southwardly with Plum street 264 
feet, to the northwest corner of Washington and Plum streets, 
thence west on a line on the south with Washington street, and 
on a line on the north with Adams street, to the west line of said 
section thirteen (13) ; the said seminary lot to maintain a width 
of 264 feet from east to west, and for which lots said proprietors 
have executed their deed to the county agent of said county, and 
for which lands for a burial ground and seminary, they have exe- 
cuted their deed to 3'our honors, for the uses aforesaid. 

And the said proprietors have further agreed to build a tem- 
porary court house, not less than 30x20 feet, one story high, on 
lot num.ber thirtj'-two, in said town; the county of Marshall to 
have the use of the same for the term of four years from the com- 
pletion thereof, the same to be ready for the use of the county 
by the spring term of the circuit court of 1837; and for the com- 
pletion of which house, and for the use thereof, as aforesaid, the 
proprietors have executed their bonds, payable to the board 
of commissioners, in the penal sum of $1,000, and the said 
proprietors have also agreed to defray the expenses of the loca- 
tion of said site, being $45, and which sum they have paid to the 
undersigned. All of which deeds and bonds and notes, the un- 
dersigned herewith produce to your honors. 

All of which is respectfully submitted the 20th of July, 1S36. 
Samuel C. Sample, ) 
Peter Johnson, [ Cotu?}iiss/oners. 
Griffin Treadwav, ) 

The county having been organized, the board of commission- 
ers, consisting of Robert Blair, Abraham Johnson and Charles 
Ousterhout, ordered the clerk of the board, Jeremiah Muncy, to 
file among the papers of the court, the deeds for the lands donated, 
and have the same duly transferred and recorded in the deed 
records of the county, which was accordingly done. 

Marshall county is bounded on the north by St. Joseph, on 
the east by Elkhart and Kosciusko, on the south by Fulton and 
Kosciusko, and on the west by Stark and St. Joseph counties. It 
is twenty-one miles square, according to the government surveys, 
which overrun on the east side of the range lines and on the 


south side of the "congressional township" lines, so that Mar- 
shall county is really about twenty-one and three-quarter com- 
mon or statute miles east and west, and also about twenty-one 
miles and ten rods north and south. The fraction, or more 
properly speaking, the overplus, is given to the north side of 
sections i, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, and to the west side of sections 6, 7, 18, 
19, 30 and 31, of each "congressional township." It includes 
townships 32, 7,7,, 34, and the south half of township 35, north; 
and, ranges i, 2, 3, and the west half of range 4 east, of the 
second principal meridian. Townships and ranges are ascer- 
tained by what are known as the " meridian" and "base" lines. 
These are lines established by the government for the purpose 
of accurately dividing and describing the public lands. The 
second principal meridian line in Indiana passes from south to 
north through the counties of Perry, Crawford, Orange, Law- 
rence, Monroe, Morgan, Hendricks, Boone, Clinton, Carroll, 
Cass, between Fulton and Pulaski and between Marshall and 
Stark, and through St. Joseph, so that the west line of Marshall 
county is the second meridian line. The base line passes 
through the southern portion of the state from west to east, 
through the counties of Knox, Gibson, Pike, Du Bois, Orange, 
Washington and Clarke. A base line is first established on a 
true parallel of latitude. From this line, townships which are 
generally six miles square, are measured north and south. At 
the distance of twenty-four miles, or every fourth township, north 
of the principal meridian base, and at every thirty miles, or five 
townships, south, standard or correction parallels are established, 
which in truth become bases for surveys immediately north or 
south of them. The first correction line is just north of Indian- 
apolis and the second about six miles north of Logansport. The 
reason these correction lines are established is that, "since the 
meridians are not parallel to each other, because they would all 
meet at the poles, it follows that the townships, though said to 
be square, are not exactly so, but are longer on their southern 
boundaries than on their northern ones. If this were not cor- 
rected, the successive townships in any range would be larger 
and larger south of the base line, and smaller and smaller north 
of it. Even with these correction lines, absolutely correct meas- 
urements cannot be made, and hence, in almost every deed of 
conveyance, for the purpose of curing any defects in this respect, 
the term " more or less" is inserted. North of the base line, we 
have division of parallel lines six miles apart running east and 
west, called township lines. We have the principal meridian 
established by government, which runs at right angles with base 
and township lines. East and west from the principal meridian, 
parallel lines are drawn north and south at the distance of six 
miles, which are called ranges, and number east and west from 


the meridian. Tliese lines measure land into six-mile squares, 
which are called congressional townships. These in turn are 
subdivided into thirty-six squares or sections, containing 640 
acres. The numbering of sections begins always at the north- 
east corner of the township and proceeds from right to left until 
six sections are numbered and the northwest corner of the town- 
ship is reached, then dropping down or south one tier or mile, 
and then numbering each from left to right, so continuing the 
operation till the entire thirty-six sections are numbered. 

Marshall county was named in honor of Chief Justice Marshall. 
It was part of the territory belonging to the Menomonee tribe of 
Pottawatamie Indians, and included in the government pur- 
chase under the treaty of Tippecanoe river, made in 1832. It 
was, at the time of its organization, a timbered region, inter- 
spersed with prairies which were formerly regarded as worthless 
marsh lands, but they are now looked upon as being the most 
valuable lands in the county since they have been reclaimed by 
drainage. The timbered lands lie in the shape of a reversed 
letter 3, the open part to the west, the upright body of the letter 
represented by a tract fifteen by twenty-one miles on the west 
side of the county; the cross line by a tract six to eight miles 
wide across the south end, with some smaller tracts in the center 
of the west side, representing the cross in the middle of the let- 
ter. The remainder is made up of the prairies above spoken of, 
and "barrens"; not barren land but light timbered and prairie 
lands, some of these tracts being the most productive and desir- 
able lands to be found in the state of Indiana; for instance, the 
burr oak barrens that lie from two to three miles north of Mar- 
mont, in Union township. 

The heavy timbered consisted of all the hard and soft timbers, 
except the resinous oak, ash, hickory, maple, beech, elm, walnut, 
butternut, linn, poplar, etc. The "barrens," or more open lands, 
are variously timbered with white burr, yellow and black oak, 
and also hickory. The face of the land is gently undulating, 
with no abrupt elevations or declivities. These " barrens " are 
made up of every variety of soil, the greater portion, however, 
being the deep, rich, black loam of the heavy timbered lands. 
The burr oak barrens have rich, sand}^ loam. The white oak 
barrens, clay and sand. The black and yellow oak, light sand 
soil with clay bottom. The marshes, the richest and finest of 
alluvium, producing heavy growths of the best hay and also 
other crops. All kinds of farm products are raised in abun- 
dance — crops are certain and the yield remunerative. 

Yellow river rises north and east of the northeastern portion 
of the county — the north branch in St. Joseph and the cen- 
tral and southern branches in Kosciusko county, and flows in a 
southwesterly course through the county. 


From fifteen to eighteen miles from the county seat, through 
the southeast corner of Tippecanoe township, flows the Tippe- 
canoe river, entering about four miles north, and passing out 
about the same distance west of the southeast corner of the 

W. H.Thompson, assistant state geologist, in the geological 
report of the state for the years 1885-86, pays the following 
handsome compliment to our county, and coming from the able, 
scientific and reliable source it does, the compiler hereof cannot 
do better than insert it here, so it will become a permanent rec- 
ord of Marshall county, as to her topography and natural re- 
sources at the time the legal and scientific investigations were 
made and published: 


Marshall county is one of the most interesting of all the 
counties of Indiana, especially as regards its topography, its sur- 
face geology, and its agricultural importance. It is extremely 
well situated with regard to all the facilities for production and 
shipment, having excellent and varied soil, good public roads, 
superior drainage, and railroads running to almost every point 
of the compass. 

Marshall county is bounded on the north by St. Joseph county, 
east by Elkhart and Kosciusko counties, west by Stark and St. 
Joseph counties, and south by Fulton and Kosciusko counties. 
It is about twenty-one miles square, and was named in honor of 
Chief Justice Marshall. 

In order that the reader may fix in his mind the relative geo- 
graphical position of this county, let it be remembered that it 
lies a little more than forty miles southeast from Lake Michigan, 
and holds in its extreme southwestern corner that loveliest of 
lakelets, the far-famed Maxinkuckee. 

The county was first permanently settled by the whites in the 
spring of the year T832; but it was not until the year 1835 that a 
great movement began by a public sale of the lands at the land 
office in La Porte, from which time to the present there has 
been a remarkable growth in wealth and population, and a cor- 
responding increase of energy, education and culture. 

No county in Indiana, all the circumstances considered, has 
excelled Marshall in matter of educational progress. Her pub- 
lic schools are of the best, and her citizens have taken the high- 
est pride in advancing every literar}' and scientific impulse or 
enterprise brought to their attention. As might be expected of 
such a population, business in all its branches has flourished in 
this county from the start, and Plymouth, the beautiful county 
seat, has long been one of the most enterprising and wealthy 


little cities of northern Indiana — a center of culture and social 
refinements, charming to all who come within its influence. 
Plymouth was made the county seat in 1S36, and the organiza- 
tion of the county into townships, for civil purposes, was begun 
in the spring of the same year. 

In the early part of its history, Marshall county, in common 
with most of Indiana, was troubled with malaria, but an excel- 
lent system of drainage, the cultivation of soil and cleaning of 
the forests, have obviated this difiiculty so that now it is a re- 
markably healthful part of our commonwealth; indeed, its beauti- 
ful, clear lakes have become summer resorts for invalids and 
those seeking recreation and refreshment. 

Plymouth is situated very near the center of the county, on 
both banks of Yellow river (a beautiful stream which flows 
across the county from northeast to southwest) and is a city 
peculiarly attractive to the visitor on account of its well-kept 
streets, its handsome public buildings, and its many picturesque 
and home-like residences. From all points the views are lovely, 
embracing bright glimpses of fertile countr^^ and. shaded city 
lawns, with the river shining between. 

The natural drainage of Marshall county is excellent, and it 
has been supplemented bj' a great deal of intelligent labor in 
the direction of systematic ditching. Lands which were noted 
formerly for their impassable bogs are now under a high order 
of cultivation, and are extremely fertile. I have seen no finer 
farm lands in Indiana than a large part of this county, which 
was once far too wet for the plow. 

As has been said already. Yellow river is the principal stream, 
flowing midway through the county with a brisk current, and a 
clear, bright volume, receiving, during its course, a great num- 
ber of tributaries, large and small, the majority of them east or 
northeast of Plymouth. 

The Tippecanoe river flows in a short " elbow" across the 
extreme southeastern corner of the county, receiving Deep 
creek as its principal tributary, a stream flowing southeast across 
Walnut township, and a part of Tippecanoe. 

Forge creek, rising among some small lakes three miles south- 
west of Plymouth, runs into Stark county, as does Pine creek, 
in the extreme northwestern corner of the county. 

These streams afford the basis of ample drainage, while at 
the same time they furnish water power of a high value. Extens- 
ive ditches have been constructed in various parts of the county, 
and farmers have exhibited great enterprise and intelligence in 
the use of underground tiles, but the work of artificial drainage 
is yet in its incipiency as compared with possible results, or even 
with what will probably be accomplished before many years have 


Parts of Marshall county, even now, after 3'ears of most 
destructive abuse of economy, are well and heavily timbered 
with hard woods. Saw mills have been doing a thriving busi- 
ness, however, and, as is the case over most of our state's area, 
the glory of the forests is in the past. Much of the county is 
prairie, and there are large tracts of what is called " barren 
land"; but this phrase does not signify a thin soil, for the 
" barrens " often are choice land for tilling and grazing purposes. 
Indeed, with the exception of that covered by the many small 
lakes, there is scarcely any waste land in Marshall county, 
though much of it needs further ditching to make it properly 

Geology. — The entire area of Marshall county is covered, to a 
great depth, with the deposits of the Drift period. No stratified 
rocks are outcropping, nor have they been reached by any of the 
many borings. The surface is, for the most part, a dark or black 
sandy loam, varying from a muck to a very light, warm soil. 
Underlying this are gravels, sands and bowlder clays. 

The beds of the streams are usually in the grey or bluish till 
common to our glacial deposits, and are covered with a stratum 
of washed gravel, sand and bowlders. The terraces of the Yel- 
low river are very interesting in this county and Stark, espe- 
cially those composed of a fine yellowish sand which appears to 
be identical with that of Lake Michigan. This sand is most prev- 
alent in the southwestern part of Marshall county, while it 
runs in great waves and ridges entirely across Stark to the bank 
of the Kankakee. 

Between the Yellow river and the Tippecanoe there is a low 
divide in the form of a heavy swell of the Drift deposits. From 
near the southern line of Bourbon township the drainage is into 
the Yellow, while from that line southward it goes into the Tip- 
pecanoe. Again, in the townships of North and Polk, Pine 
Creek and Yellowbank river flow northwestward, while in the 
southern part of Polk township the drainage is southward into 
the Yellow river. The above conditions are due to the undula- 
tions in the grand mass of the Drift, probably caused by reces- 
sions of the glacier, or whatever power was urging southward 
this vast silicious conglomeration known as bowlder till. No- 
where in Indiana is this slow, as it were, and jerking process of 
recession better exemplified. The valley of the Yellow river is 
simply a great furrow between well-defined waves of this glacial 
mass in which the immediate bed of the stream is cut, and from 
side to side of which it has shifted through the long series of 
years since the melting of the ice. Whenever the fine sand of 
which I have spoken prevails, it rests as a rule, immediately upon 
the blue or gray bowlder till, no soil or sedimentary deposit in- 
tervening. I gave careful attention to all the features of the 


Drift in this county, and have submitted my oljservations in the 
form of a classified statement of facts to the chief of the depart- 
ment to be used in his studies of the glacial deposits of Indiana. 
It may be well to remark just here, however, that very little 
red clay, saving certain ferruginous deposits, is found in this 

In many parts of the county the surface of the ground is 
thickly strewn with bowlders of various kinds, chiefly granite, 
gneiss and other metamorphic rocks, fragmentary, and often 
worn into symmetrical shapes, or fancifully truncated and 
grooved, cumbering the fertile fields with their indestructible 
bulks. Upon these interesting but unprofitable relics of glacial 
power the farmers have waged relentless war, bursting them with 
fire and with dynamite, and hauling them into heaps or using 
them for building rough stone fences. This superficial deposit of 
bowlders appears to be the result of some agency acting subse- 
quent to the force which urged the great mass of glacial matter 
down upon Indiana. No doubt this post-glacial, or rather this 
secondary agency, was dual, being a combination of water cur- 
rents and floating ice-bergs; for water currents, unaided by the 
transporting agency of floating ice, could not move bowlders 
weighing many tons each, without also washing away at the same 
time, the whole drift deposit down to the stratified rocks. Action 
of water alone, if of sufficient power to drive along before it 
these immense fragments, would be equaled by nothing short of 
a sea under the influence of a long-continued hurricane blowing 
steadily in one direction. ■ 

The wells and borings in Indiana, and especially in the ilbrth- 
ern half of the state, support the assumption that bowlderS are 
much more numerous upon the surface of the Drift than through- 
out its mass. I have seen wells dug forty feet through Drift 
clay without encountering a bowlder in a region where the surface 
was literally cumbered with immense ones. My studies, sound- 
ings and surveys of the lakes of the county are to be incor- 
porated in a separate paper under an appropriate head, but it is 
well to say here that all the ponds and lakes that I have exam- 
ined in northern Indiana are mere basins, more or less symmet- 
rical, scooped in the clays of the Drift. Many of them have 
huge bowlders scattered over their bottoms, and some of them 
have rims of whitish lime marl. This lime marl is reported upon 
in another paper in detail, and it is sufficient to remark that very 
considerable deposits of it are found in Marshall county in the 
beds of old ponds, or in marshy tracts favorable to its precipita- 
tion from the water bearing it in solution. To soils poor in lime 
this marl would prove an excellent fertilizer. When burned it 
makes a crude lime suitable for domestic purposes, but not of 
marketable quality. No doubt the time will come when these 


deposits will be utilized for the manufacture of the commercial 
fertilizers so much used in southern states. 

Iron Ores. — The only iron-ore I observed in Marshall county is 
a rather inferior bog ore. Many years ago in West township, at 
the lower end of Twin lakes, an iron furnace was erected and 
the ore found near there was mined and manufactured, but of 
course the experiment failed after a time and the old forge is no 
more to be seen. Indeed scarcely a vestige of it remains. 

Clays. — Good brick and ditch tile clays are plentiful where- 
ever the grayish Drift deposits are near the surface. 

The Lakes. — By far the most interesting geological features 
of Marshall county are its lake basins. The consideration of 
these will appear in detail in another paper. What is given here 
must be merely a description of the most important ones from a 
topographical point of view. Lake of the Woods, or Wood 
lake. Pretty lake. Twin lakes, and Maxinkuckee may be taken 
as the four most interesting. 

Wood lake is about one and three-fourths miles long by an 
average of a half mile in width, and is situated on the dividing 
line between German and North townships, about six miles north- 
east of Plymouth, and some four miles southwest of Bremen. 

Pretty lake is nearly three miles southwest of Plymouth, and 
is all its name implies — a beautiful, silvery clear lakelet and is 
a great resort for pleasure parties. 

Twin lakes, two lovely sheets of water south by southwest 
from Plymouth about three miles, are also much resorted to in 

Maxinkuckee, a lake three miles long by nearly two miles 
wide, in places, lies in nearly the extreme southwestern corner of 
the county, distant from Plymouth about nine miles. Nowhere in 
the United States is there a lovelier body of pure cold water. It 
has become a famous summer resort, and deserves all the great 
praise it has received. In their main topographical features all 
these lakes are alike, being set in bowls sunk in almost imper- 
vious bowlder clay and partly surrounded by more or less abrupt 
shore lines. They are well stocked with pan-fish of various 
kinds, but the bass are becoming scarce. 

SpriJio;s. Borings and F/ozi'ino; JFe//s. — The mineral springs 
and flowing wells of Marshall county must be studied in connec- 
tion with the rivers and lakes, especially the latter. Impervious 
blue clay alwa3's overlies the mass of gravel or sand out of which 
these springs rise and these wells flow. This same impervious 
clay underlies the water of the lakes. It will not follow from 
this, however, that the water of the lakes will rise as high as that 
of the flowing wells, for the lakes are controlled by their possi- 
ble or actual outlets, or they may be supplied from a different 
reservoir. But it is true, nevertheless, that all the deep, clear 


lakes of this county are fed chiefly from springs rising out of the 
bottom clay or flowing from the strata of sand in the sides of the 
basin. The water of the flowing wells comes from the same or 
similar sources, that is, it rises from beneath an impervious 
stratum of bowlder clay. These wells have been successfully 
operated in many parts of the county, but the most notable ex- 
ample is the famous one at Plymouth, which sends up a constant 
stream of water thirteen inches in diameter to the height of fif- 
teen feet above low water mark of Yellow river. At most places 
in the county wells, when properl}' tubed, will either flow above 
the surface of the ground or the water will rise to within a few 
feet of the top of the bore. 

It is difficult to over-estimate the value to farmers, manufac- 
turers and to a community in general, of flowing wells that are 
easily made as those of Marshall county. How infinitely su- 
perior to a hand-pump or a wind-pump is a gushing fountain, 
that never ceases or tires, but day and night pours out its wealth 
of pure water for man and beast ! 

Borings in this county have not reached the stratified rock, nor 
have they disclosed any new feature of the Drift mass into which 
they have been projected. As is nearly always the case else- 
where, the waters from these bores are often more or less im- 
pregnated with the salts of iron and are called "sulphur" waters 
and " magnetic" waters. No doubt the iron renders them valu- 
able as a tonic in certain cases. Many beautiful springs rise in 
the county and some of these, too, are sufiiciently charged with 
iron salts to color with brown or reddish oxide whatever the 
water flows over. No doubt this feature is due to its rising 
through ferruginous sand or other iron-bearing deposits. 

We now return to the first meeting of the board of county 
commissioners, the adoption of a county seal and the dividing of 
the county into three districts and also three townships, the three 
districts and the three townships being identical when they were 
first formed. 

"The first meeting of the board of commissioners was held 
at the house of Grove Pomeroy, on the 2d day of I\Iay, 1S36. 
Mr. Pomeroy was then a resident of Plymouth, and resided in a 
log house situated on lot No. 42, corner of La Porte and Michi- 
gan streets, or what is now known as 'Corbin's corner.' " 

The commissioners were Robert Blair, Abraham Johnson and 
Charles Ousterhout. INIr. Ousterhout was perhaps the best 
known to the people of the count}' at that time, of any who par- 
ticipated in the preliminary organization. He resided on the 
farm known as the "Orr farm," one mile south of the now city 
of Plymouth. He was a robust, athletic man, a Canadian by 
birth, and had seen a great deal of the world in his time. He 
spoke fluently the languages of the Pottawattamie and Miami 


tribes of Indians, also French and English. He was engaged in 
the war of 1812, serving his country as a spy. 

He was a sort of dare-devil, and was never satisfied unless he 
was at the "head of the procession." He figured extensively in 
the politics of his time, and was partially successful. He died 
many years ago of gangrene. 

Abraham Johnson served two terms as commissioner, and 
was a resident of what is now Polk township during his citizen- 
ship in the county. He died on his farm about two miles south- 
east of Tjmer City, some thirty years ago. He was a robust type 
of the pioneers of the then northwest. He was a man of more 
than average scholarship for those days — a man who did his 
own thinking, and in politics was an uncompromising whig. He 
raised a large family of boys, many of whom are prominent citi- 
zens of the county. 

The writer of this knows nothing of the life and characteris- 
tics of Robert Blair, nor where or when he died, but, for the fact 
that he was chosen as county commissioner, it is fair to presume 
that he was a representative man of those days, and one in whom 
his neighbors and acquaintances had confidence. 

After appointing Jeremiah Muncy clerk during the term, the 
board adjourned to meet at the house of Charles Ousterhout, at 
I o'clock P. M. of the same day. The first business trans- 
acted was: 

"Ordered by the board, that the seal of said commissioners 
shall be a wafer with a paper placed on it in the shape of a dia- 
mond, sealed with a seal in the shape of a heart." 

The board then divided the county into three districts, bounded 
and described as follows: 

" Beginning at the northwest corner of said county and run- 
ning a due south course with the county line seven miles to the 
corner of sections iq and 30, in congressional township No. 34 
north; thence east with said line to the eastern boundary of said 
county. Said district to be known as District No. i. 

"Ordered, that District No. 2 begin on the western boundary 
line of said county, at the corner of District No. i, and running 
with the said county line seven miles to the corner of sections 30 
and 31, in congressional township No. 33 'north; thence east on 
the line of said section twenty-one miles to the eastern boundary 
line of said county. Said district to be known as District No. 2. 

" Ordered, that District No. 3 begin at the western boundary 
line of said county, commencing at the south corner of District 
No. 2, thence south with said county line seven miles to the south- 
ern boundary' line of said county, thence east with the line of 
said county twenty-one miles to the eastern boundary line of said 
county. Said district to be known as District No. 3." 

It was also ordered that District No. i be known by the name 


of North township, District No. 2 bj' the name of Center town- 
ship, and District No. 3 by the name of Green township. 

The elections in said townships were ordered to be held at 
the house of Adam Vinnedge, in North township; at the house 
of Charles Ousterhout, in Center township; and at the house of 
Sidney Williams, in Green township. 

It will be observed, by reference to the county map, that the 
territory embraced in North township was what is now German, 
North and Polk townships; Center embraces what is now Bour- 
bon, Center and West; and Green township embraced what is 
now Tippecanoe, Walnut, Green and Union. 

The residence of Adam Vinnedge, the place designated for 
holding the elections in North township, was on the Michigan 
road, about six miles north of Plymouth. Mr. Vinnedge was the 
father of Adam Vinnedge, now residing in Plymouth. He was 
a man of energy, and took an active part in the affairs of the 
county in the early days. 

The election in Green township was held at the house of Sidney 
Williams, which was at or near where Argos now stands. 

The first election after the organization of the county, was 
held on the fifth day, first Monday of August, 1836, for the pur- 
pose of electing a senator, representative, sheriff, probate judge, 
county commissioner, school commissioner, coroner, and justices 
of the peace. In the North township there were thirty-seven 
votes cast. John Johnson, James Palmer and Adam Snider were 
judges of said election, and James Jones and Abraham Johnson, 
clerks. Thomas Packard and Robert Johnson were elected 
justices of the peace for North township. 

In Center township there were eighty-three votes cast. Of 
these, so far as is known, but John Greer, Joseph Evans, Gilson S 
Cleaveland, David R. Voreis and James Voreis, are living at this 
writing (1S90). John Greer resides three and a half miles south- 
easterly on the farm he has owned for over fifty years. Mr. 
Greer, although over eighty years of age, recognizes his old time 
friends especially, and enjoys a visit with them as much as he 
used to in years long gone by, and he will, from all appearances, 
live several years yet. Uncle Joseph Evans still resides two miles 
west of Plymouth. He is about eighty-five years of age, and 
although he had the misfortune to have one of his arms ampu- 
tated some two years ago, on account of cancer in his hand, he 
is still in good health and spirits and did not miss a meal even 
the day that his arm was amputated, and as was said of him ten 
years ago, in a work similar to this, he " is the same polite gentle- 
man" he has- been ever since his residence in this county, which 
has been over fifty years. Mr. Gilson S. Cleaveland, at about 
eighty years of age, is still enjoying good health and bids fair to 
yet live many years. He came to Marshall county in 1S35, and 


during all these years has been a most estimable and respected 

David R. Voreis came to Marshall county in 1836, and first 
lived about four and a half miles south of Plymouth, but in a 
few years took up his residence in Union township, about one 
mile north of Maxinkuckee village, where he still lives. He is hale 
and hearty, although about eighty years old. He has witnessed 
and helped to make as great changes around him as any man 
now living in the county. He has ever been an honest, upright 
and esteemed citizen, and it is meet, right and proper that he 
should be permitted to live long to enjoy the fruits of the home 
he has so well earned. 

James Voreis is an older brother of David R. Voreis, and 
came to the county, also, in 1836. He has resided in Green 
township, one mile south of Wolf Creek Mills, constantly since 
his arrival in Marshall county. He has raised a large family of 
respected and influential sons and daughters, most of whom 
live near him, but some have passed awaj'. A more honest man 
and a better neighbor and friend has never lived in the county, 
than he. He is yet enjoying good health and will doubtless live 
many years more, although he is now over eighty-five years of age. 
Of such material were the pioneers of Marshall county made. 

At the election held in Center township, Samuel D. Tabor 
was inspector, John Ray and William Bishop, judges, and Har- 
rison Metcalf and John Blair were clerks. At the same election 
held in Green township, there were nineteen votes cast. Ewel 
Kendall was inspector, Fielden Bowles and Samuel B. Patterson 
were judges, and Jeremiah Muncy and John A. Boots were 

As has already been stated, the first election after the organi- 
zation of the county, was held on the ist day of August, 1836, 
that being the "first Monday in August," as was provided by the 
statutes of the state. At this election 138 votes were cast. The 
voting precincts and names of inspectors, judges and clerks are 
given above. The result of the election was as follows: The 
candidates for senator were Jonathan A. Liston and Lot Day. 
Liston received 68 votes and Day 65. The candidates for rep- 
resentative were Stephen Marsters and "Joll" Long, and in 
Marshall county Marsters received 102, and Long 32. The can- 
didates for sheriff were H. Blakel}^ Jesse Roberts, A. Caldwell 
and D. Hill. Blakely received 34; Roberts, 47; Caldwell, 49, 
and D. Hill, 5 votes. The candidates for commissioner for the 
second district, which was then Center township, but now com- 
prises Bourbon, Center and West townships, were Charles 
Ousterhout, M. Coe and John Gibson. Ousterhout received 66; 
M. Coe, 28, and John Gibson, 36 votes. The candidates for 
school commissioner — an office long since obsolete — were John 


Houghton, A. C. Hickman and A. W. Roberts. Houghton re- 
ceived 56; Hickman 30, and Roberts, 2,7 votes. The candidates 
for probate judge were Grove Pomeroy and OHver Rose. 
Pomeroy received 92, and Rose, 46 votes. The candidates for 
coroner were John Johnson and John WilHamson. Johnson 
received 49, and Williamson, 2,2, votes. 

The senatorial and representative district was then composed 
of Kosciusko, Marshall and St. Joseph counties, and although 
Mr. Marsters went out of Marshall county with a handsome ma- 
jority, he was defeated by the vote in the other counties consti- 
tuting the district. In politics he was a whig, and although 
deficient in book learning, was a shrewd and wil}^ politician. He 
was one of the pioneer preachers. At that time party lines were 
closely drawn between the democrats and the whigs, and then, 
as now, a man's religious pretensions did not prevent him from 
taking part in politics, in all its phases. At the election held 
August 6, 1838, there were 236 votes cast; of these, 157 were 
cast at the county seat, thirty-five in Green township, eighteen 
in North, eight in Union and eighteen in German. 

The election in Union township was held at the house of 
William Thompson, and the following is a list of the names of 
those who voted at that election: 

Eleazor Thompson, T. (Theophilus) Jones, P. B. Dickson, 
Lewis Thompson, Ephraim Moore, James Houghton, John Mor- 
ris, John Thompson. Union had been organized May i, 1838. 

The election in German township, which had been organized 
May II, 183S, was held at the house of George Metcalf. The 
following is a list of the voters: Samuel D. Tabor, Peter 
Schroeder, George Metcalf, Robinson W. Hughes, Edward M. 
Page, John Ringle, Charles Rhodes, John Coil, Francis Bash- 
ford, John Gibson, John Steel, William Hughes, Henry Augus- 
tine, Henry Yockey, Jacob Kuns, Jacob Yockey, John A. Lash- 
baugh, George Beiler. 

The election in North township was held at the house of 
James Sherland. The following were the voters: Seymour 
Stilson, Robert Johnson, Isaac B. Pierson, David Vinnedge, 
James Sherland, Garrison B. Packard, Nathaniel Palmer, James 
Jones, John P. Benson, George Vinnedge, Robert Schroeder, 
Adam Snyder, G. Pomeroy, John Johnson, Timothy' Garrigus, 
Charles Thompson, James Palmer, S. N. Champlin, James M. 
Collester, Thomas B. Owen, Pleasant Owen, Jcfhn Thompson, 
Alfred Vinnedge, Asa St. John. 

The election in Green township was held at the house of 
Sidney Williams, and the following is the list of those who 
voted: S. Williams, Williamson Owen, Isaac Williamson, John A. 
Boots, William Boots, Edwin Partridge, George Deferd, D. A. 
Moore, John Scot, Tarlton Caldwell, E. Noe, Jacob Boots, 


Henry L. Brown, Moses N. Leland, John Williamson, John Lou- 
don, Charles Brown, R. G. Prater, Lester White, Fielden 
Bowles, James W. Moore, Ewell Kendall, John Williams, Na- 
than B. Collins, A. W. Roberts, G. W. Owens, William Johnson, 
J. W. Owens, John Compton, Isaac Butler, Daniel Jones, Sorin 
Cooley, Samuel B. Patterson, George Clark. 

The election in Center township was held at the court house 
in Ptymouth. The list of voters is partly gone. The following 
are all that can be found: Joseph Griffith, Sr., Ephraim Goble, 
Abner Caldwell, Joel James, Asahel H. Mathews, William 
Bishop, E. G. Collins, Amzi L. Wheeler, Charles Ousterhout, 
William G. Pomeroy, Harbert Blakely, Nathan McLaughlin, 
James S. Milner, James Cummins, William Blakely, Patrick 
Logan, Timothy Barber, Benjamin Cruzan, John Gibson, 
David W. Bates, Warren Brewster, Adam Vinnedge, Oliver 
Rose, Jacob Case, Lyman Griffin, Seth Baily, John Thompson, 

George Taylor, James Logan, Hiram A. Ranck, James Paddock, 
George King, Conrad Kleine, Jacob Taylor, Robert Blakely, 
Oscar F. Norton, E. B. Hobson, Thomas Gibson, James O. 

Parks, Joseph Griffith, Jr., A. S. Bunnel, John Brown, John 
Townsend, William IVL Dunham, Grove O. Pomeroy, John Jes- 
sup, John Ray, Abraham Cole, William Clarke, Enos Ward, 
James McCollister, Jacob K. Hupp, John Congle, John S. Hop- 
kins, William D. Farnsworth, S. D. Alger, David Steel, S. D. 
Tabor, Johnson E. Woodward, Chester Rose, David Ray, Jere- 
miah Grover, Allen Leach, Asahel Mathews, John Hall, Will- 
iam N. Bailey, Jesse Roberts, Benton Connor, John Rinehart, 
William C. Edwards, Isaac How, James Westervelt, Samuel 
Hutchins, Daniel Roberts, Valentine Shuffler, Bennett Small- 
wood, William Bailey, James Nash, Peter Ouivey, Uriah 
Metcalf. "" 

But few of those whose names appear above are still living, 
James O. Parks, of Bourbon; James S. Milner, and William C. 
Edwards, of Plymouth, and William N. Bailey, now of Florida, 
are all that are now known to be living. 

Tozcnship Histories. — Under this caption will be compiled 
and written a brief history of the respective townships in Mar- 
shall county, as they are now named, numbered and bounded, 
beginning with 

Union Township, No. i, was organized May i, 1838. It was 
taken from the west part of what was originally Green town- 
ship. It is six miles wide from east to west, and seven miles 
long from north to south. It is bounded on the north by West 
township, on the east by Green township, on the south by Fulton 
county, and on the west by Stark county. 

" The first settlement in this part of the " unorganized terri- 
tory was made in 1835. John Anderson's and another family or 


two were, however, the only ones now known, who were there in 
that year. In the spring and summer of 1836, in the vicinity of 
Maxinkuckee lake and farther north and east in the direction 
of Plymouth, the Voreises, Morrises, Thompsons, McDonalds, 
Dicksons, Brownlees, Houghtons, Blakel^'s and others arrived 
and made a permanent settlement. From this on the settlement 
of this region was rapid. 

Except that portion of the township known as the " Burr 
Oak Flats " and the wet prairies or marshes, the land was 
thickly timbered and full of undergrowth. Cabins of the rough- 
est of logs were, for many years, built and covered with clap- 
boards " rived" out of oak timber, and were held to their place 
by " weight-poles " lain on and fastened over the lap of the 
boards. The chimneys were generally built out of sticks riven 
out similar to the manner of riving the clapboards, but the sticks 
were more narrow and thicker than the boards. The cracks be- 
tween these sticks were daubed with mud, as were also the cracks 
between the logs that made the walls of the house, after they 
were properly "chincked" with short blocks of wood of proper 
size. If it was desirable to have a window, part of a log in the 
wall was cut out and a rough frame covered with greased paper, 
would be put in. The furniture, except such articles as had been 
transported by wagons when the emigrants came, was of the 
most primitive workmanship. At this time there were no white 
people nearer than the Michigan road, and few of these. The 
Indians outnumbered the whites two to one, and it was uncertain 
at that time whether or not the treaty entered into between 
them and the government, by which they w(^e to leave the 
country, could be carried out. The average Indian that inhab- 
ited this region could hardly be made to see the justice of being 
forced to leave his hunting grounds for the accommodation of 
what he looked upon as being a few white adventurers, and, un- 
til they were driven away, two years later, they were imaginary 
terror of timid men and women and children, generally. They 
remained peaceable, however, and the anticipations of danger 
were never, in a single instance, realized, and no disturbances of 
any kind ever occurred. 

There were no regularly laid out roads, nor any bridges, in 
those days, and he who did the. milling for the neighborhood 
often " blazed his way as he went," and if he succeeded in mak- 
ing the trip to Logansport or to Delphi (the nearest grist-mill) 
and returned in two weeks he was applauded as having accom- 
plished a great feat. Sometimes he would break his wagon, 
sometimes get "stuck" in a mud hole and have to unload — pry 
and pull out, or wait until some fellow traveler in distress would 
come along and "double teams" with him, " put his shoulder to 
the wheel" and lift him up and out of his present troubles. In 



case of delay the rations would run short and those dependent 
upon his return would have to crack corn with such appliances 
as were at hand, live on lye hominy and such wild game as the 
hunters of the neighborhood could procure. 

If the tire was not properly " covered up " and went out at 
night, which was not an infrequent occurrence, then the fleetest 
boy in the family would be stirred out of bed and sent on the 
" double quick " to the nearest neighbor for a " chunk" of fire, 
or a sun glass, or a jackknife and a piece of "punk " attached to 
a flint, had to be brought into requisition. In those days these 
articles were considered essential in every well regulated family, 
for there were no friction matches in those da^^s; nor did they en- 
joy the luxury of the kinds of tea, coffee, sugar, molasses, etc., 
that are in general use now-a-days, but the only tea that could 
be afforded was made of spice wood or sassafras roots — the 
coffee of roasted rye and all the sugar and molasses was made 
from the sugar trees that were quite plentiful .in many parts of 
the timbered lands. There were no churches then, no school- 
houses, no country stores, no shoe shops, no blacksmith shops, 
no wagon shops, in fact nothing that the people needed. Home- 
spun flax pants and shirts of a little finer material, the sleeves 
and collars being fastened with a needle and thread, a home- 
made straw hat, and boots or shoes of an inferior quality, gener- 
ally badly worn, constituted the average Sunday outfit for many 
years after the organization of the township. The habit our 
mothers had of fastening our sleeves and collars with needle and 
thread induced every boy of average tact to have his needle and 
thread properly secreted near his usual swimming place. By 
the aid of these and the proper drying of your hair when you 
had come out the " last time," you could go home and face the 
" frowning world," or your suspecting and inquisitive mother. 
The country was full of swamps and wet places, and the malaria 
that arose therefrom in the spring and summer was sufticient 
to prostrate more than half the population annually. Then there 
were no driven wells and but few wells that were dug deep 
enough to get good or pure water, and the water used from sur- 
face springs and shallow wells undoubtedly added much to the 
sickness of the early settlers of this entire region. Such a time 
as was experienced with bilious fever, ague and all other bilious 
diseases will doubtless never again aftlict any people on " God's 
footstool." The proper medical remedies could not be pre- 
scribed, and many died for want of care and medical attention. 

Dr. Thomas Logan, who came with those who arrived in 
1836, was the first doctor who practiced the profession in this 
region. He rode on horse-back, far and near, often " sleeping 
in the saddle " from overwork and want of sleep, but was, at 
times, unable to attend to half the calls made upon him. He 


saved manj' lives and did much to alleviate the suffering that 
was everywhere prevalent. Later on, Drs. Crum, Hard, Bennett 
and White came and practiced the " healing art" in the county 
generally, for many years. But these doctors, too, had to suc- 
.cumb to the fell destroyer, and all have since passed away. 

The first school-house, or rather the first house where school 
was taught, was located nearly exactly in the center of the south- 
west quarter of section ii, in township 32, north of range i 
■east. This tract of land was then owned and occupied byX^in- 
■cent Brownlee, later by Jeremiah Mosher, and at this writing by 
Elsworth Thompson, a grandson and heir of Mr. Mosher, Mr. 
Mosher having died several years ago, on the farm. The school 
was taught by Thomas McDonald in the winter of 1836-37. He 
taught during the day, and at night, by the light of a " turnip" 
lamp, mended and made boots and shoes for his family and his 
neighbors. This school was afterward taught by "Uncle" Ed. 
Thompson, and then a new " hewed log" school-house was built 
about eighty rods east of the old or hrst one. The new one was 
■quite a pretentious building, being of hewn logs, an extra "pun- 
cheon " floor, two long windows — one in the south and the other 
in the north side — made by cutting out a log and fastening in 
greased paper, the seats were benches made by boring holes in 
split and hewn slabs of wood, with long and short legs in them, 
to suit the size of the "scholars," and in the east end there was 
a brick chimney and fire place, made from the first kiln of brick 
•ever burnt in the county. The bricks were made by the Dickson 
brothers — Elias B., John B., Bayless L. and Hugh B. Dickson, 
and the chimney and fire place were built by "Uncle Sam. 
McDonald." All of the last named parties have passed away 
except Hugh B. Dickson, who, at the age of " three score and ten," 
is still hale and hearty — "walks as straight as an Injun," and 
bids fair to live yet many years to run a very successful business 
he has engaged in, in Indianapolis, within the last three years. 
In this new school-house, schools were taught by Theophilus 
Jones, Hugh B.Dickson, Lois H. Leland, James M. Wickizer and 
Hugh Brownlee, all of whom are still living except Theophilus 
Jones, who died some forty years ago. 

Among the first religious services in the township were those 
held at the house of Grandfather William Thompson, who con- 
ducted the services and preached the gospel to the original sin- 
ners in that neighborhood, " without money and without price." 
Uncle Henry Logan and Grandfather Voreis, also preached there 
and at other places in the vicinity. 

The petitioners for the organization of the township were: 
Vincent Brownlee, William Thompson, John A. Shirley, Lewis 
Thompson, John (B.) Dickson, William Hornady, John AI. Mor- 
ris, James Houghton, Elihu Morris, D. C. Hults, Thomas Mc- 


Donald, John Morris, John H. Voreis, Piatt B. Dickson, Elias 
Dickson, John McDonald, Eleazer Thompson. No change has 
been made in this township, as to its boundary lines, since its 

The following notice appeared in the Marshall County Repub- 
lican of February 15, 1858, and indicates that the people of this 
part of the county were alive, even at that early date, to the im- 
portance of preserving for future generations the early history of 
the county: 

"Notice — ist. That a meeting will be held at the school- 
house in Union Town on the evening of March 4, 185S, to take 
into consideration the propriety of forming a society to be known 
as the "Antiquarian and Historical society," for the purpose of 
collecting as many of the circumstances and incidents relative to 
the settlement of this region of country from the first settlement 
by the white man to the present time, that it may be read by pos- 
terity, which we believe will be of great interest. 

"Union Town, February 15, 1858-" 

Who the movers in the matter were, or whether the organiza- 
tion was effected, nothing can be ascertained. Bayless L. Dick- 
son, who was founder of Union Town, and one of the earliest 
settlers in that region, was, probably, at the head of it. Isaac N. 
Morris, who was something of a historian and a great reader, 
and who lived near by, was, undoubtedly of those who were in- 
terested in preserving the history of that locality, but these early 
pioneers, and many others who resided here then, have passed 
away, leaving no record to perpetuate the history they helped 
to make. 

Early Settlers. — Among the early settlers, those who came 
prior to the year 1840, are the following: Jacob Bickel, Vincent 
Brownlee, Amos Brown, Joseph Conklin, Elias B. Dickson, Piatt B. 
Dickson, Hugh B. Dickson, Bayless L. Dickson, John B. Dick- 
son, George Francis, Daniel C. Hults, Joseph L. Hults, Uriah S. 
Hults, James Houghton, Emery Hallet, George Jessup, Theo- 
philus Jones, Noah S. Lawson, George C. Lawson, John Lindsey, 
William F. Lewis, James Logan, Ephraim Moore, Levi Moore, 
Elihu Morris, Samuel McDonald, Thomas McDonald, fames 
Moore, David C. Morris, William McMillen, Ransom H. Norris, 
George M. Osborne, Tivis Porter, Robert S Piper, Daniel Romig, 
John A. Shirle}', Samuel Shirley', Reuben P". Shirley, George S. 
Stone, Eleazer Thompson, William Thompson, William E. 
Thompson, Lewis Thompson, John Thompson, John H. Voreis, 
Abraham Voreis, David R. Voreis, Ezra Willard, George W. 
Wilson. Of these, all have passed away, except Hugh B. Dick- 
son, who resides in Indianapolis; George C. Lawson, who was 
recently known to be living in Missouri; Reuben F. Shirley, near 
Sterling, 111.; William E. Thompson, near Lincoln, Neb., and 


David R. Voreis, who alone, out of all his old neighbors and ac- 
quaintances of those days, still lives in Union township. 

The first cemetery in this township was on the land owned by 
Samuel McDonald, afterward for many years, by Alfred Buck- 
lew and at this time by Harvey Thornburg, and is situated about 
three-fourths of a mile southwest from Rutland, a station and 
postoffice on the " Nickel Plate" railroad. A large number of 
those who came, in an early day, are there buried, and as the 
years go by, those who fall by the waj^side, are laid there, and 
this "silent city of the dead" is now one of the largest in the 
county, outside of the city of Plymouth and the towns. 

Lake Maxinkuckee and its beautiful surroundings, its flowing 
wells and other peculiarities, makes Union township the most 
noted and interesting township, undoubtedly, in the county. 
This is evidenced by the fact that the state geologist thought it 
of sufficient importance to incorporate in his report for the years 
1885-86, the following concerning the lake, its surroundings, etc.: 

Maxinkjtckcc* — " In many respects this is the most beautiful of 
the multitude of small lakes with which northern and northeast- 
ern Indiana are studded. Its shores are high, beautifully rounded, 
and clothed with the native forest. The waters are clear and 
cold. Hundreds of springs flow out from the banks, and many 
more rise from the bottom of the lake. Very few weeds grow 
in the water, and there is far less of moss and peaty formation 
than is common to our Indiana lakes. Here, to a large extent, 
sand gives place to gravel, and the beach is firm and clean 
Though it is one of the deepest of our small lakes, it scarcely 
merits the name of "bottomless," given it by many of the people 
who reside on its shores and allow their imagination to fill the 
blue depths with wonders. 

"We were gravely told by one that every attempt to find bot- 
tom was a failure; by another that he knew that the water was 
more than 300 feet deep, and by another that he had seen 180 
feet of line let down only 100 yards off shore and no bottom was 
found. When we informed them that we did not expect to find 
any water 100 feet deep they smiled contemptuousl}'. 

" The result of our soundings gave seventy-six feet as the max- 
imum depth. This was found at a point almost in the center of 
the lake, being very slightly to the west of the middle on an east 
and west line drawn through Rochester Point and a little to the 
north of that line. There is, however, a large area of this deep 
water, perhaps 1,000 acres, which will average a depth of fifty 
feet. The bottom of the lake is very compact bowlder clay, cov- 
•ered in places with gravel, at others with sand, and at a few 
places, notably along the northwest shore, with heavy black 

* By W. H. Thompson and S. E. Lee, assistant geologists. 


muck. In many places a deposit of marl was found. A cross 
section taken by a line of soundings from Rochester Point on the 
west shore, in a direction about thirty degrees north of east, to 
West Point on the east shore, gave the following depths: 6 feet, 
7 feet, 34 feet, 72 feet, 68 feet, 66 feet, 76 feet, 62 feet, 60 feet, 41 
feet, 31 feet, 17 feet. These soundings were taken at intervals 
of about 120 yards. The lake abounds in excellent fish. The 
big-mouthed black bass {Microptcros salinoidcs) was at one time 
very plentiful, but has either been too largely fished out or has 
become so wary that only the skilled and patient fisherman can 
succeed in sticking him with his hook. The perch are very abund- 
ant, and fine strings of croppies are taken early in the spring. 
The fish are now being protected from the seine, the net and 
spear, and it is hoped that the lake may again become as noted 
for fine fish as it was a dozen years ago. 

"The springs which feed Maxinkuckee are very abundant, not 
only from the shores, but they may be seen in the clear water at 
a depth of ten feet gushing up from the bottom, and from the 
deepest parts of the lake rise columns of cold water, chilling the 
bather like an ice bath. These springs suggested the probability 
of obtaining successful flowing wells, and now so many have been 
found that all along the east shore one can scarcely get beyond 
the sound of the spouting waters. The water from these wells 
is ver}^ clear and cold, and more or less ferruginous, a few of the 
wells being so highly impregnated with iron as to render the 
water slightly unpleasant to the taste until one gets used to it. 

" Mr. Vajen dug a well several years ago, which, on reaching a 
depth of eight feet, began to flow a milk-white water of about 
the consistency of cream, and which deposited a silicious, lime- 
like marl, and whitened the water of the lake for a distance of 
thirty feet from the water's edge. In the back part of Mr. Vajen's 
lot was a low, wet spot, which began to sink when the well began 
to flow, and continued to sink until the white flow changed to 
clear, pure water. Mr. Vajen has utilized the pressure of water 
from his well, the stream running a ram which supplies his prem- 
ises with water, and also furnishes the power which revolves the 
beautiful colored light at the landing pier before his gate. High 
upon the hill beside the Plymouth road, about 100 yards from the 
lake, and fully thirty feet above it, gushes out the ' Original 
Spring,' as it is known, which pointed the index finger toward 
the first flowing well. This spring pour^- out a four-inch stream, 
and the boring of wells has never diminished the flow." 

Lhiioii Town. — The following is a copy of the statement made 
and the certificate attached to the original plat of Union Town: 

"Uniontown is pleasantly situated in the southwest quarter of 
section 16, town 32, range i east. It is laid out in such a manner 
that it presents to the eye a view of Lake Maxinkuckee, and is 


surrounded with as good a country as can be found in northern 
Indiana. It has the advantage of three state and two county- 
roads running through it. The lots are all 66 feet in width by 
82 >^ in breadth. The streets are all 66 feet in width and the alleys 
are i6><. Bavles Dickson, Proprietor. 

Witness: G. S. Cleaveland, John L. Westervelt." 
Uniontown, June 8, 1844. 

"State of Indiana, Marshall count}', ss.: 

Be it remembered that on the 28th day of June in the year 
eighteen hundred and forty-four, personally came before me the 
undersigned, recorder within and for said count}-, Bayles L. 
Dickson, known to me to be the person who executed the within 
town plat and acknowledged that he did sign, seal and give the 
same as his free and voluntary act for the purposes within men- 

Given under my hand and ink seal the day and year above 
written. Gilson S. Cleaveland, 

Recorder of Marshall county!' 

On the Qth day of June, 1857, the following certificate, attached 
to what purported to be an "amended plat" of Uniontown: 

"Uniontown is situated in the 'S. E.' (should be S. W.) cor- 
ner of section 16, T. 32 North, Range i East, Marshall County, 
Indiana, the S. E. (S. W.) corner of said section is the commenc- 
ing point of this town plat, the streets are all of a width, being 
66 feet, the alleys is 16H feet, the lots are 66 feet in front and 99 
feet back. So planned, by the original survey, all lines running 
North and South bare No ° 10' E., and those that run East and 
West bare S. 89° E. The magnetic variation at this date is 
5° 10' East. 

I, J. B. N. Klinger, Surveyor of Marshall County, certify the 
above to be correct. J. B. N. Klinger, S. M. C." 

"State of Indiana, Marshall County: 

On this 6th day of May, 1857, personally appeared before me 
Thomas K. Houghton, and acknowledged that the within survey 
locating and laying off said town of Union was done by his order, 
and directed for the purpose of locating a town by that name, 
and as therein specified by the surveyor thereof. That said sur- 
vey and plat is intended to supply the place of the old survey 
made by H. B. Pushing, that being inaccurate. 

M. W. Smith, 
Justice of tlic Peace [seal]." 

On the i6th day of February, 18S4, the following statement 
and acknowledgment were filed in recorcier's office of Marshall 


" Plymouth, Indiana, Feb'y 13th, 1884. 

I herewith file for record the annexed plat as an addition to 
the town of Uniontown, Marshall County, Indiana, known as the 
Vandalia Addition to said Uniontown. Said addition being laid 
out of the south forty acres of the West Half of the West Half 
of Section Sixteen, Township Thirty-two North, Range One 
East; except Thomas K. Houghton's corrected and amended 
plat of said Uniontown, also except three acres known as the 
Bowles Lot, and also except three acres adjoining immediately 
on the south of said Bowles Lot. Said addition being divided 
in twenty-four lots, and numbered from one to twciify-four inclu- 
sive, also five out lots, and numbered from one to five inclusive. 
The length and breadth of said lots being indicated by figures 
on said plat, also the width of all the streets and alleys. 

Witness my hand and seal this 13th day of Feby., 1884. 

Peter Allerding [seal]. 
State of Indl\na, \ 

Marshall Co. f ^^• 

Before me, S. L. McKelvey, a Notary Public in and for said 
county, this 13th day of Feby., 18S4, Peter Allerding personally 
appeared and acknowledged the execution of the annexed Plat. 

Witness my hand and official seal this 13th day of Feby., 1884. 

S. L. McKelvey, 

N'otary Public. " 

On the 2ist day of December, 1886, the following explanation 
and acknowledgment were filed for record in the recorder's office 
of Marshall county: 

"I herewith file for record the annexed p^at as an addition to 
the Vandalia addition to the town of Uniontown, Marshall 
county, Indiana, known as A. D. Toner's addition to said Van- 
dalia addition to the town of Uniontown aforesaid, said addition 
being laid out of lots No. 3, 4 and 5 of school subdivision of sec- 
tion 16, township 32, range one (i) east, commencing at _ the 
northwest corner of said lot No. 3, said additions being divided 
as shown on plat, in thirteen lots, and numbered from one to 
thirteen inclusive, and also eleven out lots numbered from one 
to eleven inclusive. The length and breadth of said lots being 
indicated by figures on said plat; also the width of all streets and 
alleys are so indicated, except from this plat out lots No. 2, 7, 8 
10 and 1 1. 

Witness 'Our' hand and seal this 5th day of 
August, A. D. 1 886. 

Albert D. Toner. 
" State of Indl^lNa, \ 
County of Fulton. ( ' 

Before me, Frank L. Wagner, a notary public in and for said 
county, this 5th day of August, A. D. 1886 personally came 


Albert D. Toner and acknowledged the execution of the an- 
nexed plat. Frank L. Wagner, 

Notary Piiblic." 

On the 20th day of March, 1S90, the following affidavit con- 
cerning the correction of Thomas K. Houghton's corrected and 
amended plat was filed for record in the recorder's office of 
Marshall county: 

"I, J. B. T. Klinger, ex-surveyor in and for Marshall county, 
state of Indiana, swear upon the request of Thomas K. 
Houghton, then owner and proprietor of the town of Uniontown, 
in said county, employed me as county surveyor of said county, 
April 24th, 1S51, to re-survey and plat said Uniontown in setting 
out the location. I made a clerical error locating in the southeast 
corner of section No. 16, township 32 north, range i east, when it 
should read southwest corner of said section No. 16, township 32 
north, range i east, and the same was part of record, the error 
being overlooked, further the deponent sayeth not. 

J. B. N. Klinger. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me March 17, 1890. 

E. C. Martindale, 

Notary Public." 

Since Maxinkuckee lake has become such a famous summer 
resort and the \'andalia railroad has been completed, Uniontown, 
now called Marmont, has grown greatly in wealth and import- 
ance, as is evidenced by the laying out of the above named addi- 
tions thereto; and, at this writing, August i, 1890, the preliminary 
papers are being circulated to have it declared an incorporated 
t;own, and this will probably be done at the approaching Sep- 
tember term of commissioners' court. 

Maxinkuckee is a small village one-half mile east of the east 
central part of the lake, but has never been regularly laid out 
as a town, as it should have been, but, like Uniontown, as the 
merits of the lake as a summer resort have become better 
known, it is growing into more importance, but owing to the lay 
of the country and the location of the public highways it will 
never rival Uniontown, at least not until it gets a railroad, but 
should the " east side " get one, what is now rough, rugged and 
inconvenient would at once become romantic and desirable and 
the village would move down to the lake in a hurry. 

Burr Oak Station and Addition. — On the 15th day of Decem- 
ber, 1882, the following description of the situation or location 
of Burr Oak station, was filed, together with the plat of said 
Burr Oak station, in the recorder's office of Marshall county, for 

Burr Oak station is situated on the east line of northwest 
quarter of section four (4) , township thirty-two (32) , north of 


range one (i) east, commencing twelve hundred and fifty-five 
(1,255) feet south of north quarter section corner of section four (4), 
township thirty-two (32), north of range one (i) east, at the 
north Hne of right of way of N. Y. C. & St. L. R. R., thence 
north with center section Hne, five hundred and seventeen (517) 
feet, thence west at right angles with center section line, three 
hundred and thirty-two (332) feet, thence south parallel with 
center section line four hundred and twenty-two (422) feet, 
thence east, parallel with north line three hundred and two (302) 
feet, thence south " ninety" three (93) feet to north line of right 
of way of railroad, thence southeastwardly with said line thirty 
(30) feet to place of beginning. 

this November ist, A. D. 1882. 

J. M. Klinger, Surveyor. 
State of, / Michael Burn [seal]. 

County of Marshall. \ ^^• 

Before me, the undersigned, a justice of the peace, in and for 
said county, this loth day of November, 1S82, Michael Burn 
acknowledged the execution of the plat. 

Witness my hand and seal, this loth day of November, 1882. 

J. W. Houghton, J. P. 
The above named plat referred to contains eighteen (18) lots, 
being numbered from i to 18 consecutively. The streets are 
fifty feet and the alleys twelve feet wide, and the lots are forty 
feet wide by 120 feet in length. 

On the 8th day of October, 18S5, Franklin Overmeyer filed 
the plat of Overmeyer's addition to Burr Oak station, properly 
described and acknowledged. This addition lies immediately 
east of the original plat of Burr Oak station and contains lots 
numbering from one to eight inclusive, the lots being the same 
size as those in the original plat. This village is nearly in the 
center of what is known as the " Burr Oak Flats," which is as 
beautiful and productive a region " as the sun e'er shone on." 

Daiitc. — The following is the description of Dante, which 
was filed in the recorder's ofiice November ist, 1S83, by John 
Listenberger, proprietor: 

" Dante is situated on west line of section number two (2), 
township thirty-two (32), north of range one (i) east, in the 
southwest corner of the northwest quarter of said section, and 
is bounded as follows: Commencing at a point 140 ft. north of 
the center of the track of the New York, Chicago and St. 
Louis railway, where it crosses the west line of said section No. 2, 
township 32, range i east, thence north along said section line 
630 feet, thence east at right angles with said section line 480 ft., 
thence south parallel with said west section line until it intersects 
the north line of the right of way of the " Y" or switch connect- 
ing the Terre Haute & Logansport R. R. with the N. Y., C. & 


St. Louis R. R., thence southwesterly along the north line of the 
right of way of said " Y" or switch until it intersects with said 
west section line, thence north along said line to place of 

The plat contains lots numbering from one to twenty-four. 
They are sixty feet wide by 120 in length. The streets are sixty 
and the alleys fifteen feet wide. Lots one, seventeen and 
eighteen are fractional where they join on the railroad ground 
north of the " Y." 

The station and postoffice are called Hibbard by the railroad 
and the postal service. These same corners used to be called 
" Helltown," and when laid out the village was named in honor 
of Dante, who had such vivid dreams or visions of the infernal 
regions, but now, by common consent of the more enlightened 
and civilized citizens, the less suggestive name of " Hibbard" is 
adopted by all. Although situated at the junction of the two 
railroads, owing to the uninviting surroundings, and the near- 
ness of other trading places more convenient and inviting, it 
will undoubtedly never amount to much in the way of business. 
Center Toiviiship No. 2. — Almost everything in relation to Cen- 
ter township, so far as its organization, name and numbering is 
concerned, has been already given in this chapter. When it was 
first organized, which was at the first meeting of the board of 
commissioners after the organization of the county began, held 
and continued on the 20th day of July, 1836, Center township 
embraced what is now Bourbon and West townships. Some 
time afterward, as will be seen by reference to the history of 
these townships, seven miles were taken off the east end of Cen- 
ter and called Bourbon township, and still later on, six miles 
were taken off the west end of what was then Center, and was 
called West township. This left Center township eight miles 
east and west by seven miles north and south. A few years 
after, on petition of citizens, all of sections 19 and 20, in township 34, 
north of range 3 east, and the south half of sections 23 and 24, in 
township 34, north of range 2 east, were added to the northeastern 
portion of Center township and remains so attached at this writ- 
ing. This makes the township contain fifty-nine square miles. 
The eastern three-fourths of the township was originall}' heavily 
timbered and is of the richest and best of soil, the western por- 
tion being barrens, but most of the land being very productive 
and most desirable for farming: The county seat was located in 
the northwestern portion of the township at the date of the or- 
ganization of the county, and hence, much that pertains to the 
county in general, pertains also to Center township. In begin- 
ning the history of Center township it is fitting that a list should 
be given of the early settlers of Center township. 

In 1840, and prior to that time, as before stated, Center town 


ship comprised what is now Center, Bourbon and West townships. 
Among those who were settlers in this territory, at that time and 
prior to that date, are the following: Andrew Argo, Lot Abrams, 
Abram F. Ackerman, John Anderson, John Astley, Lyman H. 
Andrews, William Bishop, John G. Burch, Ransom Barber, Will- 
iam Bowen, Daniel B. Barber, Martin Bailey, Anthony S. 
Bunnell, Daniel Barber, Jr., William Baker, Norton S. Burch, 
Sooy Belangee, George Bradbury, Enoch Brewer, Lewis Boggs, 
Johnson Brownlee, Calvin Burch, James Bannon, Chester Clark, 
John Cougle, Henr^^ H. Cummins, Andrew C. Cornwall, Ster- 
ling M. Cone, James A. Corse, Jacob Case, Charles Cook, Allen 
Crandall, Wesley J. Cruzan, Gilson S. Cleveland, Josephus A. 
Cutshaw, Joseph Camp, William M. Dunham, Samuel I. David- 
son, Tolephe Downing, Joseph B. Dunn, F"rank Daws, Jesse 
Doney, Benjamin Doney, David Etherton, Edward Eels, Will- 
iam C. Edwards, Elijah E. Edwards, Joseph Furry, William J. 
Forbes, Austin Fuller, Stephen M. Farnsworth, William Fluellen, 
John Griggs, Ira Green, Moses Gunn, Henry Garver, John Greer, 
Joseph B. Griffith, Joseph Griffith, Sr., Lyman Griffin, Ephraim 
Globe, Niles Gregory, John Gibson, John Hall, John Houghton, 
Rufus Hewett, George Hindell, Ahijah Hawley, Harlow Hard, 
Milo Hard, Charles Henderson, Christian Hindell, Adam Hin- 
dell, John Hughs, Edgar Hawley, John Hawlej', Isaac How, 
Ithamar Harvey, David Howard, Henry Heinger, David Hor- 
ner, Jonathan S. Harvey, Jacob K. Hupp, Simpson Jones, David 
Jones, Joel James, Robert Kennedy, Absalom Kesling, Henry 
Logan, Charles H. Logan, Patrick Logan, James Logan, John 
Louden, James McAlister, Thomas McDonald, Asahel Mathews, 
Michael Milner, James S. Milner, John Murphy, John McDur- 
met, W'illiam Mason, Abraham Miller, Azariah Mosley, James 
McElrath, John McElrath, Joseph McElrath, Hugh McDonald, 
Daniel McElrath, Huron Metcalf, Charles Morland, Uri Metcalf, 
Arlem McClure, Greenbury Miller, James Nash, Oscar E. Nor- 
ton, Charles C. Ousterhout, Grove Pomeroy, Grove O. Pomeroy, 
Samuel Paddock, George Parsons, Erasmus Powell, Henry B. 
Pershing, William G. Pomeroy, Hiram A. Ranck, Benjamin Reed, 
John Ray, William B. Reed, Abraham Rhinehart, John Rhine- 
hart, Adam Rhinehart, Joseph Redding, Manlins Root, Minor 
Roberts, George Ramsey, Jesse Roberts, Isadore Rheanine, 
Lemuel Reynolds, David Rhea, Robert Rusk, Chester Rose, 
David Steel, Joseph Stringer, Valentine Shoefler, Joel Sherwood, 
William Sluyter, Melcher Stuck, Samuel Shoemaker, John 
Shoemaker, William B. Shirley, Willard Sampson, Edward St. 
John, Samuel Smith, John Singleton, Barton Smoot, Thomas 
Singleton, Sr., Hiram Lish, Cornelius Smith, Samuel D. Taber, 
Major Tuttle, James D. Taylor, Joseph S. Tucker, Alonzo 
Tucker, George Tucker, George W. Taylor, Benjamin Thomp- 


son, James Thompson, Josiah Taylor, George Taylor, John 
Thompson, Abraham Voreis, David R. \'oreis, Aaron Vedder, 
David \'an Vactor, George P. X'anhorn, Amzi L. Wheeler, Will- 
iam E. Walker, John Whitehead, Joseph Waters, Jeremiah 
White, James Whitehead, Merrill Williams, Russell Welch, 
John L. Westervelt, Luther Wentworth, John L. Woodward, 
William S. Yeckley. 

Mrs. Prudy Elliot has, perhaps, lived in this township longer 
than any other person now here. She became a resident 
of Plymouth, wath her father. Grove Pomeroy, in 1834, and has 
resided here, with the exception of a short time, on her father's 
farm, three miles west of Plymouth, ever since. She attended 
one term of school, taught in the old court house in 1837. Time 
has dealt gently with her and she is yet an honored citizen of 
our city. Joseph Evans is another resident still remaining who 
came in 1835-36. 

William C. Edwards, Ahijah Hawley, Charles Palmer, John- 
son Brownlee, N. S. Woodward, Thomas K. Houghton, David 
How, David L. Gibson, Peter Gibson, Joseph Westevelt and 
perhaps a few others whose names are not now recalled, who 
came in 1836, and a few 3-ears later, are still here. 

Cemeteries. — The first cemetery in this township was probably 
what is known as the " Stringer grave-yard," although its real 
name now is Lake cemetery. It is northeast of the present resi- 
dence of David How, a mile and a half southwest of Plymouth. 
A large number of the early settlers have been interred there and 
it is still generally used as a burial ground for their posterity and 
for those who came in later days. Aside from the fact that Center 
township contains the county seat and the public buildings of the 
county, it does not excel several of the other townships of the 
count}' in importance, and is only a fair sample of the land through- 
out the county. 

Pearsonvillc, mnc Iixuncooe/. — On the 2Qth day of December, 
1854, Ezra G. Pearson, platted the village of Pearsonville and 
acknowledged the execution of the same. Accompanying said plat 
was the following description of the location of said village: 

" This indenture witnesseth that Ezra G. Pearson, being de- 
sirous to lay off a town, has got the same surveyed, laid off and 
does give the same the name of Pearsonville, bounded as follows: 
Commencing at the north edge of the Fort Wayne and Chicago 
railroad, at the north and south open line, 32 rods, 19 links south 
of the half mile stake on the north side of section number seven- 
teen (171 in township number thirty-three (33), north of range 
number three (3) east, thence north on said open line 
297 feet, thence north 72 degrees, 23 minutes west, 135 feet, 
thence south 17 degrees, 37 minutes, 60 feet, thence north 
72 degrees, 23 minutes west, 132 feet, thence south 17 degrees, 2)7 


minutes west, iio feet, thence north 72 degrees, 23 minutes west, 
182 feet, thence north 17 degrees, 37 minutes east, 170 feet, thence 
north 72 degrees, 23 minutes west, 169 feet, thence south 297 feet, 
thence south 72 degrees, 23 minutes east, on the north line of said 
railroad 61S feet, to the place of beginning, situated in the county 
of Marshall and state of Indiana." 

In the 3'ear 1859 the name of the village was changed to Iron- 
wood. There have been eleven additions laid out and platted, 
but they are so small that space cannot be given them in detail 
here. The village used to be quite a lively one, especially in the 
lumbering business, but now that the lumber has nearly all been 
cut off, it is quite quiet and it is evident that it has seen its best 
days, yet it will continue to always be a convenient trading place 
in the center of one of the best farming districts in the county. 
There are now two good dry goods, grocery and notion stores, 
a good grist-mill, a postoffice, a drug store and other conven- 
iences for country trade. 

North Salon. — North Salem was a small village consisting of 
twelve lots laid out in the year 185 1, by Barrack Plummer, Basil 
Roberts and A. G. Pumphrey. Shortly after it was platted a very 
large and elegant church, for those daj^s was built, but it burned 
down in a few years and has never been rebuilt, and nearly the 
entire plat has been vacated. 

Grccii Towns/u'p A''o. j. — Green was one of the original town- 
ships of the county. When first organized it embraced what is 
now Union, Green, Walnut and Tippecanoe townships, being 
seven miles in width and twenty-one miles in length. It has 
been eliminated by cutting off the three townships from its 
original dimensions, so that it is now but seven miles in length 
north and south, and about five miles in width east and west. 
There is no village within the limits of the township, and the 
matter for historical reference is very limited. Originally, the 
township was sparsel}' settled, and but little occurred out of the 
usual routine of pioneer life. Ewell Kendall was the first in- 
spector of elections in this township, and the first election was 
held May 28, 1836, at the house of Sidney Williams. June 15, 
1836, the following orders were made by the board of com- 

That Fielding Bowles be allowed fifty cents for making bal- 
lot-box for Green township; that Abner Caldwell and John 
Triner be appointed constables of Green township for the year 
1836; that William Owens and John A. Boots be appointed fence 
viewers in Green township for the present year; that William 
Johnson and Samuel Pattison be appointed overseers of the 
poor in Green township for the present year; at the September 
term, 1S36, of the commissioners' court, it was ordered that John 
Compton be appointed constable in Green township to fill the 


vacancy of Abner Caldwell, former constable, who is now 
elected sheriff of'said county; at the May term of the court, the 
following petition was presented to the board: " We, the under- 
signed, commissioners of Green township, in said county, certify 
that Williamson Owens, the present applicant for a tavern 
license in said township, is a man of good moral character, and 
that it would be for the benefit and convenience of travelers, 
and conducive to the public good if such tavern should be 
opened, and we believe it is the bona fide intention of said 
Owens to keep a tavern for the accommodation of travelers. 
"Abner Caldwell, John Williamson, Frederick Dysinger, Elias 
Triner, William Boots, Sidney Williams, James W. Moore, 
Ewell Kendall, Samuel B. Patterson, Fielding Bowles, Jacob 
Boots, A. W. Roberts, John A. Boots, William Johnson, Thomas 
J. Head, George Owens, A. B. Tinder, Isaac Williamson, John 
Compton, Edmund Noe, John D. Fergeson, J. McDaniel, Edwin 
Owens, Josiah Taylor." The license was granted, but where the 
tavern was located is not exactly known; probably on the Michi- 
gan road, near the town of Argos. 

lJ\iIJ Creek. — This place is situated on a small stream called 
Wolf creek, in the northwest corner of the township. It con- 
tains a grist-mill, a notion store and postof^ce. The mill was 
erected by Robert C. Blivin prior to 1S50, who, during a rise in 
the creek, on the 28th day of February, 1850, in attempting to 
repair the dam, lost his footing and was drowned. The mill 
passed into the hands of the Zehner family, and is at present 
owned by M. B. Zehner. The country immediately surround- 
ing this place was settled in a verj' early da}' by those who came 
from the southern part of the state. John Anderson, who settled 
on a piece of land a short distance to the northward, in 1835, 
was probably the first. Uncles Henry and Thomas Logan are 
also located near here. Then there were James Voreis, Abraham 
Voreis, John Loudon, Thomas K. Clifton and perhaps a few 
others, who located near by not long afterward. A short dis- 
tance north was at that time an Indian camping ground, and tra- 
dition has it that at one time a battle was fought there between 
some of the hostile tribes, but there is no authentic information 
in regard to it. 

Mrs. Kendall, wife of Ewell Kendall, of this township, died 
April 2Q, 1S55, aged nearly one hundred. She had been an invalid 
from a stroke of paralj'sis for a number of years prior to her death. 
Some time before her death occurred, three robbers entered the 
house of these old people and carried off all the money and 
valuables they could find about the premises. Mr. Kendall died 
a few years later. He was a very eccentric man. 

Early Settlers. — Among the early settlers of Green township 
who came prior to 1840, including what is now Walnut township, 


are the following: Christian AUeman, Ira Allen, Noah Bartholo- 
mew, John A. Boots, Levi C. Barber, Jacob Boots, Thomas But- 
ler, Isaac Butler, Jonathan Butler, Henry Barcus, Robert C. 
Bliven, Charles Brown, Henry J. Brown, Charles Carle, David 
Collins, Barney Corey, Nathaniel B. Corey, Johnson M. Carle, 
John Compton, Andrew J. Cruzan, Benjamin Davis, Joseph 
Davis, William Downey, James Douglass, Joshua Edwards, Wes- 
ley Gregg, John Gibson, Thomas J. Head, William Hughs, 
Abel C. Hickman, William Johnson, Tyre Jones, Ewell Kendall, 
Thomas Logan, Moritz Lalmaugh, Jacob Lalmaugh, James B. 
Logan. Moses N. Leland, Patrick Logan, James W. Moore, 
William McCuen, Richard Merrill, Stephen Marsters, Elias M. 
Marsters, David McMillen, Vincent M. Miller, Sylvester S. Nash, 
Squire Owens, Benjamin Passage, Rezin G. Prather, Samuel B. 
Patterson, Thomas Pittenger, Andrew W. Roberts, Andrew 
Rhinehart, Archibald Scott, Bennett Smallwood, Elijah Town, 
Enos S. Tuttle, Abraham Voreis, Jr., Herman White, Sidney 
Williams, Reynolds Wells, Merrill Williams. 

Bourbon Township No. 4. — This township was organized Jan- 
uary 6, 1S40. Prior to that time, it was a part of Center town- 
ship. In addition to the territory now embraced within its 
boundaries, it contained what is now Tippecanoe township. Its 
dimensions at that time were seven miles wide by fourteen in 
length. March 9, 1S42, it was divided in the center east and 
west, and the southern half took the name of Tippecanoe town- 
ship. Bourbon township is now seven miles square, and con- 
tains about 31,460 acres of land, of which probably 20,000 acres 
are under cultivation. The petitioners for the organization of 
Bourbon township were James O. Parks, Grayson H. Parks, 
John F. Parks, Edward R. Parks, Thomas H. McKey, Peter Up- 
sell, W. H. Rockhill, Israel Beeber, William Taylor, John Greer, 
William Elder, John Henry, A. H. Buckman, Lyman Foote, 
Samuel Taylor, John F. Dukes, John Fuller, James Taylor, Will- 
iam Taylor, Jr., George Taylor and Samuel Rockhill. 

Prior to the completion of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago railroad, in 1S56, which passes diagonally through the 
southern portion of the township, the land was mostly covered 
with a thick growth of oak, poplar, walnut and other timber. 
Upon the completion of the railroad, saw-mills sprang up all over 
the territory, and, until the last few years, the amount of lumber 
manufactured and shipped from that section was something mar- 
velous. Over one thousand car loads were shipped each year in 
1864, 1S65, 1866 and 1S67, and half that many for several years 
before and since that time. The slaughter of the timber during 
these years was like the mowing down of an army in a terrific 
battle. But, as the timber disappeared, farms were opened, 
houses and barns were erected, and the places that a few years 


ago were a wildnerness of timber and undergrowth are now 
some of the finest cultivated fields in the country. There is no 
better farming land anywhere than is found in this township. 
The growth of all kinds of grain, vegetables and fruit is fully, if 
not more, than the average. This township stands first in 
blooded stock of all kinds, and each 3'ear shows marked im- 

The north and south branches of Yellow river unite in the 
northwest corner of the township and form Yellow river proper. 
In the "bottoms" of the south branch, a distance of about two 
miles is low, flat land, and, during wet seasons, the land in this 
region Is overflowed and rendered unfit for farming purposes. 
It is valuable for meadow and grazing purposes, and, with the 
system of ditches and underdraining recently inaugurated, this 
portion of the township is destined to become as valuable as any 
other portion of it. 

In the township, educational interests are well provided for. 
It has eighteen public school buildings — the largest number of 
any township in the county except Center. Three of the build- 
ings are brick, and the remainder frame. Their value is stated 
to be $4,400, and the value of school apparatus, etc., $400 — a 
total of $4,800. 

The town of Bourbon will be found under its proper caption, 
and it is the only town or village in the township. 

Tippecanoe Towns/iip A'^ — Tippecanoe township was organ- 
ized March q, 1S42, and was taken off the south part of what was 
then Bourbon township, and is seven miles long north and south, 
by five miles east and west, and lies in the southeast corner of 
the county. The petitioners for the organization of the township 
were A. H. Buckman, Thomas Irwin, William Wagner, Israel 
Baker, William Sprout, William H. Rockhill, Samuel Taylor, 
Joseph Taylor, William Taj^lor, George Taylor, Samuel Rock- 
hill, I. H. Clearer, T. H. McKey, James Turner, Jacob Raber, G. 
H. and J. O. Parks, W^illiam Elder, Robert Milleny, H. Blakely, 
Solomon Linn, John Greer, Moses Greer, I. Reed, A. J. Cruzan. 
The petition was presented to the board of commissioners by 
Andrew J. Cruzan, on behalf of himself and the other petitioners. 

The firstsettlers of Tippecanoe township were A. H. Buckman 
and family, and a man by the name of James Welch and wife, 
who settled there in 1838. Welch committed suicide by cutting 
his throat with a razor, and was buried on what is now the farm 
of A. D. Senour, and was the first white person buried in the 

James Turner was one of the earliest and most prominent cit- 
izens of the township. He died some years since after having 
amassed quite a competency. He was a most highly esteemed 
citizen. The first school was taught in the summer of 1842, at 


what is now school-house No. 3, by Esther Birney, who taught 
there three successive terms. Among prominent early settlers 
were Thomas H. McKey, Samuel R. Koons, William Sprout, 
Thomas Ivens, Samuel Rockhill and Levi Holloway, none of 
whom now remam. The Pottawattomie chief, Benack, and many 
of his tribe, lived at this time on the banks of the Tippecanoe 
river, a short distance above Tippecanoe town, and continued to 
reside there until 1853-54, but have not now a representative in 
the township. 

Township Trustees. — It has been impossible to obtain a cor- 
rect list of those who have served as trustees since the organiza- 
tion of the township. On the books and various instruments in 
the hands of the present trustees are found the following names 
as trustees in the early history of the township: A. H. Buckman, 
James Turner, C. Sarber, Thomas Grippis, David Jordan, Clay- 
ton Grant. Since the change of the law authorizing the election 
of only one trustee in each township, the following have served 
in the order named: Lewis Erwin, David James, James Turner, 
Daniel R. Wood, Calvin R. Wood, Daniel R. Bearss, Patrick S. 
Mulligan, Simeon Blue, William Yaiser, Robert Erwin and M. 
Dilley, the present incumbent. 

Flouring and U^w/cn Mills. — "Tippecanoe river, which me- 
anders through this township, entering it on the eastern bound- 
ary, about the middle, running toward the center and veering off 
to the south, furnishes an excellent water-power at Tippecanoe 
town for milling purposes. The dam across the river at this 
point was originally built, it is said, by the original proprietors 
of the town. The flouring mill now in operation was built by 
N. B. and P. S. Alleman, of Plymouth, who operated it until 
within a few j^ears past. During the war, the Messrs. Alleman, 
erected a woolen factory close by, which they operated in con- 
nection with others until 1S78, when they disposed of it to J. F. 
Van Valkenburg, of Plymouth. On the night of October 25, 
1878, the woolen mills were fired by an incendiary, and, before 
assistance could reach them, were entirely destroyed. An at- 
tempt was made to set fire to the grist-mill the same night, but a 
watchman being in the mill, the attempt was unsuccessful. De- 
tectives were put on track of the "fire fiend," and in course of 
time a young man in the neighborhood was arested on suspicion 
of having committed the deed. He was incarcerated in the 
county jail, and soon after gave intimation of an intention to con- 
fess his guilt, and turn state's evidence against other parties, 
who, he said, were implicated. Before the meeting of the grand 
jury, however, he succeeded in making his escape from the jail. 
He concealed himself for some time, but finally concluded to re- 
turn and give himself up to the authorities. This he did, and 
afterward appeared before the grand jury and confessed that he 


fired the propertj-, describing minutely how the act was accom- 
plished. He also implicated a large number of old and respect- 
able citizens of the neighborhood as being particcps crimmis in 
the transaction. He alleged that the object sought to be attained 
was the removal of the mill dam, which it was averred over- 
flowed a large section of countr}-, produced stagnant water, caus- 
ing malaria, resulting in sickness and death. He stated that 
meetings of those in the neighborhood affected by the dam had 
been held at various times, at which the question was discussed 
as to the most expeditious and safest wa}' to get rid of what they 
termed an "intolerable nuisance." According to his statement, 
it was finally determined that if the mills were out of the wa3% 
the dam would soon follow. He was selected, he stated, to do 
the work, the others agreeing to save him from arrest and pun- 
ishment. Several of the parties implicated were jointl}' indicted 
with him, and after many vexatious dela3's, the cases came on 
for trial. i\stoall the parties but one, a nolle-proscqiii was entered, 
and the case went to trial as to the remaining party, mainly on 
the evidence of the party who had confessed that he had been 
guilty of the burning. The trial lasted several days, creating 
much excitement and ill-feeling among neighbors and parties in- 
terested, and finally resulted in the jury failing to agree. The 
venue of the case was changed to another county, where it is 
still pending. The names of the parties to this unfortunate 
transaction are omitted for reasons which will be apparent to the 

The above paragraph is taken from the McDonald history of 
•of the county, written ten 3'ears ago, as an interesting portion of 
the history of this township, but since that time the old flouring 
mill has run entirely down — has gotten into litigation — has been 
sold for taxes, and there are as many as three different parties 
claiming to be the legal owners of the property. Within the 
past few years the Nickel Plate railroad has been located through 
the township and a station laid off about three-fourths of a mile 
•south of old Tippecanoe town, which was first called Tippecanoe 
Town Station, but is now named Ilion, has almost entirely taken 
the trade from the old place and the last dry-goods, grocery and 
notion store in the place owned by Yaiser & Alleman, has re- 
cently been moved to Ilion, and Old Tippecanoe Town, as far as 
business is concerned, is a thing of the past. The mill and all the 
other machinery that was formerly run bj' the water power at 
the old town having been destroyed or permitted to run down to 
a state of worthlessness, it seems that the dam should now be 
torn away, as it has been a great " bone of contention " among 
the good citizens of the community and is a great " eye-sore " to 
the township. 

There are now four good iron bridges across the Tippecanoe 


river in this township, the farmers are reclaiming a large amount 
of their lands by drainage and their public roads are being- 
opened and established on proper and permanent routes. These 
things taken in connection with the location of the railroad re- 
ferred to, has given Tippecanoe township a "boom "that has 
" come to stay." 

Tippecanoe Town is located on the Tippecanoe river in the 
northwest corner of the southwest quarter of section i8, town- 
ship 32, north of range 4 east, which is very nearly the center of 
the township north and south, and one mile west of the center 
east and west. The original proprietors of the place were 
Joseph Hall, Daniel C.Martin and Joseph Serls. The town was 
platted and laid off into thirty lots December 1 2, 1850. As stated 
above. Old Tippecanoe Town's glory has faded and it is a village 
of the past. This is evidenced by the fact that even P. S. 
(Schuyl) Alleman has with his partner in business, Mr. William 
Yaiser, moved their store across the river to the now village of 

Tippecanoe Town Station, now Ilion, is located in the west 
central part of section 19, township 32, north of range 4 east., 
W. " Wilson " Burkett, John Kramer, John T. Hardesty, Eliza- 
beth Lewallen and E. J. Martindale, were the original proprie- 
tors and the plat was subscribed and sworn to P'ebruary 8, 18S2. 
The lots numbered from one to sixty-two, and on the first of No- 
vember, 18S2, John Kramer, John T. Hardest}^ and David Lew- 
alien laid off and caused to be platted an addition to the original 
town of Tippecanoe Station, the lots in the addition numbering 
from sixty-three to ninety, inclusive. Both the original plat and 
the addition were laid off by J. M. Klinger, then county sur- 

At the December term, 1886, of the board of commissioners^ 
on the petition of G. W. Roberts and others, the name of " Tippe- 
canoe Town Station "was changed to Ilion, to the great relief 
and convenience of " all parties concerned," and yet, and although 
the name of the place has been changed and shortened, it will, 
in fact, be the village of Tippecanoe township for probably all 
time to come. 

German Tozvnsliip was organized May nth, 1838, in its pres- 
ent form, and the following is the order of the board of commis- 
sioners, made and spread of record, concerning the organization, 
bounding and naming of said township: 

" Ordered by the board aforesaid, that all the territory lying 
and being in the North-East corner of said county and bounded 
as follows, to-wit: Commencing at the North-East corner of 
said county, thence west on the county line dividing the counties 
of St. Joseph and Marshall to the center of Township 33 North, 
Range 3 East, thence south on a "strait" (straight) line to the 


line dividing North and Center Townships, thence East to the 
line dividing the counties of Marshall and Kosciusko, thence 
north on said line to the beginning, for one civil Township, for 
Judicial purposes: And be it further ordered that said Town- 
ship be known by the name of German Township." 

The above description and bounding of German township is 
really deficient, vague and incorrect. The true boundary of 
German township at the time of its organization was as follows: 
Commencing at the northeast corner of Marshall county and 
' running west on the line between Marshall and St. Joseph coun- 
ties, a distance of nine miles, or to the northwest corner of sec- 
tion ig, township 35, north of range 3 east; thence south to the 
line then dividing "North" and "Center" townships, as then or- 
ganized, which was a distance of seven miles; thence due east to 
the line dividing the counties of Marshall and Kosciusko, and 
then due north on said county line to the place of beginning. 
This made the area of German township nine miles east and west 
by seven miles north and south. At the March term, 1S53, of the 
board of commissioners, Franklin township was organized by tak- 
ing three miles off of the east end of German township, as above 
described, but, in January, 1S55, the name and organization of 
Franklin township was revoked and rescinded, and the territory 
became again a part of German township, and it so remains at this 
time. Subsequent to the order made % the board of commis- 
sioners throwing Franklin back into German township, upon pe- 
tition of citizens interested, sections 19 and 20, in township 34, 
north of range 3 east, were taken out of the southwest corner 
of German township and attached to Center township. 

Clayton. — Clayton was the name of the first town site located 
in German township. This was August 21, 1837. The proprie- 
tors were Lathrop M. Taylor and Henry Augustine, of South 
Bend. Mr. Taylor was at that time clerk of St. Joseph county. 
The location was about three miles east of the present town of 
Bremen. Its form was a diagonal, cut up into gorgeous streets 
and avenues. But the center of gravit}- did not seem to be in 
that region, and the project of building a town there was aban- 
doned, and the lots have all been vacated. 

German is the largest township in the count}-, containing an 
area of sixtj^-one square miles or sections. It is also one of the 
best townships for agricultural purposes. It originally had a great 
growth of the finest of timber, but it is now nearly all taken off 
and a large portion of the lands are at present under a good state 
of cultivation. Many of the citizens have grown wealthy in the 
saw-mill and lumber business. The citizens of the township are, 
as the name suggests, largely German and of German extrac- 
tion. They are honest, frugal and industrious. They are the 
most prompt taxpayers in the county and their own local, or 


township taxes, are a less rate than any other in the county. The 
thriving town of Bremen, the only one in the township, will be 
treated of in another chapter of this work, under its proper 

N'orth Township Ah. 7. — North township was one of the orig- 
inal townships. When it was first organized, it comprised, in 
addition to its present limits, the territory now embraced in Polk 
and German townships. German township was taken off May 1 1, 
183S, and Polk, March 4, 1845. When Polk was cut off from the 
west part of North, it was a time when political excitement was. 
the order of the day. Polk township having been named in honor 
of the newly-elected president, some of the democratic voters 
conceived the idea that it would be just the thing to change the 
name of North and call it Dallas, in honor of the vice president. 
March i, 1S45, the following petition was presented to the board 
of commissioners: " To the Board of Commissioners: We, the 
undersigned petitioners of North township, ask for the name of 
said township to be altered from North to Dallas. Signed, S.N. 
Champlin, James Palmer, Adam Snider, James Sherland, Warren 
Burch, John Kilgore, Charles A. Stilson, John Morris, N. Parmer, 
Hiram Baker, John Trowbridge, John P. Grover, John Irwin, 
George Nitcher, Alex M. Vinnedge, George Vinnedge, John 
Snider, Seymour Stilson, John S. Baker, Abraham Baker, Joseph 
Trowbridge, Josiah White, A. Burch, Daniel Nitcher, Orrin 
Palmer, John Wildey, George W. Ferguson, Calvin Burch, J. E. 
Emerson, W. S. Braum, P. P. Robinson, Sol. Stevens, and H. R. 
Pershing." The board ordered the change to be made as indi- 
cated in the petition. 

At the June term following, the following petition was pre- 
sented, by Robert Johnson on behalf of himself and others: 

" We, the undersigned citizens of now Dallas township, re- 
spectfully request your honorable body to change the name of 
Dallas township to that of North township. Signed, Robert 
Schroeder, Jesse Schroeder, Robert Johnson, Sr., Seymour Stil- 
son, G. W. Ferguson, C. A. Stilson, Warren Burch, Sol. Snyder, 
James Parmer, D. Cummins, George Murphy, D. Vinnedge, M. 
Hard, Daniel Nitcher, James Sherland, Sol. Snyder, Wash. Mor- 
ris, George Vinnedge, A. M. Vinnedge, D. Conger, John Schroe- 
der, Simon Snyder, M. Robert, B. Gerrard, J. C. fones, A.Snyder, 
D. Murphy, Sr., R. Johnson, Jr., J. Snyder, W. S. Brown, H. M. 
Greer, James Murphy, C. Sherland, ]. Johnson, Thomas Packard, 
J. P. Grover, G. Nitcher, J. Wilder, J. Kilgore, D. Murphy, C. Burch, 
J. Lampheer, Pleasant Ferguson." The prayer of the petitioners 
was granted, and the distinguished honor accorded to the vice 
president was obliterated by one fell swoop of the magic pen of 
the board of commissioners. 

Old Settlers. — Among the early settlers of North township, 


prior to and including the 3^ear 1S40, and which also at that time 
comprised the territory- now known as Polk township, are: 

Thomas Bentley, William S. Brown, John P. Benson, Designy 
S. Conger, David Cummins, George Clark, John Caldwell, Con- 
sider Cushman, William Clark, Simeon Eels, John Emerson, 
Joseph E. Emerson, Joseph Evans, Jonas Fulmer, Pleasant Fer- 
guson, Reuben Farnsworth, Henry j\I. Geer, John Green, Preston 
Green, Jacob Hopkins, John Hopkins, Abraham Johnson, John 
Jones, Robert Johnson, Sr., John Johnson, Robert Johnson, Jr., 

David Knott, John Kilgore, James Kell}', George Murphj-, David 

Jr., Orrin McCumber, William INIontgomer}-, 
Norris, Garrison B. Packard, Thomas A. Packard, Sheldon P. 

Phillips, Nathaniel Palmer, Orrin W. Palmer, James Palmer, 
Thomas Peterson, Jesse Peterson, Jesse Schroeder, Robert 
Schroeder, Adam Snyder, Simon Snyder, Peter Schroeder, lames 
Sherland, Nathaniel Sherland, Seymour Stilson, Charles Sherland, 
Stephen Singleton, John Snyder, Edward Smith, Lyman Stilson, 
Thomas Singleton, Isaac Thomas, John Underwood, David V'in- 
nedge, George \'innedge, Alfred \' innedge, William Williams, 
Johnson E. Woodward, John L. W^oodward. 

Liuksvillc is a small " country' place," whose residents have 
mostly engaged in the lumber and timber business. It makes no 
pretensions as a city-, having no railroad, telegraph or express 
office, but has a postoffice only. 

Wahuit Hill, near the residence of Eb. Shirland, deceased, on 
the Michigan road, prior to the completion of the railroad 
through La Paz, was a postoffice and stopping place for the 
stage line between Plymouth and South Bend, at which the peo- 
ple of the neighborhood received their mail. But, upon the 
completion of the railroad, the postoffice was removed to La 
Paz, since which time its identity has become entirely lost. 

Plank Road. — Some twenty-hve or thirty years ago the South 
Bend & Plymouth Plank Road company put down an inferior 
plank road through this township and most of the way along the 
Michigan road to South Bend. It was quite a relief as compared 
with the mud and sand for some time after it was made, but the 
boards soon became broken and warped so that it became almost 
impassable, and after a few years, was entirely abandoned, and 
the boards removed. Drainage has done as much for North as 
any other township in the county in the last ten years. 

La Paz and Additions. — La Paz is the only village in this 
township of much note. It was laid off by Archalaus Hunt, 
upon the completion of the " Baltimore & Ohio & Chicago rail- 
road," in the year 1873. 

The following is the description of the location and platting 
of said town, filed in the recorder's office of Marshall countv, 
August 6th, 1873: 



" Archelaus Hunt being desirous of laying out a town in Mar- 
shall county and state of Indiana, to be known and designated 
as ' La Paz' has caused the same to be surveyed and platted, and 
said town so surveyed and platted is situated on the north half 
of the northeast fraction, east of the Michigan road, of section 
number five (5) of Michigan road lands (except a strip forty-six 
feet in width across the south end thereof) , and across the east 
end of the north half of the northwest fraction, west of the Michi- 
gan road of section number five (5) Michigan road lands (except 
a strip forty-six feet in width on the south line of said tract). 
The starting point for the platting of said town, is a ' Maple 
Tree,' about one foot in diameter, situated on the west line of the 
Michigan road, designated on the plat as ' Michigan street,' 
which said tree is the established southeast corner of what is 
known as the ' Center Lot,' and from this, as a starting point, 
said town of ' La Paz ' is platted and laid out in parallel and 
right angle lines with the east and west lines of the Michigan 
road, and is laid out into lots, streets and alleys, as to numbers, 
depth and width as set forth and designated on the above plat, 
to which reference is hereto made for greater certainty. 

" In witness whereof, the said Archalaus Hunt, has hereunto 
set his hand and seal this 5th day of August, A. D. 1873. 

" Archelaus Hunt. [Seal.] 
"State oe, ( _,, 
" Marshall county. ( ^"''' 

" Before me, the recorder, in and for said county, personally 
appeared Archelaus Hunt, to me well known, and acknowledged 
the execution of the above plat and certificate, for the uses and 
purposes therein expressed. 

"John W. Houghton, R. M. Co." 

The above and original plat referred to, contains 127 lots of 
different sizes, and also, are the streets and alleys of various 
widths, and the plat will have to be consulted to ascertain accu- 
rate information. 

On the 23rd day of September, 1S75, Edson Spencer laid out 
an addition to the town, called "Spencer's Addition to La Paz," 
containing eighteen lots, which are 40x120 feet. The streets are 
forty and the alleys fourteen feet wide. 

Moses Thayer s Addition to La Paz. — On the 27th day of De- 
cember, 1881, Moses Thayer laid off and caused to be platted the 
above named addition to La Paz, containing thirty-five lots besides 
blocks 2, 4 and 5 that were not subdivided. The streets are 
forty feet wide. This addition lies south of Spencer's addition. 

On the loth day of June, 1884, the above named Moses 
Thayer filed his plat of " Thayer's Addition to La Paz, Ind., Con- 
tinued," containing eleven lots and lying west of the said Thay- 
er's first or original addition. 


April 1st, 1SS5, Leonard Logan and Gideon Logan laid out 
" Logan's Addition to La Paz," which contains sixty-four lots of 
varied length and breadth. This addition lies in the southeast 
part of the town. 

The above is the original La Paz with all its additions, and 
it will readil}' be seen that the various proprietors of the addi- 
tions have made ample provisions for the town to spread. It is 
situated in the midst of a fertile section of country' and is a very- 
good trading point, there being two good dry goods, grocery and 
notion stores, two drug stores, a large stave factory, two saloons, 
three doctors, a postoffice, telegraph office, church and school 

East La Paz is about three-fourths of a mile east of the origi- 
nal La Paz at the junction of the Baltimore & Ohio & Chicago 
railroad, and the Logansport & Terre Haute railroad, and is 
described as follows, by Walter Kimble, the proprietor, his plat 
being filed for record, February 14, 1855: " East La Paz is situ- 
ated in southeast quarter of northeast quarter of Section 
Twentj'-eight (28), Township Thirty- (35 1 five north. Range 
Two (2) east, at the crossing of the Baltimore & Ohio & Van- 
dalia railroad, is bounded on the east by \'andalia railroad, on 
the south, west and north bj- the boundary' line of said SF.% of 
XE^^i!," etc. There are but few houses in the place as yet, and 
the ground being very low and unfavorable to building it will 
probably never be much of a trading or business point. Besides 
the railroad station house there is a postoffice in the place. 

Hams' s S/afion is situated between Linksville and the Michi- 
gan road on the line of the Terre Haute & Logansport railroad 
and about half way between Plymouth and East La Paz. It was 
laid out and platted by John Seltenright, October 31, 1885. It 
has a grain elevator, store and postoffice, but will never be a 
very large village. 

Po/k Township No. S. — This township, organized March 4, 1845, 
the day James K. Polk, was inaugurated president of the United 
States. It was considered in keeping with the fitness of things 
that the new township should take the name of Polk, and it was 
accordingly so called. Prior to its organization the territory was 
the west part of North township. The petition, which was dated 
March i, 1845, is as follows: 
To the Honorable Commissioners of the County of Marshall: 

We, the undersigned citizens of North township, in said 
county, would represent that, in our opinion, it would be of pub- 
lic utility to divide said township into two townships, on account 
of the great disadvantage in voting and doing township business. 
And we would further request that said township be so divided 
as to hold the elections at or near James Sherland's and Thomas 
Singleton's. And this your petitioners would ever pray. 


Robert J. Evans, Lewis Beagles, Isaac Thomas, H. A. Ranck, 
Thomas Singleton, Sr., Willoughby M. McCormack, Reuben 
Farnsworth, Jacob H. Miller, Henry Smith, Charles Ousterhout, 
Samuel B. Knott, Hallis Merrick, Luther Wentworth, Steven 
Singleton, Simeon Hendricks, William Montgomery, Consider 
Cushman, Charles Cook, Thomas Bently, Edward Smith, Joel 
James, James Keely, George A. Ruggles, John Schroeder, 
Dennis Stow, Jonas Fulmer, Place C. Ruggles, George Myers, 
John Hopkins, Ansel T. Cole, David Knott, Elliott Knott and 
Joseph Redding. 

Tyncr City. — Tyner City, the seat of justice of Polk township, 
was laid off and platted June i8, 1S55, by Jacob H. Miller, 
Maynard French and Thomas Tyner. It took its name from the 
last-named proprietor. It is located in the west half of section 10, 
town 34, range i east, on the I., P. & C. R. R., about seven miles 
northwest of Plymouth. It is laid off into twelve blocks, 315 
feet feet square, including alleys, each block containing twelve 
lots, each 50.x 100 feet. The streets are named Race, Vine, 
Main, Walnut, May, Miller, French, Allen, Boyce. The first 
four were named after streets in Cincinnati, where some of the 
proprietors at one time resided, and the remainder were named 
in honor of railroad men who flourished there about that time. 

Tyner was incorporated as a town under the state laws for 
that purpose, in 1872-74. A feud had sprung up between the 
people of the town and those who resided outside of its limits. 
It was carried to such an extent that no resident of the village 
could be elected to a township office, and, as it was desirable to 
have a justice of the peace resident of the town, the only way to 
accomplish it was to organize under a corporation government, 
the law providing that, where there was such a form of govern- 
ment, one of the justices should reside within the limits of the 
corporation. The organization had the desired effect. A justice 
who resided in town was elected, and, in course of time, the war- 
ring elements having subsided, and there being no apparent 
necessity for a town government, an election was called to vote 
upon the proposition to disband the organization. The result of 
the election is embodied in the following, filed in the clerk's office: 

I, George E. Leroy, do hereby certify that an election held in 
the town of Tyner City, on the 2Qth day of November, 1879, for 
the purpose of dissolving the incorporation, that the whole num- 
ber of votes cast were 2,o> ^'^d that the number of voters in the 
town are 47, and that there were 22 votes cast to dissolve and 1 1 
cast to maintain the incorporation. 

George E. Leroy, 

Washington Wilson, 


The incorporation was accordingly dissolved. The population 
are generally law-abiding, and really had very little need of a 
corporation government. 

Elizabeth Tozvn. — This was a town on paper, located on the 
La Porte road, twelve miles from Plymouth and eighteen miles 
from La Porte. It was elegantly laid out in the shape of a cross. 
There were twelve blocks, each containing twelve lots. It was 
laid out May 23, 1837, by G. A. Cone. At a time it was consid- 
ered to be an eligible location for the building of a town, being 
about half waj' between Plymouth and La Porte. But some way 
it failed to attract any settlers within its limits, and, except the 
record in the recorder's office, from which the foregoing infor- 
mation is derived, nothing remains to mark its untimely demise. 

Blissvillc. — Blissville was a place near the west line of the 
township, on the La Porte road, that attained some celebrity in 
the early days. It was owned and managed by Justice T. F. 
Stevens, an old gentleman of commanding presence, who sup- 
plied the weary traveler that passed that way with all the neces- 
saries, comforts and conveniences of life. Upon the completion 
of the I., P. &. C. R. R., in 1S56, the current of trade centered at 
Tyner, and Mr. Stevens found his occupation gone. He has 
since died. 

Tccgardcn — The following is the description of the location of 
Teegarden, as filed by Eii Taylor and Calvin J. Wright, the 
proprietors, November iS, 1873: " Teegarden is located in the 
southwest corner of the southeast quarter of section 23, town- 
ship 35, north of range i east, in Marshall county, Indiana. The 
south line of said town is the section line, and the west line is 
the center line of said section 23, there is fifteen feet left on the 
north side of the section line for half of a street; also twenty 
feet on the east side of the center section line for half a street, 
and forty feet on the south of the right of way, of the Baltimore 
& Ohio railroad for a street, called Wright street. The south 
line of Taylor street commenced on the center section line — 
fifty feet north of the center of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, 
and runs east at right angles to the north and south center sec- 
tion line of said section 23," etc. The plat contains thirty-three 
lots, and they are 100 feet wide by 144 feet in length. The streets 
are sixty, and the alleys 20 feet wide. The Baltimore & Ohio 
railroad runs through the southern portion of the original town. 
On the 20th day of June, 1874, Lewis Lemert laid out and caused 
to be platted and recorded an addition to Teegarden, joining the 
original plat on the west. The addition comprises fifteen lots of 
the same size as those in the original town. There are two good 
dry goods, grocery and notion stores, a saw-mill, a tile manufac- 
tory, coal kiln, blacksmith shop, etc. The town is surrounded by 
a good farming country that is being improved by drainage. 


Associations. — A mutual detective association, for the purpose 
of capturing horse-thieves, was organized July 29, 1867. The 
members of the association were: Consider Cushman, Bryan 
McDaniel, C. J. Wright, Van Gilmore, Joseph Ogilwy, C. Wat- 
kins, Francis Weisner, Francis Black, Willis Wright, Hiram 
Mongold, Warren Burch, James W. Falconbury, Levi C. Myers, 
Thomas Nichols, Jonathan Wyant, Peter Walsh, J.W.Sherwood, 
N. A. Lane. 

Magnetic Springs. — There are a number of magnetic springs 
in the village of Teegarden. The water flows out of the ground 
in large quantities, and, besides being strongly magnetic and 
containing other medical properties, is considered the best quality 
of drinking water. 

Huckleberry Marsh. — A huckleberry marsh two or three miles 
west of Tyner has of late years attained considerable notoriety 
as a frontier village, during the gathering of berries, with all 
that the name implies. Hundreds of people from far and near 
locate there, and, during the "season," it has more the appear- 
ance of a mining camp than a temporary village for peaceful 
pursuit. Huckleberries (whortleberries, more properly) are 
gathered there by the car-load, and the products in favorable 
seasons are a source of considerable revenue to those who en- 
gage in the business. When the "season" is at its height, amuse- 
ments of every description and kind known to temporary places 
of that sort are indulged in by the inhabitants and the hundreds 
of visitors who go there out of curiosity or for pure, unadulter- 
ated cussedness. If one is bibulously inclined, the cravings of 
his appetite can be satiated at the ' Alhambra," on a convenient 
corner, and if he wants to indulge in a set-to at "old sledge," or 
the more interesting game of "poker," the appliances are always 
at hand; and it is a rule of the inhabitants of the village, when 
a visitor arrives, to "take him in," and he will find a dancing 
hall, with the 'Arkansaw Traveler" to make the music, where 
he can 

"Trip it as he goes, 
On his light fantastic toes," 

to his heart's content, with the blooming lasses that there do 
congregate for partners. 

Near this huckleberry marsh lived an old man, who was ar- 
rested by the United States authorities early in iSSo, charged 
with manufacturing and putting into circulation counterfeit silver 
coins. He was tried, convicted and sentenced to imprisonment 
in the state's prison for a term of years, but through the clem- 
ency of President Hayes, was pardoned out some months later. 
The coins found in his possession were mostly Mexican dollars, 
and were said to be exceedingly well executed. He had erected 
a small, high building, in which he had an immense iron weight, 


which had been cast for the purpose, in which the "die was cast." 
It was elevated by means of a windlass, and, when the metal out 
of which the bogus money was to be made had been properly 
placed on a solid block of wood beneath, the weight was dropped, 
descending with such force as to coin a single piece at each blow. 
A large number of these coins were found in and about the 
premises, and quite a number of them had found their way into 
circulation. Underneath the building was found a cellar with a 
floor. Underneath this floor was found another apartment, in 
which was discovered a complete set of tools, metal and other 
articles necessary to make a complete outfit. These implements 
were carried away by the officers, and of course that kind of 
manufacturing enterprise in this part of the county has entirely 

Thomas Tyner, the founder of Tyner City, and from whom it 
took its name, died in that place on the iSth of October, iS8o. 
He was born in Kentucky in iSoo. He was a worthy and highly 
respected citizen, and during his long life, filled many important 
positions of trust and honor, always in a satisfactory manner to 
all parties concerned. In the earlier portion of his manhood he 
assisted in moving the archives of the state from Corydon to 
Indianapolis, after the capital was established there. He was 
one of the old land-marks, not only in this county, but of the 
state, and was well acquainted with many prominent citizens of 
Indiana. He was generous, kind and charitable, almost to a 
fault — was honored and esteemed while living, and died sincerely 
regretted by all who knew him. 

Jl'es^ Tonnisliip No. g. — Originally the territory comprising 
this township was the west part of Center. In 1S53 a township 
was organized which was christened Pierce township, but for 
some cause which does not appear, the order was cancelled and 
nothing done to perfect the organization. Afterward, however, 
on the Sth of March, 1S54. it was placed upon record by the board 
of commissioners that all that part of Center township lying west 
of the range line dividing ranges i and 2 east, be constituted into 
a civil township, and no change has since been made in its bound- 
ary lines. A brief mention of the organization of the township 
appeared in the Plymouth Banner oi April 14, 1854, as follows: 

" The citizens of this new township, which was set off by the 
county board at its late meeting, have taken the necessary steps 
for an efficient organization. At the. election on the 3d inst., 
James A. Corse, William Slayter and Hiram A. Lyon were elec- 
ted trustees; John Coleman, clerk; and Maj. Tuttle, treasurer — 
all good and prompt men. Daniel Barber was elected one of 
the justices of the peace." 

Among the early settlers in this township, Charles Cook was 
perhaps the earliest. He had been in this region prior to his 


settlement here — probably as early as 1S32. At that time he 
was what was known as a " pack-horse trader." He traded the 
Indians, who were numerous here then, such things as they 
needed, for furs and venison, which he carried on pack-horses to 
market. He lived with the Indians from the time he was eight 
years old until he arrived at the age of sixteen. He learned to 
talk their language fluently. Pretty lake, which is situated in 
this township, around whose beautiful shores cluster many 
of the scenes and incidents of early Indian life, was called, 
in the Indian tongue, Oua-uck-eu-bus. He also states that 
the Indian name for Plymouth was Aus-ka-nuk; Yellow 
river, Wau-sau-auk-a-to-meek. x^nother name for Yellow river 
in the Indian language has been given as Wy-^hou-gan. 
Probably the first was Pottawatamie and the last Miami. Repre- 
sentatives of both of these tribes were here at that time. 
Mex-en-kuck-eek was the Indian name for our delightful Max- 
inkuckee lake, and signified Moccasin lake, on account of 
its shape resembling the shape of an Indian moccasin. 
Edwin Dwinnell was another early settler here, whose recollec- 
tions of days long gone were still quite fresh in his memory to 
the day of his death. He could "talk Indian " as glibly as an 
original Pottawatamie, but the lapse of time had caused most of 
it to slip from his mind. Hiram A. Ranck was another old resi- 
dent of this locality, and has served more years as county com- 
missioner than any other man in the county. James A. Corse 
was another. He served a number of years as probate judge 
during the continuance of that system in the county, and has 
taken an active part in the organization and development of the 
county. And then there were iManlius Root, James Case, George 
Dickson, Isaac How, Joseph Waters Simeon Ells, Lyman H. 
Andrews, John G. Burch, Ransom Barber, Daniel Barber, Nor- 
ton S. Burch, Sooy Belangee and a number of others whose 
names cannot be recalled. Up to 1854, as before stated, this 
township was a part of Center township, and to that date it had 
no separate identity. 

The " Old Forge," located at the lower end of Twin lakes, gave 
promise in an early day of becoming a place of considerable im- 
portance. Like the famous Duluth, the sky came down in equal 
distances all around it, and hence it, was considered about as 
near the center of the universe as it was possible to figure it. 
One of the first grist-mills in the county, if not the very first, was 
built at this place by Timoth}' Barber. It was known as Barber's 
mill and was patronized far and near for many j'ears. The 
forge hammer, that could at one time be heard miles and miles 
away, has long since been removed, and the mining and forging 
of the very inferior bog iron ore found in that vicinity has been 
abandoned, and but little remains to indicate that such an enter 
prise ever existed. 


The old Indian chapel, the first house of worship erected in the 
county, was located near the north bank of the middle Twin lake, 
a few miles above the Forge, on the farm now owned by John 
Lowry.,. The services were held in French b}' a Catholic priest, 
whose name is unknown. Many residents of the county now liv- 
ing remember to have attended church there, probably more out 
of curiosity than from the good they expected to derive in a spirit- 
ual sense. When services were held, the Indians congregated 
from different parts of the county in large numbers, and it is 
said they were very devout in their adorations to the Great 
Spirit. The best of order prevailed, no disturbance of any kind 
ever having occurred. The chapel was allowed to remain stand- 
ing for a long time after the Indians were driven away, but was 
finally torn down, and now nothing remains to point out the spot 
where the first religious services were held in the wilderness over 
half a century ago. Occasionally an arrow point or a stone im- 
plement of one kind or another is yet picked up by the relic hun- 
ter in that vicinity, but beyond these the footprints of the " noble 
red man" are entirely obliterated. Sic transit gloria iiiinidif 

Donclson. — The original plat of Donelson was laid out Octo- 
ber 25, i87i,by D.W.Taft, Cornelius TuttleandW. J. Richardson. 
It is located in the corners of sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, township 
34, north of range i east, on the line of the Pittsburgh, Ft. 
Wayne & Chicago R. R., and is one mile east of the Stark 
county line. It contains twenty-two lots, their size being sixty- 
six feet wide by 132 feet in length. On the 14th day of Septem- 
ber, 1875, D. W. Taft laid out " Taft's addition to the town of 
Donelson," containing twenty-one lots of the same size as the 
lots in the original plat and lying north and west of the original 
town, and on the 14th day of September, 1875, Cornelius Tuttle 
laid off " Tuttle's addition to Donelson," comprising twenty-two 
lots, being of the same size as the original lots. It is a quiet 
little village and probably will always remain so as most of the 
farm products raised in its vicinity are marketed elsewhere. It 
has two stores, a drug store, a grain elevator, a blacksmith shop, 
one doctor, a good school house, church and all the conveniences 
and evidences of civilization common to villages of its size. 

U^alnnt Township No. 10, was organized June 9, 1859. The 
territory now composing .the township was, at the date of its 
organization, a part of Green township. A meeting of those in- 
terested was held at the school house near M. L. Smith's tavern-, 
then in Green township. May 21, 1859, for the purpose of select- 
ing a name for the new township and recommending a suitable 
person to be appointed trustee. Merrill Williams was president 
of the meeting, and Samuel B. Corbaley, secretary. The names 
of Argos, Richland and Noble were proposed for the new town- 
ship. Noble was withdrawn, and the vote resulted: Argos, 


thirteen; Richland, eight. For some reason not stated, the 
board of commissioners ordered the township to be called Wal- 
nut. The names of John A. Rhodes and Charles Brown were 
proposed for trustee. The vote resulted: Rhodes, eighteen; 
Brown, four. Merrill Williams, John A. Rhodes and Dr. N. E. 
Manville were appointed a committee to attend to the necessary- 
business before the board of commissioners. Immediately fol- 
lowing the organization of the township, the following petition 
was presented to the board: 

Whereas, The town plats of Fremont and Sydney lie very 
near each other; and 

Whereas, The postoffice of these two places is named Argos; 

Whereas, We, the undersigned citizens and petitioners, be- 
lieving that so many names are, and will continue to be, against 
the interest of citizens of said places, we, therefore, petition 
your honorable board to change the name of the above-named 
towns, and consolidate them into one name, namely, Argos, and 
thus, in dut}' bound, we will ever pray. John A. Rhodes, John 
Whitacre, M. E. Richards, J. G. Bryant, N. Siple, Thomas King, 
Joseph Rhodes, J. W. Harris, William Worthington, G. W. Gor- 
don, Martin Bucher, John Tribby, N. E. Manville, J. A. Haig, 
Joseph Litsinger, Joseph Finney, W. Nichols and J. J. Hough. 

The petition was granted, and the consolidated towns were 
ordered to be thereafter known as Argos. Argos was the name 
of a city in Greece, made famous in the Iliad of Homer. This 
ancient city, according to history, is long since in ruins. " Her 
thirty temples, her costly sepulchers, her gymnasiums, and her 
numerous and magnificent monuments and statues have disap- 
peared, and the only traces of her former greatness are some 
remains of her Cyclopean walls, and a ruined theater cut in the 
rock and of magnificent proportions. The modern Argos, built 
on the ruins of the ancient city, is nothing more than a strag- 
gling village. The plain of the ancient Argos is said to be one 
of the most beautiful to be found. On every side except toward 
the sea, it is bounded by mountains, and the contrast between 
these mountains and the plain and the sea is strikingly beauti- 
ful." The Argus spelled with a " u " was the name of a fabulous 
being of antiquity, said to have had a ^undred eyes, and placed 
by Juno to guard lo, and hence originated the term " argus- 

The town of Sidney, of which Argos is the successor, was 
laid out by John Pleak and M. L. Smith, January 8, 1851. It was 
named in honor of Sidney Williams, who settled there probably 
as early as 1835. Sidney was surveyed and platted by Amasa W. 
Reed, county surveyor, and contained sixty lots. 

Fremont, adjoining Sidney, was laid out by Joseph H.Rhodes, 


November 6, 1856, and contained twenty lots. It was named in 
honor of Col. John C. Fremont, who was on that day voted for 
as the republican candidate for president. 

Mastodon Relics. — In June, 1S74, Mr. Oscar L. Bland, while 
bathing in a pool in Deep creek, on the farm of his father, 
Alexander Bland, in the northeast corner of Walnut township, 
Marshall county, Ind., found a very large tooth, whose weight 
at that time, including the debris connected with it, was about 
eight pounds. Further search was made, and within a few feet 
another tooth, about the same size, was found. Further exam- 
ination of the banks of the stream was made, and, some 
200 feet farther up, several very fine specimens of the re- 
mains of what must have been a very large animal, were found. 
The "find" naturally created quite an excitement in the neigh- 
borhood, which extended all over the country, and many exag- 
gerated descriptions of the relics and the supposed size of the 
animal were made by newspaper correspondents and others. In 
December, 1874, a correspondent of the Warsaw Northern 
Indianian had the following in relation to it: 

" Mr. Alexander Bland has discovered on his farm near 
Bourbon a great number of large bones of an unknown animal, 
that, according to careful measurement, was certainly a huge old 
monster, the largest ever known. Several of the teeth are in a 
partial state of preservation, and weigh over eight pounds each, 
and several of the ribs are almost like the ribs of a mammoth 
man-of-war ship in size, the other bones being proportionately 
large. One of the officers of the Academy of Sciences of Chi- 
cago came here to investigate the remains, and pronounced the 
animal to have been over sixty feet tall and of proportionate 
length! The bones are to be carefully collected and sent to the 
Academy Museum in the city, as of rare value to antiquarians." 

Of course the above statement was exaggerated beyond all 
reason, as neither sacred nor profane history gives any account 
of any living thing one-fifth the height or length indicated. But 
it had the effect of calling the attention of the people to it, and 
hundreds have visited the residence of Mr. Bland and made an 
examination of the relics and locality where they were found, 
and numerous letters have been received making inquiry in 
regard to them. 

The specimens found consisted of two teeth almost exactly 
alike, each now weighing six pounds. They are eight inches 
long, seven inches high from point of root to upper surface, and 
four inches wide, and contain five divisions or separate grinders. 
The preservation is perfect, both as to the teeth and the enamel. 
The enamel is composed of a mixture of black, white and 
brownish gray. The third tooth is four and a half inches long, 
three and a half inches wide, three inches high, the roots having 


been broken off. Its weight is about two pounds. There are 
four sections of the vertebrce, all in a perfect state of preserva- 
tion. Their measurement is about thirteen inches across at 
bottom part, eight inches at upper part, two and a half inches 
thick, twelve inches from top to bottom, and weigh four and 
three-fourths pounds each. The section of the skull measures 
twenty-one inches in length by thirteen inches in width, is 
about one inch thick and has about loo brain cells. It is a 
grayish color, having much the appearance of the first coat of 
plaster on a building. One tusk was found in a splendid state of 
preservation. Since it came in contact with the air, portions of 
it have dissolved and fallen off. It was about nine feet long and 
about twenty inches in circumference where it joined the head. 
A section of the shoulder blade was' also found. It measures 
eight inches in thickness and fourteen inches in width, and weighs 
thirty-six pounds. The outer extremity has been broken off, so 
that it is impossible to say what its length originally was. Two 
ribs were also found, one of which measures two and three- 
fourths feet in length; the other, somewhat smaller. About one 
hundred pieces of various sizes were found, a description of 
which is impossible. The place where they were found is low, 
marshy ground, on the east bank of Deep creek. All the speci- 
mens, except two of the teeth, were found in a wet place, where 
a branch had run into the creek, and about four feet under 
gro^ind, near and under the roots of a beech tree four and a half 
feet in circumference. The earth under and surrounding the 
tree is made entirely of drift, and has undoubtedly accumulated 
and the tree has grown since the animal mired down and died. 
There is no doubt but the remains are those of a mastodon, 
probably about eleven feet high, seventeen feet long and about 
sixteen feet in circumference. They inhabited this country so 
long ago that the memory of man runneth not to the contrary — 
certainly long prior to the Christian era. 

The geological position of the remains of the mastodon has 
long been and still is a subject of dispute among geologists; in a 
few instances, they are said to have been found below the drift 
in the pliocene, and even in the miocene; but they have gener- 
ally been obtained, from the post-pliocene or alluvial formations^ 
at a depth of from five to ten feet in lacustrine deposits, bogs 
and beds of infusorial earth. Some have thought that the 
mastodons became extinct since the advent of man upon the 
earth, like the dinornis and the dodo; according to Lyell, the 
period of their destruction, though geologically modern, must 
have been many thousand years ago. The same causes prob- 
ably acted in their extinction as in the case of the fossil elephant — 
perhaps partly climatic changes, but more probably some great 
convulsion on the surface of the globe at an epoch anterior to 


man. According to Owen, the mastodons were elephants with 
molars less complex in structure and adapted for coarser veg- 
etable food, ranging in time from the miocene to the upper plio- 
cene, and in space, throughout the tropical and temperate 
latitudes. The transition from the mastodon to the elephant 
type of dentition is very gradual. 

Frcdericksburgh. — On the i6th day of April, )866, Fred'k 
Stair, as proprietor, filed a plat and the following description of 
" Fredericksburgh": 

" Frederick Stair, being desirous of laying out a town in 
Marshall county, Indiana, called ' Fredericksburgh,' has caused 
the same to be surveyed and platted, the same being situated in 
center part fractional southeast Or. Section 31, town 32, north, 
of Range 3 east, on the Indianapolis, Rochester & Chicago rail- 
road. Said town containing an 'area' of 1,008 feet, north and 
south, and 1,256 (feet) east and west, which is laid out 'in to' 
lots, depot grounds, streets and alleys. The lots are all regu- 
larly numbered from i to 72, inclusive. Each lot is 66 feet by 
150 feet, except the following, namely: 7, 8, 24, 25, 35, 36, 54, 55. 
61 and 62, which are made fractional by the angle of the depot 
grounds, which angle is at N 22" W. Said fractional lots have 
their front and width marked in red ink on the ' platt.' Said 
depot grounds are 150 feet in width. The streets are all 66 feet 
in width, except first street on the east side which is 33 feet. 
The alleys are all 20 feet, which will all appear and more killy 
show by reference to the plat hereto attached, which is platted 
on a scale of 100 feet to an inch," etc. (Signed) 

Fred'k Stair. 

On the 1 8th day of May, i86q, Andrew W. Calhoun and 
Regulus Tucker, laid out and caused to be platted an addition to 
Fredericksburgh, described as follows: 

" Calhoun & Tucker, being desirous of making an addition to 
the town of Fredericksburgh, have laid out and platted, immed- 
iately south and adjoining the original plat (as does appear of 
record) the following area of ground, viz.: Commencing at the 
s. w. corner of said town plat, of Fredericksburgh, running thence 
south 170 feet; east 990 feet, N. 170 feet, west to beginning, di- 
vided into lots, streets and alleys._ Lots numbering from 73 to 
Zl inclusive," etc. (Signed) 

Andrew VV. Calhoun, 
Regulus Tucker. 
The lots, streets and alleys are of the same dimensions as 
those of the original plat. Fredericksburgh, like many of the 
other small towns in the county that depended upon the lumber 
business for support, has seen its best days. It still has a general 
store, drug store, grain elevator, boarding house or hotel and a 
postoffice. It has a good farming district around it and will 


continue to be a good country trading place. The name of the 
postoffice is Walnut Station. 

Plymoutli was permanently established as the seat of justice 
of Marshall county on the 20th day of July, 1836, as set forth in 
the proceedings of the board of commissioners, which appear in 
full elsewhere. The court house, stipulated in the agreement 
between the proprietors and the board, was completed according 
to contract. Its dimensions were 20x30 feet, one story high, and 
was erected on lot No. 22. This building was used for the pur- 
poses for which it was intended until the county built the wooden 
court house which gave way, in 1871, to the magnificent building 
now adorning the public square. The old building was used as a 
carpenter-shop, cabinet-shop and other purposes, and was after- 
ward moved " down town," and later, on to the lot where the 
new engine house now stands, where it was used for a place of 
worship by the Presbyterian congregation. Still later it was con- 
verted into a dwelling and occupied as such until its purchase by 
Arthur L. Thomson, for the sum of $10, and by him removed to 
his premises, west of the court house, where it has been so com- 
pletely overhauled as to lose its identity. 

The contract for the building of the first court house erected 
by the county, was awarded to Levi C. Barber, May 8, 1840. As 
compensation for building the same, it was agreed by the board 
of commissioners that he should have all the lots donated by the 
proprietors of the town, unsold at the time the contract was made, 
except the lot on which the court house was to be built. He was 
also to receive a small amount of money and notes, except about 
$517 in notes in the hands of the county agent. 

From an estimate of the value of the lots at that time, it is 
thought the probable expense of building the court house was 
about $5,000. The lumber of which it was built was manufact- 
used at the saw-mill at Wolf Creek, five miles southwest of 
Plymouth. The old mill has long since gone to decay, and the 
frame-work only remains as a sort of historical landmark of the 
beginning of civilization fifty years ago. The rising generation 
and those who may come after them, will be interested in know- 
ing that the court house in question was the finest temple of jus- 
tice at that time in northern Indiana. Its dimensions were 
about 50x80 feet, two stories in height, with a cupola and wind- 
ing stairs to the top. Offices about 14x16 on the first floor 'were 
provided for the clerk, treasurer, auditor, recorder and surveyor. 
The second floor was used entirely for court purposes. This 
building was sold at auction in 1871, for $150, to A. C. Thompson, 
and by him transferred to M. W. Downey, who removed it to a 
vacant lot on the I., P. & C. R. R., west of the present school 
building, where it was converted into a stave and barrel factory. 
During a heavy thunder-storm one evening in July, 1S74, it was 


struck by lightning, caught fire, and in less than an hour was a 
mass of smoldering ruins. 

Marshall County Court House, iSSo. — If the public buildings of 
a county are in anywise an index of the enterprise and intelli- 
gence of its people, the county of Marshall may fairly claim a 
front rank for her citizens, for no other county in the state of the 
same population can boast of as fine and complete a court house 
as that belonging to Marshall county at the present time. 

It is an elegant brick and stone structure, complete in all its 
parts; with all the offices fire-proof, and the court room, halls, 
offices, jury and other rooms beautifully frescoed. The furniture, 
desks, counters, etc., were designed and finished by home work- 
men, and made in the most substantial manner from native ash 
and black walnut. All the rooms and offices are furnished in the 
most substantial manner. The judge's desk in the court room is 
pronounced by all who see it, as one of the finest, if not the very 
finest, in the state. 

The walls of the building are of great thickness and look won- 
derfully solid, the heavy rough ashlar of the foundation giving 
them the appearance of being built on a solid ledge of rocks. A 
visit to the basement stor3^ in which the foundation and division 
walls are plainly seen, will convince any one that " the building 
ought to stand a thousand years." Architect Randall, of Chi- 
cago, pronounced the brick work the " best public work of the 
kind he had ever seen." 

As far back as 1S65, the people of the county began to urge 
upon the county commissioners the necessit}^ of erecting a new 
court house, and at the June term, 1865, of commissioners' court 
a court house tax was levied, which levy was kept up until the 
building was finished. In 1869, Alexander C. Thompson, John C. 
Cushman and Albertus C. Capron were appointed a building 
committee, to procure plans and get in readiness to commence 
work. Mr. Thompson acted with the committee until after the 
adoption of the plans and specifications, but resigned at the Sep- 
tember term, 1S69, on account of a disagreement with the other 
members of the committee as to the manner of paying for said 
plans and specifications, and he donated his services as commit- 
teeman, up to the time of his resignation, and Johnson Brownlee 
was .appointed in his stead. The plans and specifications pre- 
pared by G. P. Randall, Esq., of Chicago, were adopted by the 
committee, and approved by Herman A. Ranck, Jonas Miller and 
Henry Crause, then constituting the board of commissioners, and 
the contract was let to Epperson & Favorite, of La Fayette, Ind., 
xmder whose direction the work was commenced in April, 1870, 
and from that time pushed vigorously forward. 

On the 25th of August, 1S70, the corner-stone of the build- 
ing was laid with appropriate and imposing ceremonies. The 


occasion was made one of general celebration by the people of 
the county, who gave a free basket dinner at Seminary Grove, 
near by, at which there were, to use the language of an enthusi- 
astic spectator, " miles of tables and acres of provisions." The 
corner-stone was laid under the immediate supervision of the 
Masonic fraternity, which was represented by a large number of 
lodges, headed by Martin H. Rice, grand master of the state. 
The Odd Fellows and other associations, fireman, town council, 
etc., were also in attendance. Hon. Andrew L. Osborn, who was 
then judge of the court, was selected as orator of the day, but 
owing to sickness was unable to attend. Hon Charles H. Reeve 
was then selected by the committee, and although he had but a 
short time to prepare himself, made oneof the finest efforts of his 

The following "done in vacation," appears on the order book 
of the circuit court: 

"Be it remembered, that, on the nth day of June, 1872, the 
records, books and papers of the several county offices were re- 
moved into the new court house just completed at a cost of 
$105,000. The officers of the county at this time are: Daniel 
Mc Donald, clerk; Hiram C. Burlingame, auditor; John Soice, 
treasurer; John W. Houghton, recorder; Daniel K. Harris, sher- 
iff; Morgan Johnson, surveyor; John Bauer, Jr., coroner; Hiram A. 
Ranch, Jonas Miller and Henry Krause, commissioners." 

Judge Thomas S. Stanfield, of South Bend, presided at the 
first term of court held in the new building, and Daniel K. Har- 
ris, sheriff, first opened court therein with the usual "Hear ye! 
hear ye! hear ye! the honorable Marshall circuit court is now in 
session, pursuant to adjournment, and all persons having busi- 
ness herein can now be heard." The clerk of the court spread 
upon the order book of said court the following entry: 

" Be it remembered that, at a term of the circuit court of 
Marshall county, state of Indiana, began and held at the new 
court house in Plymouth, Ind., on the first Monday of August, 
1S72, and on the first judicial day of said term, the same being 
August 5, 1872, there were present the Hon. Thomas S. Stanfield, 
judge of the ninth judicial circuit of said state, and ex-officio 
judge of the circuit court of Marshall county; William B. Hess, 
deputy prosecutor of the ninth district; the clerk, and Daniel K. 
Harris, sheriff of said county, and court opened in due form of 

This was August 5, 1872. The names of the Marshall county 
bar who were in attendance at the opening of said term were: 
Charles H. Reeve, James O. Parks, Horace Corbin, A. C. Cap- 
ron, M. A.O. Packard, D. E. Van Valkenburgh, John G.Osborne, 
Amasa lohnson, A. B. Capron, William B. Hess, John S. Bender, 
J. Darnell, S. D. Parks, Z. D. Boulton and R. D. Logan. 


The entire cost of the building, including furniture, heating 
apparatus, grading the square and superintendency, was $105,000; 
and the entire county indebtedness for the same was, at date of 
completion, only $50,000, for which bonds had been issued and 
sold at par, which, two years later, were fully paid. 

Although finished twenty years ago, the building in its new 
coat of paint and frescoing, appears as new and fresh as if 
completed yesterday. Its beauty and harmonious proportions 
strike even the most careless observer, and every day it "grows 
in grace" in the eyes of those who oftenest look upon it. 

First Ctmnty Jail. — The first county jail was built of hewn 
logs, and was completed August i, 1S38. From the plans and 
specifications it appears that the building was "to be 16x20, of 
white or burr oak timber, to be well hewed, and counter-hewn, 
twelve inches square; the foundations to be three sills, 12x20 
inches, let into the ground twelve inches; the lower floor to be 
laid with timbers hewn as above, twelve inches square, to be well 
laid and perfectly level; the walls of the first story to be made 
of timbers twelve inches square and hewed as above, to be built 
seven and a half feet high; then the second floor to be laid with 
timbers hewn as above, twelve inches square, to be laid in a com- 
plete, workman-like manner; the above-said wall to be raised 
with a half 'duff-tail,' so as to fit down close and tite! to be two 
windows, twelve inches square and eighteen inches long; the 
grates to be let in the centers of the timbers at equal distance; 
the said lower floor to be covered with inch boards, well seasoned 
and well matched, and spiked down with spikes two inches in 
length, and the spikes to be two feet apart one way and six inches 
the other; the said walls to be well lined with good white oak 
plank, well seasoned and matched together, two inches thick, 
spiked on with four inch spikes, twelve inches apart one wa}' and 
four inches the other, the whole building to be weather boarded 
with good half-inch boards; the door of entrance to be five feet 
high and two and a half wide; said door frame not less than two 
inches thick, to be made of good timber, well seasoned, and hung 
with good strong hinges in the upper story of the north side, 
near the east end; one trap door, made of good oak timber, five 
inches thick, two and a half feet square, to be hung with good 
iron hinges, made for the purpose; the said door to be let down 
even with the floor, in a place cut through the floor for the pur- 
pose, to rest on two iron bars, three feet long, one inch square, 
with a good and sufficient hasp and staple, lock and key, to be 
placed three feet from the wall of the west end." 

The contract for erecting this magnificent building was let, in 
1837, to Oliver Rose and James Currier, for the sum of $399. 
The building was completed according to contract, and many who 
read this will remember the trap-door aforesaid, through which 


prisoners were let down to the "bottomless pit" in the regions 
below. This structure was used until the completion of our pres 
ent (1879) old brick jail, which in time has given place to our 
elegant brick and stone jail, and sheriff's residence, completed as 
stated further on. 

Second County Jail. — The plans for the second county jail, 
which stood in the southwest corner of the public square, were 
drawn by William M. Dunham. The contract for its erection 
was let, through a mistake in reading the bids, in 1849, to A. M. 
La Peere, E. Compton and W. G. Norris. This was afterward 
corrected, and the contract let to Albert Bass for $2,380. The 
building was completed according to contract, and delivered over 
to the county June i, 185 1. The building proved to be a very 
poor one, and of late years it has been almost impossible to keep 
an expert thief from escaping through the tumble-down walls. 
Some five or six holes, or places where holes were made through 
the walls, could be seen on the east, north and west sides. Sev- 
eral years ago, one end was knocked down by a stroke of light- 
ning, but no serious damage resulted. It was recently demol- 
ished by Enoch Belangee. 

Third Jail. — In the early part of 1879 the board of commis- 
sioners resolved to build a new jail, secured plans and advertised 
for bids. The plans adopted were drawn by J. C. Johnson, of 
Fremont, Ohio, and the contract let to William H. Myers, Fort 
Wayne, for the sum of $16,970. The heating apparatus, furnish- 
ing, painting, fencing, etc., will probably bring the total cost to 

County Asylum. — The first county asylum property was pur- 
chased in 1849, of John Murphy, for the sum of $1,671.11. It 
was situated on the Plymouth and La Porte road, about three 
miles west of Plymouth. For some cause which does not appear 
of record, it was ordered sold June 19, 1853, for not less than 
$1,350, and the auditor was authorized to sell to Joseph Evans 
for $900 in Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad stock, and $450 in 
two equal annual payments. The record of its sale does not ap- 
pear, but the offer of Mr. Evans was probably accepted, as he 
afterward owned the property. The present " Poor Farm " is 
located about one mile from Tyner City. The building is of 
wood, 34x36, two stories, and was erected in 1862. William B. 
Kyle is the present superintendent. 

The poor of Marshall county are humanely but economically 
cared for. The county asylum or poor house, and the poor farm, 
are not what they should be, for a county like ours. The build- 
ing is a wooden one, is old and has not the accommodations and 
modern conveniences it should have, and the farm is not near 
enough to the county seat and railroad center of the county, and 
it is only a question of time when a new farm will be bought and 


a new building of modern style and improvements built, that will 
be a credit to the county, but, considering the present building 
and surroundings, the poor of no county in the state are better 
cared for than ours. 

Within the last two years, the orphans' home has been abol- 
ished and the children are being kept and homes found for them 
by the Northern Indiana Orphans' Home at Mishawaka, at a 
saving of from $1,200 to $1,500 per annum to the tax payers of 
the county, and the children are all being placed in good homes 
and becoming the heirs of well-to-do and respectable citizens, 
instead of being raised and finally turned out upon the world 
ignorant, vicious and worthless paupers. 

y^ii/g-cs, Circuit Court. — Samuel C. Sample, October 25, 1836, 
to October 16, 1S43; John B. Niles, October 16, 1843, to April, 
1844; Ebenezer M. Chamberlain, April, 1844, to May 15, 1852; 
Thomas S. .Stanfield, May 15, 1852, to February 8, 1858; An- 
drew L. Osborn, Februarys, 1858, to February 6, 1871; Thomas S. 
Stanfield, February 6, 1871, to April 23, 1873; Elisha V. Long, 
April 28, 1873, to January 28, 1875; Horace Corbin, January 28, 
1875, to December 18, 1876; Sidney Keith, December 18, 1876, to 
December 18, 1882; Jacob S. Slick, December 18, 1882, to Febru- 
ary 3, 1SS3; William B. Hess, February 5, 1883, to November 14, 
1884; Isaiah Conner, November 14, 1884, to November 14, 1890; 

Common Picas Judges. — Elisha Egbert, October 26, 1852, died 
November, 1S71; Edward J. Wood, November 13, 1843, to No- 
vember 4, 1872; Daniel Noyes, November 4, 1872, to March 
6, 1873. 

Associate Judges. — Peter Schroeder, October 26, 1S36, to Octo- 
ber 16, 1843; Sidney Williams, October 25, 1836, to October 16, 
1843; Samuel D. Taber, October 16, 1843,10 October 28, 1851; 
David Steel, October 16, 1843, to April 19, 1850; Elias Jacoby, 
April 19, 1850, to October 28, 1851. 

Probate Judges. — Grove Pomeroy, November 14, 1836, to No- 
vember 13, 1843; Austin Fuller, November 13, 1843, to Novem- 
ber 18, 1850; James A. Corse, November 18, 1850, to October 26, 

State Senators. — 1835, David H. Colerick, from the counties of 
Allen, Wabash, Huntington, Elkhart, La Grange, St. Joseph and 
the territory thereto attached; 1836, J. A. Liston, St. Joseph, Mar- 
shall, Kosciusko and Stark; 1837-39, Thomas D. Baird, St. Joseph, 
Marshall, Kosciusko and Stark; 1842-44, John D. Defrees, St. 
Joseph, Marshall and Fulton; 1S45-47, William G. Pomeroy, St. 
Joseph, Marshall and F'ulton; 1849-50, Norman Eddy, St. Joseph, 
Marshall and Fulton; 1853, Augustus P. Richardson, St. Joseph, 
Marshall and Fulton; 1855, A. P. Richardson, St. Joseph, Marshall 
and Fulton; 1857, Hugh Miller, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1858, Rufus Brown, St. Joseph, Marshall and F'ulton; 1861, John F. 


Miller. St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton; 1863-65, Horace Cor- 
bin, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton; 1867-69, John Reynolds, St. 
Joseph, Marshall and Fulton; 1867-72, Lucius Hubbard, St. Jo- 
seph, Marshall and Fulton; 1873-75, Milo R. Smith, Marshall, 
Fulton and Pulaski; 1876-80, Charles H. Reeve, Marshall, Fulton 
and Pulaski; 1880-84, William H.Davidson, Marshall and Fulton; 
1884-88, Valentine Zimmerman; 1888-92, P. O. Jones. 

Representatives. — 1836-37, Joel Long, Marshall and Kosciusko; 
1839, Amzi L. Wheeler, Marshall, Kosciusko and Stark; 1840, 
Peter L. Runyan, Marshall, Kosciusko and Stark; 1841, William 
Rannels, Marshall and Fulton; 1842, Amzi L.Wheeler, Marshall 
and Fulton; 1843, Joseph Robbins, Marshall and Fulton; 1844, 
William G. Pomeroy, Marshall and Fulton; 1845, Anthony F. 
Smith, Marshall and Fulton; 1846, James O. Parks, Marshall, 
Fulton and Stark; 1S47, John B. Shryock, Marshall, P^ulton and 
Stark; 1S48, Enos S. Tuttle, Marshall and Fulton; 1S49, Hugh 
Miller, Marshall and Fulton; 1850, William M. Patterson, Mar- 
shall and Fulton; 1852, Thomas Sumner, Marshall and Stark; 
1853, Eli Brown, Marshall and Stark; 1855, Amzi L. Wheeler, 
Marshall and Stark; 1857, Eli Brown, Marshall and Stark; 1S59, 
James O. Parks, Marshall and Stark; 1861, Marcus A. O. Pack- 
ard, Marshall and Stark; 1863, M. A. O. Packard, Marshall and 
Stark; 1865, Lloyd Glazerbrook, Marshall and Stark; 1867, D.E. 
Van Valkenburg, Marshall and Stark; 1S69, Amasa Johnson, 
joint representative of St. Joseph and Marshall; 1S69, Daniel 
McDonald, Marshall; 1871, Milton M. Galentine, Marshall; 1873, 
Reason B. Eaton, Marshall; 1875, Designy A. Snyder, Marshall, 
1877, Joseph W. Davis, Marshall;^ 1877, John W. Houghton, Mar- 
shall and St. Joseph; 1879, James M. Confer, Marshall; iSSo, 
Thomas Sumner, Marshall; 1882-84, William Shaw; 1884-88, 
Charles Kellison; 1888-90, Dr. Jac. W. Eidson. 

County Clerks. — Jeremiah Muncy, May 22, 1836, to Feb- 
ruary 23, 1839; William G. Pomeroy, February 23, 1839, to 
April 17, 1843; Oscar F. Norton, April 17, 1843, to February 10, 
1844; William G. Pomeroy, February 10, 1844, to March, 1844; 
Isaac How, March 14, 1844, to January 7, 184S; Charles Palmer, 
January 6, 1848, to January 7, 184S; Rufus Hewitt, January 8, 
1848, to March 29, 1849; James Buffum, March 29, 1S49, to Sep- 
tember 4, 1S49; Richard Corbaley, September 4, 1849, to April 30, 
1855; Newton R. Packard, November i, 1855, to November i, 
1859; Hezekiah Pershing, November i, 1859, to November i, 
1863; John C. Cushman, November i, 1863, to November i, 1871; 
Daniel McDonald, April 3, 1S71, to November i, 1879; Oliver P. 
Klinger, November i, 1S79, to November i, 1887; D. A. Snyder, 
November i, 1887, to November i, 1891. 

Auditors. — Jeremiah Muncy, May 2, 1836, to February 23, 1839; 
William G. Pomeroy, February 23, 1839, to June 29, 1844; Will- 


iam M. Dunham, June 29, 1844, to March 4, 1850; Thomas Mc- 
Donald, March 4, 1850, to March 7, 1859; Austin Fuller, March 7, 
1859, to March 14, 1863; Alexander C. Thompson, March 14, 1863, 
to March 14, 1871; Hiram C. Burlingame, March 14, 1S71, to 
March 14, 1875; ^- C. Thompson, March 14, 1875, to 1879; Keim K. 
Brooke, March 14, 1879, to March 14, 18S3; Morgan Johnson, 
March 14, 18S3, to March 14, 1887; Charles H. Lehr, March 14, 
1887, to March 14, 1891. 

Trcasu7'ers. — John Houghton, May 3, 1836, to August 5, 1S50; 
Joseph Evans, August 5, 1850, to December 6, 1854; David Vin- 
nedge, December 5, 1854, to December 6, 1858; Nathan H. 
Oglesbee, December 6, 1858, to December 6, 1862; Daniel O. 
Ouivey, December 6, 1862, to August 12, 1867; Michael W. Dow- 
ney, August 12, 1867, to August 10, 1871; John Soice, August 10, 
1871, to August 10, 1875;. A. L. Thomson, August 10, 1875, to Au- 
gust ID, 1879; Frederick Tescher, August 10, 1879, to August 10, 
1883; John K. Lawrence, August 10, 1883, to August 10, 1887; 
Oliver G. Soice, August 10, 1887, to August 10, 1891. 

Slicriffs. — Adam Vinnedge, March 16, 1836, to August3i, 1836; 
Abner Caldwell, August 31, 1836, to August 17, 1838; Patrick 
Logan, August 17,. 1838, to August 17, 1842; Joseph Evans, Au- 
gust 20, 1842, to August 26, 1846; Jacob K. Hupp, August 26, 1846, 
to August 26, 1850; Seth Hussey, August 30, 1850, to February 25, 
1852; William C. Edwards, February 28, 1852, to November 10, 
1852; John L. Thompson, November 10, 1852, to May 5, 1856; 
J. F. Van Valkenburgh, May 25, 1856, to November 10, 1858; 
Obed M. Barnard, November 12, 1858, to November 12, 1862; 
Henry M. Logan, November 19, 1862, to November 12, 1863; 
David How, November 21, 1866, to November 19, 1870; Daniel K. 
Harris, November, 1870, to November 19, 1874; L. C. Fink, 
November 19, 1874, to November 19, 1878; John V. Astley, No- 
vember 19, 1878, to November 19, 1882; William B. Kyle, No- 
vember 19, 1882, to November 19,1886; John N.Wilson, Novem- 
ber 19, 1886, to November 19, 1890. 

Recorders. — Silas Morgan, April 29, 1836, to May i, 1837; Evan 
B. Hobson, August 15, 1837, to September 13, 1838; Isaac Crocker, 
September 13, 1838, to November 14, 1839; Gilson S. Cleveland, 
November 14, 1839, to August 21, 1854; Johnson Brownlee, Au- 
gust 21, 1854, to August 21, 1858; Thomas K. Houghton, Au- 
gust 21, 1858, to August 21, 1866; John W. Houghton, August 21, 
1866, to October 26, 1874; J. B. N. Klinger, October 26, 
1874, to October 26, 1878; John L. Place, October 26, 1878, to 
December 4, 1882; Theodore Cressner, December 4, 1882, to 
November 11, 1892. 

Coroners. — John Johnson, 1836; James Bannon, L. H.Andrews, 
John K. Brooke, VVilliam Bailey, James Logan, Isaac Shadle, 
Robert McFarlin, Lorenzo Matteson, Keim K. Brooke, Adam 


Vinnedge, Henry M. Logan, E. R. Shook, John Bauer, Jr., A. C. 
Hohzendorff, Dr. John H. Johnson, Dr. Jac. W. Eidson and Dr. 
J. J. Hamilton. 

Surveyors. — Daniel Roberts, November g, 1836, to , 1840; 

Grove Pomeroy, appointed 1S40, to , 1841; Henry B. Per- 
shing, November 9, 1841, to January 3, 1848; A. W. Reed, Jan- 
uary 3, 1848, to December, 1850; Jacob B. N.Klinger, December, 
1850, to November 29, 1854; Oliver W. Morris, November 29, 
1854, to November 16, 1856; Jacob B. N. Klinger, November 29, 
1856, to November 29, 1858; Oliver W. Morris, November 29, 
1858, to November 12, i860; J. S. Crampton, November 13, i860, 
to June — , 1861; Fred H. Hall, June 6, 1861, to November 12, 
1863; J. M. Klinger, November 12, 1863, to November 12, 1867; 
Martin H. Rice. November 12, 1867, to November 12, 1871; Mor- 
gan Johnson, April 17, 1872, to November 12, 1872; J. M. Klinger, 
November 12, 1S72, to November 12, 1876; Achilles North, No- 
vember 12, 1876, to October 29, 1880; E. O. Boyce, October 29, 
1880, to October 10, 1881; Achilles North, October 11, 1881, to 
November 11, 18S4; Jerry M. Klinger, November 11, 1884, to 
November II, 1886; John C. Butler, November 11, 1886, to Novem- 
ber II, 1890. 

County Commissioners. — Robert Blair, May, 1836, to May, 1837; 
Abraham Johnson, May, 1836, to September, 1840; Charles Oster- 
haut. May, 1836, to July, 1S36; John Gibson, September, 1836, to 
September, 1839; Andrew Roberts, May, 1S37, to August, 1837; 
Ewell Kendall, August, 1S37, to March, 1838; Abel C. Hickman, 
May, 183S, to September, 183S; Thomas McDonald, November, 
1838, to September, 1840; James Nash, September, 1839, to Sep- 
tember, 1842; Joseph Evans, September, 1S40, to June, 1842; 
John B. Dickson, September, 1840, to August, 1841; Ira Allen, 
August, 1841, to December, 1844; Abraham Johnson, June, 1842, 
to September, 1842; Ransom Barber, September, 1842, to Sep- 
tember, 1851; George Metcalf, September, 1842, to September, 
1843; ChaVles Palmer, September, 1843, to December, 1845; 
Enos S. Tuttle, December, 1844, to September, 1847; Hiram A. 
Ranck, December, 1845, to March, 1847; Designey S. Conger, 
March, 1847, to September, 1S47; Hiram A. Ranck, September, 
1847, to December, 1849; Tyra Jones, September, 1847, to March, 
1851; Robert Schroeder, December, 1849, to December, 1851; 
Sanford Gordon, March, 1851, to June, 1857; David Van Vactor, 
September, 1851, to December, 1857; H. A. Ranck, December, 
1851, to March, 1853; Robert Johnson, March, 1853, to March, 
1855; Jacob Knoblock, March, 1855, to March, 1856; S. N. 
Champlin, March, 1856, to December, 1856; William Hughes, 
June, 1857, to December, 1S59; Robert S. Piper, December, 1857, 
to December, 1859; Moses Kej'ser, December, 1858, to December, 
1861; Isaac N. Morris, December, 1859, to December, 1862; J. L. 



Westervelt, December, 1S59, to September, i860; Elijah Boley, 
September, 1S60, to September, 1S63; Thomas Tyner, December, 
1S61, to March, 1865; John H. Voreis, December, 1S62, to June, 
iS63;_ Leonard Alleman, June, 1863, to December, 1S68; William 
Garrison, September, 1S63, to December, 1868; Hiram A. Ranck, 
March, 1S65, to December, 1S67; Jonas Miller, December, 1867, 
to September, 1877; Henry Krause, December, 1868, to Decem- 
ber, 1874; James Abrams, December, 1874, to December, 1883; 
H. Barnaby, September, 1875, to June, 18S0; William Sear, June, 
1880, to September, 1881; H. A. Ranck, June, 1877, to December, 
1879; Philip Dumph, December, 1879, to December, 18S2; Peter 
Holem, September, 1881, to September, 1SS7; Ferdinand Hearn, 
December, 1882, to December, 1885; Pulaski Wickizer, Decem- 
ber, 1883, to December, 1889; John P. Huff, December term, 
1885; G. M. Richardson, appointee, 1886; same short term, De- 
cember, 1886, to December, 1888; Milton Kleckner, September, 
1887, to October, 1889; Marion A. Bland, October, 1889, to Sep- 
tember, 1890; Benjamin Snyder, December, 1889, to 1892. 







Term of office. 

By whom elected. 


George Washington... 

Virginia . 



Two terms, 1789-97.. 

Whole people. 


John Adams 

Mass ... 



One term, 1798-01... 
Two terms, 1801-09.. 



Thomas Jefferson 





James Madison 

Virginia . 



Two terms, 1809-17.. 



Tames Monroe 

Virginia . 



Two terms, 1817-2?.. 

All parlies. 

John Q. Adams 

Mass ... 


1848! One term, 1S25-29... 

House of Rep. 


.Andrew Jackson 

Tenn ... 



Two terms, 1829-37.. 



Martin Van Buren.... 

N. Y ... 





William H. Harrison.. 

Ohio .... 



One month, 1841 


Virginia . 
Tenn ... 


3yrs. 11 mo., 1841-45 
One term, 1S45-49... 



James K. Polk - 



Zachary Taylor 




1 yr. 4mo., 1849-50.. 



Millard Fillmore 

N. Y... 



2 yrs. 8 mo., 1S50-53 . 



Franklin Pierce 

N. H.... 



One term, 1853-57... 



James Buchanan 




One term, 1857-bl... 



.-Abraham Lincoln 

Illinois .. 



One tenn, i mo., '61-65 



Andrew Johnson 

Ulysses S. Grant 

Tenn ... 

1 80S 


3yrs. 11 mo., 1865-69. 
Two terms, .869-77- 


Ohio .... 





Rutherford B. Hayes.. 

Ohio .... 



One term, 1877-81... 



James A. Garfield 

Ohio .... 

183 1 ! 

188 1 

Elected 1881 to 1885. 



Chester A. Arthur 

Vermont . 


1 88b 

One term, Sept.,'8l, to 
March, 18S5 



Grover Cleveland 



One term, 1S85-S9... 



Benjamin Harrison 



The entire presidential vote in the county, in 1840, was 304; 
1844,470; 1848,675; 1852,879; 1856, 1,965; i860, 2,724; 1864, 2,795; 
1868,4,302; 1872,3,759; 1876,5,020; 1880,5,360; 1884,5,491; 18S8, 




1840 — Van Buren D 

1840 — Harrison W 

1844— Polk D 

1844— Clay W 

1844 — Birney L 

1848— Cass 1 D 

1848— Taylor W 

1848— Van Buren F S 

1852— Pierce D 

1852— Scott W 

1852— Hale FS 

1856— Buchanan D 

1856 — Fremont R 

i860— Douglas D 

i860 — Lincoln R 

i860 — Breckinridge D 

i860— Bell U 

1864— McClellan D 

1864— Lincoln R 

1868— Seymour D 

1868— Grant 

1872— Greeley D 

1872 — Grant R 

1872^0'Connor D 

1876— Tilden D 

1876— Hayes R 

1876— Cooper G 

1880— Hancock D 

1880— Garfield R 

1880— Weaver G 

1884— Cleveland D 

1884— Blaine R 

1S84— Butler N 

1884— St. John P 

1888— Cleveland D 

1888— Harrison R 

1888— Streeter UL 

1888— Fisk P 


D., Democrat. R., Republican. L., Liberty. F. S., Free Soil. U., Constitutional Union. 
G., Greenback. U. L., Union I^bor. P., Prohibition. 

As is shown by the above table, the increase in the number of 
votes polled at each presidential election has been rapid and 
permanent. The decrease in the vote of 1S72 was occasioned by 
the dislike of the democracy to the nomination of Horace 
Greeley; 581 democrats, who voted at the October election, im- 
mediately preceding the presidential election, refused to go to the 
polls, and consequently did not vote at all. 




NEERS — THE "jumping shovel-plow" AND THE SURLY OX-TEAM 

'ARSHALL COUNTY, for agricultural purposes, 
is excelled by but few counties in the state, and 
her productiveness is being increased each year 
as the work of clearing up the higher, and the drain- 
age of the lower, lands progresses; and, consid- 
ering the many and radical changes that have been 
wrought in the pursuit of agriculture in our midst, 
since the organization of our county, which took place 
July 20, 1836, a brief contrast between the methods then and 
now employed in this most ancient, honorable and important vo- 
cation, might be interesting to the present and future readers of 
a work like this. 

In its natural state much the greater portion of our county 
was covered with a splendid growth of timber that had to be 
cleared away and destroyed before any crops could be raised, and 
this "clearing" process was one that put to the severest test the 
wind, muscle and perseverance of those engaged in it. To clear 
even one acre of land that had enough large trees on it to make 
from fifty to 100 saw-logs, and smaller timber and grubs in pro- 
portion, and make it ready for the jumping-shovel or the break- 
ing-plow, was no small undertaking, and one that most of the 
young men of to-day would shrink from in despair; but one by 
one the magnificent monarchs of the forest were felled, and one 
by one the acres were cleared by our fathers and grandfathers 
until they had made the large, beautiful and productive farms 
now owned and occupied by their not always appreciative pos- 
terity; for, those who were not residents of Marshall county from 
forty to fifty-five years ago, know but little of the hardships and 
privations of our pioneer settlers, to whom their latest gener- 
ations should never cease to accord greatest honor, praise and 


As indicated in the paragraph above, the first plowing of the 
newly cleared land was done with what was called a "jumping- 
shovel" plow, or the "breaking plow." The former was made 
and stocked after the plan of the single shovel plow of to-day, 
but was, of course, very much heavier and stronger. It had a 
strong, sharp " cutter," fastened firmly to the beam that came 
down just in front of the point of the shovel. To this was 
hitched oxen or a horse or horses — most always oxen (for in 
those days there were but few horses in the country) — and then 
the tussle began with the roots, stumps and stones, and if the 
plowman succeeded in stirring up enough loose earth to cover 
the seed corn or the potatoes to be planted, he declared himself 
the champion, although he may have come out of the contest 
with his "shins" skinned, his spine nearly disjointed and his 
arms almost torn from his shoulders. This was the plow used in 
the heavier timbered land for breaking the ground and tending 
the crops, but a large, heavy and stout hoe was used generally, 
to cut down and knock off the grubs and sprouts that grew lux- 
uriantly, and it was also indispensable in digging up enough of 
dirt to keep the crop in growing condition. 

The ground for wheat was plowed in the same manner as above 
described, and then thoroughly harrowed with an old-fashioned 
"A" harrow. The wheat was then sown broadcast, and as thor- 
oughly dragged in as possible, the farmer often using a "brush 
drag," consisting of a small tree top properly weighted down, to 
give the finishing touch to the sowing of the crop; but, after all 
this work and worry the "yield" was, for several years, as much, 
and often more than half weeds and sprouts.' The breaking 
plow was used in lands that had fewer stumps and trees. It was 
drawn by from seven to ten "yoke of oxen," and the team was 
driven by some agile and talented expert in the business, who 
had long sinewy arms hung on loose and powerful shoulders, 
and who was noted for "saying his prayers backward" when the 
plow got "stuck on a big grub." So well did the oxen get to un- 
derstand their driver that they appeared to guess to an inch the 
size of the grub they were stuck on by the language he used, 
and they put forth their strength and energy accordingly, having 
learned from experience that if they were found "shirking" 
they would be most severely punished. The ox that had earned 
the reputation of being a "skirk" was a most unfortunate and 
pitiable creature. 

The model breaking-team whip consisted of a growth of iron- 
wood or water-beech, twelve or thirteen feet long and tapering 
from but to tip very like a first-class fishing rod, and to the tip 
was neatly fastened a well proportioned buckskin lash about ten 
feet long with a "cracker" of the very best buckskin, about nine 
inches in length attached. They are a symmetrical and infatu- 
6— B. 


ating implement to those who have ever used them in their 
younger days, and in our mature or even declining years we often 
dream of them, but the memory of them is undoubtedly more 
pleasant to the driver than it is to the memory of the driven (if 
they have any memory) , more pleasant to him who handles the 
"stalk" than they who received the " lash." 

The breaking-plow was a ponderous implement, the mould- 
board being of cast-iron and the share and cutter or "colter" 
being of the best cast-steel and had to be kept as sharp as pos- 
sible to cut the roots and grubs they came in contact with. The 
plow turned a furrow of from twenty to twenty-four inches, 
owing to the size of the pattern, and was, including the beam 
and handles, from twelve to fifteen feet in length and weighed 
' from 400 to 600 pounds. A good one ran very level and steady, 
not requiring much effort on the part of the holder in smooth 
ground, but requiring the strength of a Hercules when in contact 
with large grubs, roots and stumps. There is probably not even 
the castings of one of these plows in the county at the date of 
writing this chapter, i8go, and there are but comparatively few 
citizens yet living who either " handled the whip" or " held the 
plow," in our pioneer days. 

We must not forget or omit to mention the old " bull plow" 
or wooden mould-board plow, as probably the most ancient type 
of plow used in this county, or in the state, either, so far as that 
is concerned. It had a beam and handles similar to our modern 
mould-board plow, but the shin or front piece was made of iron 
or steel and was fastened to the beam by a strong bolt with a nut 
on the top of the beam. The share was of steel and the black- 
smith had to often be consulted to keep it in proper condition. 
The mould-board was made of wood and its shape and efficiency 
in turning the ground " up-side-down" depended somewhat upon 
the fancy or genius of the maker, but more largely upon the 
frequent and vigorous use of the wooden paddle, that was always 
kept hanging by a string, on the plow handle, which paddle was 
used to free the mould-board when the plow gave positive indi- 
cations of "jumping the job." The plow, in design, was well 
enough, but the material out of which it was made and the way 
it was put together, made it a most bungling and inefficient im- 
plement, doing but little better work in the way of cultivating 
the soil than would have been attained by dragging a sharpened 
log or chunk of wood over the ground. The foregoing list com- 
prises nearly all the implements used for clearing the ground and 
putting in the crops in our county in its earlier days, except the 
all-important axe, upon which but little, if any, improvement has 
been made in the last half century. 

For many years after the organization of the county the small 
grain crops were cut with the old-fashioned sickle, the reapers 


each cutting their " land " through and then hanging their sickle 
over their shoulder they would turn and " bind back," thus put- 
ting, commonly, into the neatest of sheaves the swath of " land " 
they had just cut through. In those days there was scarcely a 
"harvest hand" but that had one or more scars on his left hand 
from wounds inflicted by the sickle, and it was not uncommon to 
see men with permanently crippled hands, some having even lost 
an entire finger or the thumb on the left hand. But this tedious 
and wicked little implement, in a few years after the organization 
and settlement of the county, gave way entirely to the " grain 
cradle," which was a vast improVement on the sickle, both for 
speed in cutting the grain and safety to the manipulator. The 
only advantage the sickle had over the cradle was that the 
reaper could pick the "wheat" out from among the " tares," 
weeds and sprouts, while the cradler had to cut everything before 
him, and the green weeds and leaves when bound in with the 
wheat made the sheaves very heavy and liable to mould. 

For as many as fifteen years after the first settlement of the 
county there was but little, if any, " tame " hay made, the farm- 
ers depending almost entirely, for "roughness" for their stock, 
upon marsh or wild hay and corn fodder, and when both these 
were e.xhausted the farmer, in the timbered portion of the county, 
resorted to the cutting of bass-wood trees, off of the buds and 
twigs of which, his cattle would often subsist for weeks in late 
winter and early spring, the cattle often being joined by the deer 
that were then more numerous than were the cattle in the county, 
and like the cattle they were almost and sometimes quite 
"starved to death" by the long and hard winters. One of the 
earlier recollections of the writer and compiler of this chapter, is 
seeing his father and older brother starting to the woods with 
their axes on their shoulders, calling the herd of almost starved 
cattle, which readily learned to follow without calling. 

The marsh haj^ was cut with the common scythe, upon which 
little changes (and surel}' none for the better), have been made 
since those days. The forks used in hay-making and for pitch- 
ing sheaves of grain and handling straw, were made commonly 
of an ash sapling of the proper crook or shape, and the prongs 
or tines were made by sawing into the stick lengthwise far 
enough to make the desired length of the tines and far enough 
apart to make the desired number. A band of iron was put 
around the stick to keep it from splitting, and then wedges were 
driven in to spread the tines which were then shaven down to 
the desired size and shape. On this implement some improve- 
ment has surely been made, as every farmer of the earlier days 
of the county will testify. 

About the year 1859 reapers and mowers were first intro- 
duced into the county, the old McCormick make being the first 


the writer remembers of seeing. Both as a reaper and mower it 
was a ponderous and heavy running machine as compared with 
the improved McCormick, and scores of other makes of machines 
now in use by our farmers, but it embodied the principle, and all 
new implements have been but inventions to lighten the machine 
and the draft; and, in this matter many makers have been most 
successful, and it is an exception to the rule now to see any well- 
to-do farmer who has not both a first-class reaper and mower, 
many of the reapers or harvesters being self-binders. In addi- 
tion to the mowers every well regulated farm is provided with 
hay-rakes and hay-forks all run or worked by horse-power, and, 
by using these improved implements, a farm hand can do as 
inuch in one day as he could in a week, before their invention. 

The first crops of small grain raised in Marshall county were 
threshed with the flail, an implement so simple and cheap in its 
•construction and cost that the young farmers of to-day would not, 
on inspection, take it to be a "threshing machine," but such it 
was and the most primitive, too, known to the historic period, so 
far as the writer knows. It consisted of a pole about as long and 
as large as the wooden pitch-fork handle, and had a club or chunk 
of wood somewhat thicker than the handle and about two feet 
Jong, tied with a strong and durable thong, to the pole or handle. 
It was run b}^ the " one-man power," and its use was a literal ful- 
fillment of the decree that " in the sweat of thy face shalt thou 
<eat bread." The sheaves of wheat were commonly thrown on a 
platform of fence rails raised slightly above the ground, and under 
the platform was drawn a strong linen sheet, such as were made 
by our mothers in those days, and after a certain amount o" 
wheat had been " thumped " out the rails were temporarily re 
moved and the cleaning process was begun. This was done by 
some one holding a portion of the threshed grain in a half bushel 
measure above another sheet prepared to receive it, as high as 
.possible, and to get the required fall the one holding the measure 
was usually elevated b}' standing on a chair or something higher. 
The grain was then gradually and slowly turned out of the meas- 
ure in order that the chaff might be blown away, while the grain 
fell straight down. The wind was " raised " by two of the strong- 
est muscled and best winded men engaged in the business, taking 
a strong sheet by the ends and swinging it in such a manner as 
to cause the strongest possible breeze or current of air where the 
wheat was being poured down. This operation was repeated 
until the crop was thought to be sufficiently cleaned for market 
or for the mill. Wheat in those days was worth forty cents in 
Michigan City — over forty miles from Plymouth — and the first 
breadstuff used by the earlier settlers was ground in Delphi, over 
sixty-five miles from our county seat. 

These statements are made to let the present farmers and citi- 




zens of the county know what the generation before them had to 
endure and perform for their children and their children's child- 
ren in order that they might finally enjoy all the blessings and 
conveniences of wealth and civilization. 

After there were a sufficient number of horses to be had in 
a neighborhood, wheat was "tramped out" by throwing the 
sheaves on an earthen or out-door floor, usually about forty feet 
in diameter, the floor being round, like a circus ring. The heads 
of the sheaves were all laid one way, so that the horses' feet, in 
turning to the left, came constantly in contact with the head of 
the sheaves, which were, of course, unbound before the horses 
were put on the floor. A small boy usually rode one horse and 
lead three, one at the side and two behind the one he rode, while 
an experienced man, with a pitch fork in hand, presided as " ring- 
master," in the center of the circle, making himself useful, as well 
as ornamental, by stirring the wheat and doing other things "too 
tedious to mention." 

The first real threshing machine that was introduced into the 
county, was what was called the "Traveling Threshing Machine."' 
It was mounted on four wheels, after the style of a common 
wagon, but the hind wheels were much larger and heavier, es- 
pecially the right one, was made heavy with a tire about ten 
inches wide and on the inner side of this tire was a lesser wheel 
that had cogs on it, which when thrown in "gear," or contact with 
the pinion that projects from the body of the machine, communi- 
cated the power to the thresher as it was being drawn about over 
the field, by from four to six horses. The " track " selected in a 
field was, as a matter of course, the most accessible to the wheat 
shocks, and on the most level and solid ground. The feeder 
stood in the front part of the machine and the sheaves were laid 
on a table to his right hand where the bands were cut. The 
greatest thing for the feeder was to feed according to the power 
at his command, and be careful and not "choke down," for this 
would necessitate a full stop of everything, and a general " clean- 
ing out " of the apparatus. The straw was carried out at the rear 
of the machine, and in large fields, would get so deep that the 
" track " would have to be changed, as the " power wheel " would 
slip or slide on the straw, and consequently the power or motion 
would cease. 

The sheaves were thrown on the front part of the machine, 
while in motion, by men, boys and sometimes women, stationed 
around the track. When the machine first started in a field it 
was easy enough to keep it supplied with wheat, but when it came 
to bringing it in from the " four corners " it was a different thing, 
and the men, women, children and teams all had to "get a hus- 
tle " on them, and the machine would often have to be stopped 
while the wheat would be brought nearer the track. To this, the 


horses never objected, as this manner of threshing was a real 
horse-kiUing process. 

The grain was carried down into a box between the hind 
wheels and on its way there it was subjected to a fanning mill 
process, which was a great improvement on the first manner 
heretofore described. The " grain box," as it was called, held 
eight bushels of wheat and whenever it was full the machine 
was stopped and the box emptied. The straw was commonly 
burnt off of the track to "get it out of the-way." Two hundred 
bushels was a good day's threshing and more than was com- 
monly done. The machine cost about $250. Like nearly all 
the implements so far described in this chapter, these old 
"traveling threshing machines" are extinct; but, if some specu- 
lative genius had one intact and would keep it properly 
"blanketed" and concealed and charge ten cents admission, he 
would have a " bigger " and better paying " show " than old 
"Jumbo " ever was. 

Next came the stationary thresher, which was only a " huller," 
as it had no separator nor vibrator, and the straw was taken from 
the " dump " of the machine by hand labor, and after the two 
men who did this work had been engaged in it for an hour their 
rnost intimate friends and acquaintances would not have recog- 
nized them after the most critical inspection, so dusted and 
smutted were they. 

In a few years these crude " huUers" were superseded by the 
" separator," whose inner gear had a vibrating motion, the under 
part of which was a screen work through which the grain passed 
after being separated from the straw, and then " down and out" 
of the machine after having also passed through the " cleaning" 
process of a "fanning mill" that constituted a portion of said 
inner gear of the machine. Here we will leave the threshers 
until later on in this chapter, when an attempt will be made to 
contrast the efficiency of the implements of the early days in 
Marshall county with those of to-day — the thc7i and 7iow of our 

In the sowing, harvesting and threshing of the smaller grains 
we have apparently lost sight of the planting, "tending" and 
gathering of the corn crop, but the writer could no more forget 
this staple product than he could one of his nearest friends in 
time of need, for on this he and his early associates in this 
county, subsisted mainly for many years. 

For this crop the ground was prepared much the same as for 
a wheat crop, and when too rough to be marked out by a shovel 
plow it was planted hy stakes, and when it was up, then the fight 
began and the strife was, which should have the supremacy, the 
weeds and sprouts or the corn, and as to how this contest came 
out, it depended upon the sand and brawn of the proprietor of 


the " ranch." Then game was plenty and those who liked 
hunting better than work, would often fool their time away in 
the crop season and then come and borrow or beg from their 
more industrious neighbors, before the winter was over. 

For several years after the first settlement of the county, each 
farmer " tended " his crop with his " best ox," the old heavy hoe 
ever being called into requisition to give the " finishing touch." 
The crop was gathered then as now by hand and the oxen, hitched 
to an old Pennsylvania wagon, were muzzled to keep them from 
foundering themselves and eating up the crop. The corn when 
gathered was commonly thrown into rail pens and sometimes in 
log cribs that were usually a part of a log barn. 

Corn-shellers were not used in this county until as late as 1855 
or 1S56, and in the olden time when we wanted to "go to mill," a 
large, strong quilt was commonly spread on the " puncheon " 
floor in front of the fire-place and the desired amount of corn 
was piled in the middle, and around this pile and just on the 
edge of the quilt, sat the members of the family shelling by 
hand until the whole grist was ready to be taken to the mill. 

For many years after the organization and settlement of the 
county, flax was raised in considerable quantities and manufac- 
tured into linen, out of which our shirts and trousers were made. 
The ground was prepared about the same as for oats, and the 
cleaner the field was of weeds and sprouts the better. The flax, 
when in condition, was pulled and taken care of until the proper 
time when it was spread on the ground to " rot" or bleach. It 
was then gathered up and while very dry, "broke " on a " break- 
ing horse " or "flax-break," which was a wooden bench about two 
and a half feet high with four sharp rails or slats set up edge- 
wise and about two and a half or three inches apart. Above 
these four were three like slats that were fastened in together 
and arranged to mash in between the lower rails. These last, or 
three slats, were so arranged that they were raised up and down 
with the right hand of the operator on the machine, who took 
large handfuls of the dry and bleached flax and placing it cross- 
wise on the brake would triphammer it until but little was left 
except the film that covered the original stem. In this condition 
the " broke flax" was taken and "scutched" over the end of a 
wide, thin and hard board with a " scutching knife," which was a 
wooden knife about thirty inches long and two and a half inches 
wide and made of the best of hard timber. By this operation 
the woody or chaff-like part of the stem was separated from the 
fiber of the plant. The flax was then drawn over and through a 
"hackle" or hatchel, which consisted of a board about eight by 
twenty inches in size, in the middle of which were arragned 
probably over 100 sharp steel teeth, about as long as a 
common ten-penny nail, but much more slender. Through this 


machine (if it deserves the cognomen) the hatcheled flax was drawn 
until the film or fiber was nearly as fine as silk. The tow that 
was hatcheled from the dressed flax was, a portion of it, spun into 
thread for "filling" in the coarser linen, and the flax proper was 
spun into finer thread for chain and for the filling also of the finer 
linens manufactured. The flax was spun on a little spinning 
wheel that was turned by a treadle, the operator sitting down 
and working the treadle with the foot. The flax was loosely 
looped around and on a "distaff" which was commonly made, in 
this county, of the center part or stem of a dog-wood bush, of one 
year's growth, which most always had four branches at equal dis- 
tance apart around the main stem of the bush. These branches 
were cut off at about ten inches in length and were all tied to- 
gether at the top around the main branch, and when this was cov- 
ered with the flax it looked very much like a hornet's nest. Enough 
of the lower part of the main branch was left to make a staff of, 
and that was fastened in the bench of the wheel, at a convenient 
height to be reached by the spinner. The "fliers" and the spool 
on which the thread was twisted and wound was run bj- two 
bands made of cord. On this kind of wheel was spun the thread 
out of which was made our " linen breeches " and shirts of half a 
century ago, the fabric being woven on an old hand loom which 
we will not attempt to describe here, nor will we attempt to de- 
scribe the "reeling" and "warping" of the thread, as it would 
be too tedious for this work, but we will simply say that the whole 
process was in keeping with that of the spinning. 

No one can fully comprehend or appreciate the changes made 
in the appearance of the count}-, nor the difference in the imple- 
ments used fifty 3-ears ago and now, unless he was one of the very 
earliest settlers of the county. Where dense forests then stood 
there is not even a stump to he seen now. Instead of the "jump- 
ing shovel " plow and the unwieldy " breaking plow," with the 
long line of oxen hitched to it, we have the neat chilled or cast- 
steel plow, or even the " riding plow," on which the farm hand 
can comfortably ride all the day instead of having his arms al- 
most torn from his shoulders and his legs almost broken with 
flying roots. Instead of the vexatious and unrul}' o.x team the 
farmer has his well bred and broke team of horses, using two or 
three of them as he may choose, to make the work easy and to 
plow the ground any desired depth. Instead of the old fashioned 
" A harrow," we have the efficient and neat " spring-tooth'' har- 
row that thoroughly stirs and levels the ground, preparing it as 
nicely as a garden for the sowing of the seed which is not done 
any more by hand, but by drills of various makes and designs, 
there being, however, but two kinds of drills so far as the princi- 
ple is concerned, the hose drills and the roller dill. Of those 
made on the former principle there are many makes, each maker 


claiming for liis implement superiority over anything of the kind 
ever manufactured. Of the "roller drills" the writer has never 
seen but one make. The superiority claimed for this drill is that 
the grain is deposited in thoroughly rolled or pulverized ground. 
Any of these machines are a vast improvement on the old way of 
swinging half a bushel of wheat, in a two bushel sack, over your 
shoulder and starting on an eighty rod " round " or " bout," sowing 
the seed broadcast as you went along, keeping your eye on the 
stake at the farther or opposite side of the field, for, if the sower 
got out of line the wheat field would be " spotted," some places 
the seed being too thick and others there being none; and the 
difference between tramping all day over the plowed ground 
with a heavy weight on your shoulders and riding as comfortably 
as if you were in a road sulky, is a consideration that is not for- 
gotten by those who have tried both methods of " sowing the 

The old fashioned sickle is entirely ignored and the grain- 
cradle is only used in more recently cleared ground where there 
are too many stumps to run a reaper with profit, and without 
danger of breaking it, but probably nine-tenths of the crops of 
the small grains in the county are now cut by self-binders, which 
relieves the farm laborer from the terribly hot, unpleasant and 
exhausting task of binding the harvest by hand; and, with the 
aid of one of these self-binders and team, two hands will cut and 
shock up as much grain in one day as they could put up in a 
whole week by the old methods. 

Now-a-days the crops of small grain are either " mowed away" 
in capacious barns or stacked in convenient position to be run 
through the separator, after the crop has " gone through with 
the sweat." These separators are in strange contrast with the 
" flail," the horse-tramping process, the old " traveling threshing 
machine" and the " huller," the last of which was run by "horse- 
power," and has been seen by most of the citizens of the county 
who are living to-day and who have paid any attention to agri- 
culture. The older threshers were hauled over the country and 
run by horse-power, but the separator of to-day is drawn over 
the country and run by a " traction engine" that under the hand 
of an intelligent engineer, travels over our thoroughfares haul- 
ing its burdens, pufiing, blowing and screaming, as if it were a 
real, live monster of the animal kingdom, who by some freak 
had resolved to donate his power to the good of the human 
kind, " so called." Had one of these engines, with the modern 
separator attached, dropped suddenly down among us, even 
thirty-five years ago, and been found on one of our highways 
wending its way to some large farm to do a job of threshing, the 
inhabitants hereabouts would have thought that either the mil- 
lennium, or his Satanic majesty, had come. Truly it has been 


vouchsafed to those who have lived the last fifty years, especially 
in our wild and rude but progressive country, to see more im- 
provements, more inventions and more discoveries, for the benefit 
of our kind, than has ever been made and recorded in any two 
centuries that have preceded us in the world's progress, and no 
other calling in life has received greater benefits from the invent- 
ive genius of our country than has the vocation of agriculture, 
for were it not for these labor saving and time-saving machines 
our farmers could neither sow, harvest or thresh the crops they 
now raise on their extensive farms. 

The ground for the corn crop is now plowed with the latest 
improved plow of a pattern that suits the fancy or prejudice of 
the respective farmer. It is dragged with the modern spring- 
tooth harrow, and in case the ground gets beaten down with 
heavy rains, it is livened up with the cultivator. It is then marked 
off one way with a " marker," and then planted with a corn- 
planter, by going crosswise over the furrows made by the marker. 
With one of these planters, two hands and a team can plant fif- 
teen acres in one day. This not only facilitates the operation of 
planting but puts the crop in in much better and more regular 
manner than when done by the old method of dropping by hand 
and covering with a hoe, and consequently the crop is much more 
easily tended than when the hills stand in an irregular or zig-zag 
shape in the rows. The crop is now commonly tended with a walk- 
ing or riding corn plow that plows both sides of the corn at the 
same time, instead of the old method of plowing one side of the 
row at a time with the single shovel plow, and later on Avith 
the double shovel. 

As stated previously in this chapter, corn is now gathered as 
it always has been, by hand, the farmers now using horse teams 
instead of oxen. The crop is now universally shelled with corn- 
shellers of various patterns, sizes and capacities and they are run 
by hand, horse and steam power, and the greater portion of the 
crop is shelled before it is taken to market now-a-days. 

The kinds of produce or crops raised in this county in the ear- 
lier days of its history and organization was corn, wheat, oats, 
rye, potatoes, beans, and a few other minor kinds of produce 
such as cabbage, turnips and rutabagas, which were used for cu- 
linary purposes and also for food for stock but not for market, 
for there was no market for them. These crops grow abundantly 

The corn crop would run from twenty-five to fifty bushels to 
the acre, owing to the condition and kind of ground, the manner 
of tending it and the favorableness of the season. The average 
on the wheat crop would be a difficult thing to even approximate, 
the farmer sometimes getting not much more than his "seed 
back," and again, on ground in good condition (for those days). 


and a favorable season, he would get from fifteen to eighteen 
bushels per acre. Oats has never been raised in the county for 
a paying crop, for our soil and the average seasons are not 
adapted to its culture, and some seasons it is almost an entire 
failure, and others the yield is from forty to fifty bushels per acre, 
but the latter turn out is very unusual and the season has to be 
extraordinary indeed. This crop was usually sowed to make 
feed for the horses after the corn crop of the previous season 
had been exhausted, and before the new crop came on, and the 
rule was to sow the ground to wheat in the fall. Rye was also 
raised almost entirely for feed and pasture and was scarcely ever 
threshed, being fed out in the sheaf, and as the writer never saw 
five acres of it threshed as far back as forty years ago from this 
date, iSgo, he could make no reliable estimate of the average 
crop in those days, but, like oats, it was not raised for market 
purposes until later years, and the average now is about fifteen 
bushels to the acre. Potatoes, years ago, gave not only a bigger 
yield but a better quality of the crop than is now raised. The 
seasons appeared to be more favorable to their growth, and the 
new sandy loam produced the soundest, sweetest and "mealiest" 
potatoes that were ever dug from the earth, and we will undoubt- 
edly never see their equal again raised in this or any other county 
or country. In those days there were no "potato bugs" to de- 
vour the vines as soon as they are out of the ground, nor grubs 
to bore, eat and destroy the roots as there is to-day, andtheidea 
of saturating the vines with a solution of poisonous Paris green, 
would have been entertained with "holy horror" by our fathers. 
Beans were little grown for market. The yield was good if the 
season was favorable, but the crop was often injured by rains 
between the time of "pulling" and threshing. The threshing 
was commonly done with the flail in the manner already de- 
scribed for threshing wheat. Never having seen nor heard of 
an acre of beans being raised and threshed in this county we 
would not attempt to make a reliable estimate of the crop. Our 
soil is commonly too rich to raise beans upon. 

Clover was not raised to any extent for many years after the 
settling and clearing up of a large portion of our county, in fact, 
not until the farmers began to discover that their land had been 
over-drawn upon by a bad rotation and rapid succession of crops 
and that it needed rest and recuperation. Since its general in- 
troduction, which was about thirty years ago, it has been largely 
and extensively grown for hay — its seed for market and as a 
restorer of the lost crop-giving properties of the over-run lands. 
Our farmers would not know how to get along now without this 
valuable crop and great fertilizer and invigorator. 

Timothy hay has been quite generally grown for over thirty 
years, and its acreage is being greatly increased yearly as our 


farmers are draining and reclaiming their low, rich lands that 
are admirablj' adapted to the growth of this, the best grass that 
grows, for hay. These rich lands often produce from two and a 
half to three tons of hay to the acre, and are the most valuable 
lands, when so reclaimed, that is owned by the farmers of the 
count}', as it produces most abundantly and will probably never 
need rest or enriching. 

As to the best methods of cultivating the leading grains and 
other products of the county the compiler of this chapter can- 
not do better for the farm readers of, and patrons of, this volume 
than to adopt and endorse the following address by John O. A. 
Seig, delivered before the state board of agriculture of the state 
of Indiana for the year 1888, as it contains many practical sug- 
gestions which if adopted and enlarged upon, as they will be by 
the intelligent farmer, will be of great benefit to the agricultural 
interests of the county. 

Under the caption of " How Can the Soil be Most Profitably 
Cultivated?" Mr. Seig says: 

" This is a question as old as agriculture itself. Men have 
been working at this problem ever since the creation of man, and 
yet they differ as much in opinion now as they did when Cain 
and Abel were the only leaders in agriculture. Then one 
thought the raising of cereals and fruit was the thing to do, the 
other thought stock-raising was best, hence they divided, and 
murder followed on account of jealousy and difference of opinion 
as to the best mode of farming. Now, if two men living in the 
same locality, with the same market, could not agree as to the 
best mode of farming, how can we expect the millions of farmers 
of to-day, living under such a variety of circumstances and in so 
many different localities to agree? This is a question every 
farmer in his own locality will have to determine for himself. 
But there are some general principles underlying this problem 
that hold good in ever}' locality, and unless some attention is 
given to these general features the farmer will in a few j-ears 
fail to farm profitably. One of the greatest of these general 
principles is the retention of the fertilit}' of the soil; this is the 
crowning idea of successful farming. The banker who is con- 
tinually drawing on his principal soon finds his doors closed; and 
if when he draws on his principal he puts it into merchandise or 
speculation he soon finds whatever he has left, if he has any- 
thing, transferred into other channels, and his bank a thing of 
the past. So it is with farming, it does not matter where situated 
or what is grown upon the farm, if by the mode pursued there is 
a constant drain upon the soil and nothing replaced, it is only a 
question of time, and usually a very short time, Avhen such a 
farmer will be farming without profit. Therefore the true idea 
is, as with the bank, to so manage as to keep the principal invio- 


late, and then If there is a surplus to put it where it will do the 
most good. Now how to do this is not a question that can be 
solved by the exercise of the muscle or manual labor; but it is a 
question for thought and deep consideration; for the man that 
fails to think in this day and age of the world, on the farm, is 
lost in the fog; his farm soon passes into other and more intelli- 
gent hands and he becomes a day laborer, and frequently an ob- 
ject of charity; for a man who has inherited a farm and fails is 
the most pitialale of .all failures, he being entirely unsuited for 
any of the other avocations of life. Therefore, this proposition in 
every locality holds good, that in order to farm profitably the fer- 
tility of the soil must be retained; even better, that it should be 
increased. To do this we will have to look elsewhere than to 
barn-yard manures, for no farmer can begin to make enough of 
this best of all fertilizers to supply the drain on his soil caused 
by the constant growing of crops. Farmers used to think that 
fallowing and cropping alternate years was the thing to do, but 
to-day all posted farmers know that if there never had been a 
fallow in the state of Indiana the farms would be more produc- 
tive, and that nothing so injures the soil as laying bare without 
any protection from the heat of the sun in the months of July 
and August. This being the case, there should be such a rota- 
tion of crops adopted as to insure shade and protection to the 
soil during the heated part of the season; say the following ro- 
tation: Clover — I begin with clover, because I think any rota- 
tion without clover a failure. I turn under in September or Oc- 
tober and plant to corn in spring. The reasons I would turn 
under in these months are: You put under plenty of seed for 
future seeding, and you also get rid of the cutworm in the spring, 
which is frequently worth a good deal in a single crop. Let 
your corn get pretty well matured. By this means you get much 
better corn and better fodder. Then cut it up. If your corn 
has been well cultivated, cut one way with a Stoddard's harrow, 
cross with a good steel-tooth harrow, then drill in one and one-half 
bushels of wheat, with 200 pounds of phosphate or bone meal — 
which ever does the best on your land — to the acre. By manag- 
ing this way you will find in the spring that you have a better 
stand of clover, and it will stand the summer drouth better than 
if seeded by hand in the spring, and without any extra expense. 
Mow or pasture first year. Better mow. Let grow second year 
and turn under as before for corn,^nd so on. The farmer that 
will follow up this plan will not only retain the fertility of his 
soil, but he will find that land that brought ten bushels of wheat 
and twenty bushels of corn to the acre will in a few years pro- 
duce thirty bushels of wheat and fifty bushels of corn to the 
acre. You also by this mode keep your land at good, profitable 
work, and not wasting its energies in the production of weeds, 


which are more injurious to the soil than the cultivatian and 
growing of crops. In planting and sowing it is very necessary to 
have and use the best and most vigorous seeds. No one has any 
idea how much is lost to the farmers each year by using imper- 
fect and weakly seed. It can only be guessed at by comparing it 
with the loss sustained by the breeding of poorly fed, feeble and 
ill-formed animals. Therefore, the second great principle in suc- 
cessful farming is to produce the best of its kind of everything 
you raise. If your farm is not rich enough in plant food to pro- 
duce the very best of grain or produce, feed it until it will pro- 
duce the best. It will not be money thrown away. It will be 
depositing it where cashiers can not run away with it, nor where 
you will have to take a mortgage to secure the payment of it, but 
it will be there subject to come forth at your intelligent command. 
"The soil, in order to respond profitably, must be thoroughly, 
systematically and economicall}' cultivated. A good warm mel- 
low seed bed is just as necessary as a fertile soil, for the remun- 
erative production of a crop. It never has, nor never will pay to 
plant seed among the clods to be starved in the start. For, like 
everything else, the young plant needs to be nursed and fed with 
the choicest of plant food when it is young. Therefore it is nec- 
essary to so pulverize the soil as to make it light and compact. 
Shut out the cold winds, for plants suffer more from cold feet 
than most any other one thing, and put in such a condition as to 
furnish plenty of food from the start. For plants, like animals, 
if well fed, suffer but little from the cold. Now how to do this, 
and do it economically, is that to which the average farmer gives 
too little attention. While his hands are busy, his mind is not 
working out the economic problem. He plows without thinking 
until the field is plowed. Then, when the hands are done, the 
mind says you must plant, but the soil has become so drj' and 
cloddy that there is not sufficient fine soil with which to cover the 
grain. Then the mind says to him, you must pulverize. He 
sends one hand with a team and roller; he goes with another 
team and harrow bumping and thumping all day over tne clods, 
and at night, all the way he can tell that he has been doing anything 
is by the jaded condition of his team and by the feeling that he 
has, tired and sore, that he has been stumbling over clods the 
livelong day to no purpose or advantage. Now, the mind should 
have worked in the first place as well as the hands. It should 
have told him that at night they should have rolled and harrowed 
all the soil that had been plowed during the day. To have man- 
aged economically he should had his harrow and roller in the 
field ready, the harrow hitched or fastened behind the roller. 
Then, at the proper time, he should have hitched both teams to 
the roller, mounted his hand and let him do the work of both, 
while he went and gave such attention to things about the house 


as they might need. To do all this successfully you must secure 
intelligent and interested assistance. The ordinary farm hand 
cares but little what the results from his labor amounts to. It is 
but little to him whether it is ten bushels of wheat or thirty bush- 
els per acre. If any difference he would rather see the ten, for 
then there would not be so much to handle and less labor to per- 
form. Then the question arises, what are we farmers to do ? 
Our boys are leaving us and we are getting old and unable to 
work, and we must have labor on the farm and consequently have 
to take such as we can get. I would suggest that the boys on the 
farm be taken into partnership; that they be made interested 
partners in all that is done or undertaken; that they be consulted 
in every matter of importance. Give their brains plenty of work 
to do. Show them that it requires more intelligence to farm suc- 
cessfully than it does for almost any other vocation. Help them 
to surround themselves with such labor-saving machinery as will 
develop brain as well as muscle. Give them to see that out of 
the soil, well managed, they can produce almost any living thing 
necessary for man's comfort. And above all, if your boy wants a 
dollar, don't have him come begging for it like a tramp or a pau- 
per. But what he needs, let him take, feeling that he is like the 
partner that he is or should be. In this way make him feel all 
the responsibility of the situation. For this is the crowning joy 
of a boy's life. They want to shoulder responsibility and know 
that somebody trusts them. 

"Then again the wife, the mother, the one above every other 
we can so illy afford to leave out of the partnership, is so gen- 
erally ignorant of what is going on on the farm. How often I 
have called at a farm house and asked what the man of the house 
was doing. The answer from the lady of the house would be: 
"Well, I don't know. He went off this morning and I have not 
seen him since. He hardly ever tells me where he is going or 
what he is doing." Shame on such a man. If you had taken as 
little interest in telling her what you was and what you intended 
doing when you were courting her you never would have won 
her. If it was necessary then to tell her all about yourself when 
you were two, how much more necessary and sensible it is after 
she becomes the mother of your children and is so interested in 
the success of your every undertaking that she should not only 
be made a confidant, but should be consulted in all matters per- 
taining to what you are, what you have and what you intend 
to do. 

" In conclusion, if you have so farmed as not only to retain, 
but to increase the fertility of the soil, have made good and in- 
telligent farmers of your boys, such as will be an honor to their 
profession and a comfort to their parents; if you have made the 
wife, the companion of your youth, your happy partner and con- 


fidant; if by your example you have been the means of improving 
the condition of farming in your community, you have not lived 
in vain, and your soil has been very profitalaly cultivated." 

Equally appropriate are the suggestions made by Hon. W. B. 
Seward, of Bloomington, Ind., in an address delivered before 
the Marion County Agricultural society, in i88S. Under the 
heading of " How to Secure Better Results in Farming," the 
Hon. Mr. Seward spoke as follows: 

" The topic for discussion is, ' How to Secure Better Results 
in Farming.' It would afford me pleasure to give you a com- 
plete and satisfactory answer to this great question, if I could. 
The question is such a large one, has a bearing in so many dif- 
ferent directions, that I could not hope in the short time I shall 
occupy, to follow all these various directions, even if I knew 
them, which I am certain I do not, so I feel at liberty to take any 
of the roads that seems to lead in the direction we wish to go, 
that happens to suit my fancy. 

" An old English cook book in giving direction how to cook 
a rabbit, started out by saying first procure the rabbit. Now my 
first and main receipt for how to secure better results in farming, 
is to first procure a farmer. The man or woman who succeeds 
in any business, must thoroughly understand that business, and 
be fully satisfied to follow it. If a man follows the plow only to 
get a little money so that he can move to town and set up a 
corner grocery, you may depend upon it that he will never be a 
successful farmer, for the reason that his heart is not in the busi- 
ness. He has other aims in life and will not give the devotion 
to the business necessary to success. The man who follows farm- 
ing, or any other business, and makes a success of it, must put 
his whole heart and soul in the business. There must be no 
reservation, mental or otherwise, that so soon as he accumulates 
a certain amount he will abandon farming for some other calling. 
He must be in love with his business and think only of how he 
can improve his mode of cultivation, and some day be the model 
farmer, owning the model farm in his neighborhood. It is a 
pride worthy of any man to strive to be a model farmer, owning 
a model farm. How many have we who are working with this 
end in view, and striving to dignify and honor the business of 

" It is an unfortunate fact that we have many unsuccessful 
farmers, as well as man}' unsuccessful men in all other avocations, 
and that the fault is oftener with the men than the business. It 
should be distinctly understood that it is not the business that 
makes the man, but the man that makes the business. This rule 
must never be lost sight of if we expect to succeed in any of our 
business efforts. Some persons will make a grand success where 
others under similar circumstances make an entire failure. Some 


years ago I knew a farmer who owned a good farm, which he 
received as a portion with his wife. He was raised on a farm, 
and had never attempted any other business. He had a ' hired' 
man working for $20 per month. Time wore on, and after some 
ten years, the hired man owned the farm, had money in bank, 
and the farmer owned nothing. In this case one had a capacity 
for business, the other had not, and so according to that invari- 
able and unchanging law that the fittest shall survive, the one 
without capacity had to give way. 

" Then, to succeed, we must first procure a farmer. He must 
be a real farmer, fully imbued with the dignity and nobility of 
the calling, and willing to endure the hardships incident to the 
business for the pleasure and profit it will bring him. When you 
have a man of this kind, he will make a success of the business, 
because it is his business and aim in life to make the business a 
success. He has gain and pride as an incentive to extra exer- 
tion. He wants to be the model farmer owning the model farm 
in his neighborhood, and I glory in his pride and spunk. It is a 
worthy pride, and if more farmers were filled chuck full of it, 
we would have a better supply of successful farmers. There are 
many who trj' the business of farming that fail even with their 
best efforts, but this is no fault of the business, it is for lack of 
capacity on the part of those making the trial. It is not every 
one that has the brains, industry and economy to make a suc- 
cessful farmer, yet this is no reason why the business may not be 
highly successful to those that have the capacity to manage it. 
Many will try in the future, as in the past, and fail, but we can 
shift this class off and let them become lawyers and politicians, 
and if they fail again, it is no harm to the country, as we don't 
depend upon them for anything, any way. But a failure in farm- 
ing, while but a small loss to each individual farmer, is a calamity 
to our country, and it is this broad, patriotic view that we should 
take of the subject. What it pays this man or that man as an 
individual to follow the business of farming is of little moment 
compared to the wholesale interest our country has in successful 
farming. Our nation's wealth and prosperity hinges so largely 
on successful farming, that vast sums of money are now being 
directed by our national as well as state governments for a more 
thorough education in the various branches of husbandry, and 
from this source must come in the near future, results that will 
prove the wisdom of devoting time and money from the public 
treasury for the promulgation of knowledge on a subject of such 
vital interest to us as a nation. But knowledge and education if 
not intelligently and industriously applied, is of no value. The 
measure of success or failure in any business, may be accurately 
determined by the amount of brains and industry used in con- 
ducting the business. This is a rule without an exception in 


every business, and to none does it apply with more force than 
to farming. The same care, devotion and economy, that makes 
a manufacturer succeed in business will make a farmer succeed 

" It was popularly supposed in times past by many, and by 
some at the present time, and perhaps not without a shade of 
truth behind it, that farmers are slow, plodding, ignorant beings, 
that consent to live for a time that they may bear the burdens of 
their betters, and then considerately die to make room for others 
of the same kind. We may have had too many of this kind of 
farmers in times past, but they are rapidly becoming things of 
the past. Universal education is producing a revolution in the 
ranks of this class where they exist, and is the lever that is ele- 
vating the farmer to a proper knowledge of the importance and 
dignity of his calling. On the floor above our heads are one 
hundred gentlemen, gathered from all parts of our state to legis- 
late for us. It is a fair average body of men, for legis- 
lators, and equal, perhaps, in point of education and intelli- 
gence to any legislature we ever had. The same week the 
legislature convened there was a meeting in this room of 
the delegate state board of agriculture, gentlemen gathered 
from all parts of our state as is the legislature. Each 
gathering consisted of about the same number of men. I took a 
look at both bodies of men, heard speeches from each, looked 
them all square in the face, and applied every rule of measure- 
ment within my knowledge to try to determine fairly and honestly 
as I would in awarding a premium, which was the most intelli- 
gent, best educated and progressive body of men, and I say to you 
frankly that I was unable to decide the matter. In no respect 
could I see that the legislature was superior to the body of men 
meeting in this room, that were selected almost wholly from farm- i 
ers. This is not an insidious comparison, and is only made to 
show the progress of education, and illustrate the fact that we 
now have farmers in all parts of our state capable of successfully 
managing a farm or a state legislature if need be, and in fact part 
of those making up the meeting in this room spoken of were 
members elect of the present legislature, and many others were 
ex-members. The delegate state board of agriculture is made 
up of representative farmers in their respective neighborhoods, 
and are enthusiastic enough and successful enough in the man- 
agement of their business to spare the time and the money to at- 
tend meetings like that one and this one to-day, with the hope of 
learning something that will help to secure better results in 

" It is by this class of men that we are to be taught how to se- 
cure better results in farming. They are all teachers as well as 
students, and all candidates for model farmers. Now, the model 


farmer is no more like the ignorant, plodding being that we heard 
of than is the poorest scrub cow to the finest specimen of blooded 
stock ever seen. One of the first and most important lessons 
learned by the model farmer is nature's law of compensation. 
He is too liberal in soul after he has become a model farmer to 
expect something for nothing. You will never hear him grumlD- 
ling at nature and claiming that we are all going to starve be- 
cause he can't count eggs by the dozen year in and year out from 
the same basket and never put any eggs in the basket. He rec- 
ognizes the fact that nature doesn't work this way, and that he is 
powerless to change nature's laws of compensation, and would 
certainly make a great botch of it even if he could; so he adapts 
himself and his business to these unchanging laws as he finds 
them. The model farmer does not expect to take tons of wheat, 
corn, haj', etc., from the field and pay that field nothing for it. 
He may have tried before he became a model farmer to work 
the field on credit, merely giving it a promise that if prices for 
its products are good and taxes not too high, that by and by he 
will pay something to the field that has been so liberal with him, 
but the field won't work this way, as it does not do a credit busi- 
ness. It pays promptly with double compound interest for all 
that is deposited with it, but the little it asks in return for all that 
it gives must be promptly paid. 

" Now, to sum the whole matter up as to how to secure better 
results in farming, I would sa}^ that we must have first-class, in- 
dustrious, economical, educated men in the business, the same as 
in any other business that succeeds. A man in becominga model 
farmer has mastered all the details of plowing, rotation of crops, 
use of fertilizers, under drainage and hundreds of other details 
that are useful." 

The following paper, read by the Hon. Robert Mitchell, of 
Princeton, Gibson county, before the agricultural society of this 
state for i8S8, may be read with interest and profit by the prac- 
tical farmer, the subject being: " Is there enough stock kept on 
the farms of Indiana to keep up the fertility of the soil?" 

" The question of fertility of the soil is one that needs careful 
consideration at the hands of the farmers of the state. The 
wealth of the coal fields of any state is estimated b}^ its output of 
coal in manufacturing cities. The wealth of such manufactories 
is measured by their output of manufactured articles. The agri- 
cultural wealth of a state is estimated by the output of wheat, 
corn, oats, pork, beef, wool, poultry, fruit and vegetables. Now, 
the question is, can Mother Earth continue on giving to the 
husbandman such lavish gifts without being reimbursed in a 
substantial way. So I come now to the subject, is there enough 
stock kept on the farms of our state to make manure sufficient 
to keep up the fertility of the soil? The answer to the question 


may be put down, No, not one-half ! Then, if there is not barn- 
yard manure enough, resort must be had to other ways of keep- 
ing up the fertility of the soil. Among the best and cheapest 
fertilizers for the farms, none is better than red clover. When 
clover seed is selling at $4.00 per bushel, it will cost fifty cents an 
acre to seed your wheat fields. A common practice with the 
best farmers of southern Indiana is to sow all the wheat fields to 
clover, and if the season is favorable to the growth of clover, by 
the time the fall plowing begins a rank growth of clover is ready 
to be turned under for fall seeding for wheat. The heavy growth 
of clover thus turned under each year for a few years will increase 
the fertility of the soil much cheaper and the benefits will be 
almost equal to a good spread of barn-yard manure. The next 
best way of keeping up the fertility of the soil is by a rotating 
system of crops, say corn after clover pasture, wheat after corn, 
and clover again after wheat. If this system of rotating crops 
is adopted by the farmer, his lands will improve in fertility. A 
third plan of keeping up the fertility of the soil is by the use of 
active fertilizers, such as lime, bone-dust, dried blood, and other 
chemical preparations. These active fertilizers are for the im- 
mediate wants and benefits of the crops thej' are sowed upon, 
and will give good crops, but as a rule do not contribute a last- 
ing benefit to the soil such as clover or barn-yard manure. Well 
do I recollect when a boy on my father's farm in Scotland, how 
he would make us hustle around and gather together all of the 
droppings of the stock about the barn-yard, and carefully pile it 
up for future use. The Scotch farmer looked upon the size of 
his manure pile with as much pleasure as a good bank account 
on the credit side of the ledger. I also recollect when I came to 
Indiana, thirty-seven years ago, and it amused me ver}' much to 
see the average Hoosier farmer at that time, when his horses 
could no longer get into the stables for the manure pile, go to 
work and tear down the old log stable and build anew, rather 
than clean the manure out of the stable. Quite a change, how- 
ever, is come about now in Indiana. The old log stable is re- 
placed by substantial barns, and the thrifty farmers can be seen 
at all seasons of the year, not only saving all the manure care- 
fully, produced on the farm, but at leisure times his teams are 
busy hauling all the manure he can get, for well he knows now 
that a liberal supply of good manure is the farmer's best friend." 
It is to be said, to the shame and disgrace of our count3\ that 
owing to bickerings, selfishness and jealousies, which never ought 
to exist in any community, that Marshall county now has no 
agricultural society. Concerning the defunct society of this 
county, the following, in quotation marks, is taken from the his- 
tory of Marshall county, written by Hon. Daniel McDonald, and 
is about all that can be said of it: " IMarshall Cmiiitv A^ricul- 


tural Society. — This society was organized in 1855, with James A. 
Corse, president; G. O. Pomeroy, treasurer; Samuel B. Corba- 
ley, secretary. It was organized under the law authorizing the 
formation of voluntary associations, and its permanent members 
were those who paid $3 or more. The first fair was held in the 
old court-house, the live stock being corraled in the court yard. 
It wasn't much of a fair, to be sure, but then it was creditable as 
a beginning, taking into consideration the fact that the society 
owned no property and had no money of consequence to pay 
premiums, and its officers totally inexperienced in the business. 
The condition of the society for the year ending 1856, was shown 
to be as follows: 

Cash on hand, last year $33.00 

Received for memberships 70.00 

Received from county treasurer 30.00 

Received for interest 2 . 60 

Total $135.60 

Paid fixtures 16.47 

Paid premiums 128.50 

Total $144.97 

" Deficit, $g. 37, which was made up by donations as follows: 
A. L. Wheeler, $3; D. S. Conger, $5; Joel Parker, $3; D. L. 
Gibson, $2; John Cleaveland, $1; A. G. Armstrong, $1 ; J. Brown- 
lee, $1; R. Hewitt, $1; J. B. Halsey, 50 cents; W. J. Hand, 36 
cents; G. O. Pomeroy, $5; total, $26.36, leaving a balance of 
$13.49 in the treasury. The officers for 1857 were then elected, 
as follows: D. S. Conger, president; J. B. Halsey, vice president; 
D. Vinnedge, treasurer; S. B. Corbaley, secretary; I. Mattingly 
and Thomas McDonald (editors of the Republican and Dc»iocrat) 
were constituted honorary members. Some time afterward the 
society purchased from David Vinnedge what is now known as 
the fair grounds, adjoining Plymouth on the north. The so- 
ciety labored faithfully for a period of fifteen years to build up 
first-class exhibitions, but met with indifferent success." 

About 1873, the society was organized on the joint-stock plan, 
purchased additional grounds, made a new time track and estab- 
lished the organization on a strictly business basis. There was 
some opposition to the plan of organization, but notwithstanding 
this, the second year the fair proved the most successful, finan- 
cially, of any previously held, and the society closed the year with 
the floating debt and premium list fully paid and some money in 
the treasury. A change of officers brought a change of manage- 
ment and the people failing to give it that support it deserved, 
the officers were unable to pay the interest on the mortgage of 


the grounds, held by the school fund of the state, and therefore 
the lands were forfeited and sold by the county auditor, to Will- 
iam Scofield and John Seltenright, the present owners. " These 
gentlemen held fairs on their own account in October, 1879 and 
iSSo. The exhibitions were about up to the average of those be- 
fore held, and the receipts fell a few dollars short of the expen- 
ditures on the first, and a few dollars more on the last." 

Since the last above given date, 1SS9, up to the writing of this 
i8qo, no fairs have been held by the owners of the grounds. The 
time track has been kept up by a number of horse-raisers and 
trainers in the city of Plymouth, and is now in better condition 
for speeding horses than ever before. The grove and grounds 
generally, are in good condition, and admirably adapted to the 
holding of agricultural and other fairs. These grounds would 
also make a splendid park for the city, and if bought by the 
county, as a county fair grounds, as provided by our statutes, or 
by the city as a park, the investment would prove to be a good 
and paying one in the near future, provided they can be obtained 
on reasonable terms, and it is generally understood that the pres- 
ent owners will sell very cheap if the grounds are to be used for 
either of the purposes above named. 

It does seem that our good citizens of both the county and 
the county seat, who are interested in the welfare and develop- 
ment of the whole county, and who have some pride as citizens 
of one of the very best agricultural counties in our state, and 
also residents of the finest located county seat almost anywhere 
to be found in the country, should come to some amicable under- 
standing and do that which would enhance the interests of all 
concerned and place our county where it deserves to be, so far as 
its fertility is concerned, among the first counties in Indiana. 
With the proper citizens, both in the country and the city, to take 
hold of the matter; men who would make reasonable concessions 
and agree to arrangements that would give every class of citizens 
a day on the programme, Marshall county could have one of the 
best agricultural societies in the state. 

The way matters now are, our county has no respectable 
showing in the agricultural reports of our state, while counties 
that are vastly inferior to ours in agricultural resources, have full 
and creditable reports concerning their crops, stock, etc. This 
is our own fault, sin and shame, and the citizens of Marshall 
county, alone, can right the wrong they are committing j^ear after 
year, against themselves and their best interests. 

These last paragraphs are written as a general protest against 
the present condition of affairs. 

The Bremen Ag'n'eiil/ural Soeiefy. — The Bremen Agricultural 
society was organized June 28, 1S89, under the statutes of the 
state, approved March 6, 1SS9. Its objects are the promotion of 



the agricultural and mechanical interests of Bremen and German 
townships. The first officers elected were as follows: Morgan D. 
Fink, president; John Huff, vice president; H. H. Miller, secre- 
tary; John R. Dietrich, treasurer. Directors: Jacob Carbiner, 
Jacob VoUmer, Jacob C. Kauffmann, E. J. Thompson, P. E. Diet- 
rich, A. H. Fries, and Samuel Leeper. 

Under the above management a fair was held during the fall 
of 1 889, which was an entire success, the receipts, entries and at- 
tendance being much greater than was anticipated by the most 
sanguine members and friends of the organization. The society 
owns real estate valued at $2,500, and the improvements on the 
grounds are estimated at fully $1,500. The future prospects of 
the society are very flattering and the intention of its founders 
is to make it one of the permanent institutions of the county. Its 
financial condition is sound, being entirely out of debt at the 
close of the society's first exhibition. 

The officers and directors elected for the second or present 
year are very nearlv the same as those who so successfully and 
satisfactorily managed the business of the society for the first 
year, being as follows: John Huff, president; John L. Wesler, 
vice president; H. H. Miller, secretary; John R. Dietrich, treas- 
urer. Directors: Jacob Carbiner, Jacob Vollmer, Jacob C. Kauff- 
mann, E. J. Thompson, P. E. Dietrich, E. H. Miller, James B. 

Pioneer Fainners Chcb. — The Pioneer Farmers' club was or- 
ganized in 1 87 1. The first officers were: W. H. Sparrow, presi- 
dent; Washington Iden, secretary; Aaron Armantrout, treasurer. 
It was organized on the basis of free exhibition of stock, machin- 
ery, agricultural products, etc. No money premiums were to be 
awarded, and no entrance or admission fees were to be charged. 
The first exhibition was considered a grand success — so much so 
that the association has continued to give exhibitions on the 
same general plan up to the present time. In 1873, the club 
unanimously passed the following resolution: 

Rcso/vee/, That the members of the Pioneer club stand 
pledged not to support any candidates for office who are not 
pledged against all railroad monopolies. 

The club has been holding annual fairs up to 1889, with but 
moderate success. The compiler of this chapter has been una- 
ble to get any reliable information from the parties concerned, 
as to what the financial condition of the club is. 

Maxiukuckec Agricidtural Association. — The farmers of Union 
pnd adjoining townships have organized themselves into an as- 
sociation for the furtherance of the interests of agricultural and 
social intercourse. The society was first mutually formed in 
1882, under the auspices of the grangers, and legally organized 
under the statutes of the state, in 1884. After organization the 


association leased four acres of ground from David R. Voreis for 
a term of six years. Their first exhibition was held in Mr. 
Voreis' barn, which was large enough to hold all their articles 
on exhibition, but the interest in the society has grown so that 
even the four acres was not large enough to accommodate the 
association and its patrons, and in the spring of the present year, 
1890, the society re-leased the four acres and had added to it 
eight more acres, the lease to run six years more. This shows 
the growth of the association and the high esteem it is held in 
by the surrounding community. 

The association has good buildings and improvements gener- 
ally, all of which are paid for, the society being entirely out of 
debt. The first officers were — President, John Lowry; vice 
president, Barnet Adamson; secretary, James L. Mosher; treas- 
urer, William Dinsmore. The present officers are — President, 
Martin Lowry; vice president, Eli Parker; secretary, Lewis C. 
Zechiel; treasurer, Jacob Zumbaugh. No games of any kind 
nor intoxicants are allowed on the grounds. The association 
has been agriculturally, socially and intellectually an entire 
success, so far. 







HAT now constitutes the city of Plymouth was laid 
off and platted as a town by John Sering, James 
Blair and William Polk, and filed for record in the 
recorder's office of St. Joseph county, on the 20th 
day of October, 1834, the records of what is now 
Marshall county being then kept at South Bend, 
which was the seat of justice of Saint Joseph county 
at that time, and as it is a matter of some import- 
ance, as a Starting point for a chapter on Plymouth, the " refer- 
ence" or description of the plat, together with the acknowledg- 
ments to the same, are copied in full, and are as follows: 

Reference. — (Plymouth is), surveyed at right angles with the 
Michigan road, which (runs) through the town of Plymouth 5^ W. 
variation 6° 10'. Platted by a scale of eight rods to an inch. Michi- 
gan street is 100 feet wide, each of the other streets are sixty-six 
feet wide, and the alleys twelve feet in width, all the lots except 
fractional ones, are eighty-eight feet in front, by 126 feet in 
length, containing one-fourth of an acre. The square marked 
" Court House Square," is donated by the proprietors for public 
buildings necessary for county purposes. Lot No. 131 on Plumb 
street is donated for a school-house. One acre and (a) half ad- 
joining Plumb street on the west is given for a county seminary, 
and one acre and (a) half adjoining Plumb street on the west is 
given for a public burying ground — end of lots numbered 49, 
50 and 51 and twenty feet off the east end of lots numbered 75, 76 
and 77, is added to the width of Center street for a market house. 

John Sering, ) 
October 12, 1S34. James Blair, \ Proprietors. 

William Polk, ) 
State of Indiana, ( 
St. Joseph County, \ 
Personally appeared before the undersigned, the recorder of 
said county, John Sering, one of the proprietors of the within 


town plat, and acknowledged the within to be his free act and 
deed for the uses and purposes expressed on its face. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal 
this nth day of October, 1834. 

Lathrop M. Taylor, 
State of Indiana, ( Recorder. [Seal] 

St. Joseph Count}'. ( 

Personally appeared before the undersigned, the recorder of 
said county, James Blair, one of the proprietors of the within 
town plat, and acknowledged the within instrument to be his free 
act and deed for the purposes and uses expressed on its face. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set vc\y hand this 13th 
day of October, 1834. * 

Lathrop M. Taylor, 
State of Indiana, \ Recorder. [Seal] 

St. Joseph County, f 

Personally appeared before the undersigned, recorder of said 
county, William Polk, one of the proprietors of the within town 
plat and acknowledged the within instrument to be his free act 
and deed for the uses and purposes expressed on the face of said 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal 
this 20th day of October, 1S34. 

Lathrop M. Taylor, 
State of Indiana, ( Recorder. [Seal] 

St. Joseph County, \ 

I, Lot Day, Jr., recorder of St. Joseph county, Indiana, do 
hereby certify the foregoing to be a full and complete copy of 
the record of the above plat, " Reference," and of the several ac- 
knowledgments of the proprietors, as found upon record in book 
" B"- between pages 134 and 135, which said records are legally 
in my possession and on file in my office in said county. 

Given under my hand and the seal of my office this 13th day 
of February, 1854. 

Lot Day, Jr., 

Recorder. [Seal] 

From the above it appears that the record of the platting, ac- 
knowledging and recording of the plat of Pl^-mouth, was not 
properly certified to for about twenty years after it was laid out, 
and eighteen years after the organization of Marshall county. 

The following are the names of the additions to Plymouth, 
but they are too numerous to describe in detail. Suffice it to say 
that the city, with all its additions, is about one and one-fourth 
miles square, the main or business portion of it being in the west 
half of section thirteen (13), Michigan road lands: 

Brownlee's addition, Brownlee's subdivision of out lot 5, 
Wheeler's addition, Brownlee's continued addition, Brownlee's 


subdivision of out lot ii8, Wlieeler's addition, Brownlee's sec- 
ond addition, Blain's addition. Brink's addition, Bailey and 
Wheeler's continued addition to Wheeler's addition, Becker's 
addition, Cobbell's addition, Cobbell's corrected and amended 
addition, out lots, Cougle's Independence, Cleaveland's ad- 
dition, Cressner's subdivision of out lots iiQ and 79 of Wheel- 
er's addition, East Plymouth, Ewing's addition, Ewing's, Geo. W., 
subdivision of out lot 2, Ewing's addition, Frank's subdivi- 
sion of northwest corner of out lot 61 of Cobbell's addition, 
Houghton's addition, Huggin's subdivision of out lots 11 and 16, 
Ewing's addition. Independence, Merrill's addition, Moore _& 
Westervelt's addition, McFarlin's subdivision of out lot 42, orig- 
inal plat, Nlles' addition, Niles' addition (2nd), Niles & Sering's 
partition, Osborne's subdivision of out lot 6, Wheeler's addition, 
Osborne's subdivision of out lots 34 and 35, Cobbell's addition, 
Rose's addition. Van Pelt's addition. Van Pelt & Place's addition, 
Wilson's addition. Work's (Elizabeth's) subdivision of out lots 
36, 37, and 60, of Cobbell's addition. Work's (Henry's) addition, 
subdivision of out lots 2,7 and 60 of Cobbell's addition, Wheeler's 
addition, Wheeler's continuation, Plymouth Improvement com- 
pany's addition, Speisshofer's subdivision of out lot 58, Cobbell's 
addition, and Corbin's continuation of Cougle's addition. 

In the winter or spring of 1835, Oliver Rose opened the first 
store in Plymouth. His store room was a log building which stood 
upon the lot now occupied by Charles Palmer and the law office 
of Charles H. Reeve, on La Porte street, between Michigan and 
Center streets. Mr. Rose also commenced farming operations 
on quite an extensive scale for those days, on what is known as 
the Goodsell place, just north of town. When he came to the 
county he was accompanied by our worthy and esteemed fellow- 
citizen, Gilson S. Cleaveland, who still abides with us. 

During the summer or fall of 1S35, Uri Metcalf and Milburn 
Cole became residents of Plymouth. The latter gentleman after- 
ward erected a saw-mill which stood a little to the north of the 
site now occupied by the Plymouth flouring mills. During the 
same 3'ear Judge Grove Pomeroy erected a frame building of 
respectable size, on the southwest corner of La Porte and Mich- 
igan streets, which was known at that time and for a number of 
years afterward as the " Plymouth Hotel." Mr. Pomeroy was the 
landlord and carried on an extensive business in entertaining 
travelers, as the general land sales, which commenced about this 
time, brought many persons into the county from different parts 
of the United States. This hotel was considered the half-way 
house for the stage line from Logansport, Ind., to Niles, Mich. 
Ten years later, after the opening of the Michigan road, the 
stage line through this place, from south to north, was considered 
one of the main thoroughfares of the state, and many who read 


this will remember how Old Jake Rhinehart, who is still living- 
in West township, would blow his tin horn, crack his whip, and 
come dashing into town on his four-horse rock-away coach. The 
whole town would be out to greet him and to see who the new 
arrivals were. A hack also made regular trips between 
Plymouth and La Porte, and both of these lines furnished the 
only means of transportation until the completion of the rail- 
roads, in 1857-58. 

Among those who were prominent citizens of Plymouth from 
1836 on, for many years, the writer calls to mind James Bannon, 
who kept a boot and shoe shop and the postoffice, in a small 
wooden building on the east side of Michigan street, on the space 
now occupied by H. Humrichhouser's brick building. He went 
to California during the gold excitement of 1S49, and if still liv- 
ing his whereabouts are unknown. John Cougle kept a saloon in 
an adjoining building, but later erected a large frame building 
on the corner north of Packard's new bank building, which he 
occupied as a dry goods and notion store until his death occurred, 
thirty or more years ago. He drank to excess, which perhaps 
was the cause of his taking off. He was strictly honest and 
straightforward in his business transactions, but entertained some 
very peculiar notions. Before his death he purchased a coffin 
and stored it in one of his rooms, so that it might be on hand 
when wanted. He owned a fine bass drum, and almost every 
pleasant evening gave an exhibition of his skill on that detest- 
able instrument, in front of his place of business. Later he was 
re-enforced by Lorenzo D. Matteson, with his snare drum. Mr. 
Matteson was an artist on his instrument, and the two made a 
full band, with some to spare. Robert Rusk, an eccentric genius, 
ran a tin shop on the east side of Michigan street. His estab- 
lishment was destroyed by the disastrous conflagration that 
occurred March 22, 1857. He died long ago. Joseph Griffith 
was another earl}' settler well known in his da}'. He was prose- 
cuting attorney at one time, also postmaster. He met death by 
the accidental discharge of his gun, while out hunting, more thaa 
a quarter of a century ago. Lie was always ready to offer him- 
self as a living sacrifice for the amusement of the people. At a 
circus once on a time, the clown was going to perform th^ diffi- 
cult act of balancing a chair containing a man in it, on his chin. 
Joseph offered himself as the victim. The clown turned the 
chair upside down, and Joseph inserted his legs between the 
rounds in good shape, and after being adjusted in front of the au- 
dience, the clown left him to his fate. The uproar was terrific, 
and became greater when the victim had to throw himself down 
on the ground, backward, to extricate himself. 

Some time during the year 1836, a store was opened by Hob- 
son & Gregory in a log building, on the grounds now occupied 


by the Centennial opera house. Mr. A. L. Wheeler settled n 
Plymouth in the fall of 1836, and immediately erected a large 
store building on lot No. i, which he filled with an extensive as- 
sortment of goods. A man by the name of Benjamin Kress was 
selling goods in the north part of town, near the court house 
square. Chester Rose and David Steel were also merchandising 
on a small scale. 

In 1838, five persons in Plymouth were engaged in the prac- 
tice of medicine, viz., Drs. Crum, Griffin, Alvord, Jones and 
Jeroloman. The latter, however, who was sent out as a physi- 
cian for the Indians, remained in the county but a short time. 
Dr. Crum had been practicing in the county for some time prior 
to this date. 

The summer and fall of 183S will long be remembered as the 
" sickly season," and these doctors, poor and inexperienced as 
they were in the practice, had more than they could properly 
attend to. The spring of that year was very wet, cold and back- 
ward. About the first of June, when th<= marshes were filled, the 
weather became dry and oppressively hot. Cases of sickness 
began to appear about the ist of July, and the number of these 
rapidly increased as the season advanced. Entire families were 
prostrated. Not more than one person out of fifty was perfectly 
well, and many suffered for want of proper attention. The most 
common disease was fever and ague, but other and more violent 
forms of fever and malarial diseases were also prevalent. Sev- 
eral of the early settlers died during this season, among whom 
were E. B. Hobson, Oliver Rose, Julius Hutchinson, Hugh Gal- 
braith, Simeon Taylor, Jacob Shoemaker, and many others. 
This sickness seriously retarded the growth of the town and 
count}' for many years. Many became discouraged, and left for 
other parts as soon as their health and circumstances would per- 
mit. But a great change has taken place since then, and no more 
healthy place can anywhere be found, thanks to drainage and 
driven wells. 

The legal fraternity began to be represented here in 1S38. 
William Lumis settled in Plymouth in that year, and engaged in 
the practice of law. Some two years afterward he was elected 
recorder, but died shortly after his election. In the fall of that 
year, R. L. Farnsworth opened a law office in Plymouth, where he 
followed his profession for something like a year. Subsequently 
he removed to South Bend. William G. Tevalt and Jonathans. 
Harvy, attorneys, came here not far from 1840, and practiced law 
for near two years. But space will not permit special mention of 
half the original geniuses that figured in Plymouth in an early 
day, and the writer hastens on to matter of more importance. 

Plymouth was organized under a charter granted by the legis- 
lature, under an act approved February 11, 1851. In 1S53, the 


population of Plymouth was 670. In the fire of 1857, all the 
books and records in relation to the corporate organization were 
destroyed, and therefore the particulars cannot be obtained. It 
seems, from the proceedings of the board of corporation trustees, 
held January 30, 1S55, that a proposition to surrender the charter 
had been presented. After considerable discussion, the follow- 
ing resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That surrendering the charter granted by the legis- 
lature of this state, on the nth of February, 1S51, incorporating 
the town of Plymouth, this corporation will and does hereby 
become incorporated under the general law of the state of Indi- 
ana, for the incorporation of towns, defining their powers, etc., 
approved June 11, 1S52, as provided by the fifty-sixth section of 
said act. 

Rufus Brown was president of the board at that time, and 
Miles W. Smith, clerk, both of whom are dead long since. 
April 7, 1857, the following resolution appears on record: 

Resolved, That, whereas, on the 22d day of March, 1857, the 
ofhce of A. C. Capron, the clerk of this corporation, was de- 
stroyed by fire, and all the books, records, tax duplicates, assess- 
ment rolls, maps, orders, vouchers, receipts, etc., of the corpora- 
tion were entirely destroyed, the clerk is ordered to replace the 
same as far as possible. 

At this meeting, Mark Cummings, teacher of the school, was 
ordered to be discharged after the loth of April, owing to the 
small number of pupils in attendance. 

The law creating incorporated towns was. loose and unsatis- 
factory in its workings, and the population of Plymouth being 
sufficient to organize under the city law, in April, 1873, ^ petition 
to the board of corporation trustees, requesting them to order 
an election of the voters of the town, for the purpose of taking 
the sense of the people as to the expediency of changing the 
government of the town from a corporation to a city, was cir- 
culated. The requisite names were procured and presented to 
the board, who ordered an election to be held on the 25th day of 
April, 1873. The election resulted nearl}' three to one in favor 
of "city." There were 327 votes cast, of which 244 were in favor 
of a city government, and 83 against it. The proper steps were 
then taken, and the old corporation was dissolved and the city 
government set in motion. In May, 1873, an election was held 
for city officers, in which politics was left out of the question, 
there being but one ticket voted for, which was composed of 
about an equal number of democrats and republicans, Horace 
Corbin having the honor of being the first mayor. The annual 
exhibit of the first year under the new arrangement proved to be 
entirely satisfactory. The old corporation was in debt about 
$1,000, with only $156 in the treasury to pay it with. The total 


receipts during the year ending May, 1874, were $10,579.22, of 
which about $2,000 were for fines and licenses. After paying all 
expenses incurred by reason of the new order of things, salary 
of mayor, two policemen, printing of ordinances, street work, 
$2,490.06, the redemption of about one-half of the outstanding 
orders, issued prior to the city organization, there remained in 
the hands of the treasurer $3,086.42. The financial condition of 
the city at that time was: total liabilities, $772.95; balance in 
treasury, $3,809.42; balance over liabilities, $2,936.47. 

During that time and since valuable and permanent improve- 
ments have been made equal to any city of its size in the state. 
Streets have been graded; an engine house, equal to any in 
northern Indiana, has been built at a cost of about $5,000, and a 
school-house, second to none in the state, has taken the place of 
the old seminary building. 

Fire Companies. — Protection hook and ladder company 
No I, was organized by the filing of its constitution in the clerk's 
office February 24, 1858, thirty-three years ago. The following 
were the original members as they appeared signed to the con- 
stitution: J. B. N.Klinger, D. McDonald, A. Vinnedge, Stephen A. 
Francis, H. B. Pershing, D. Lindsey, T. J. Patterson, R. M. Brown, 
J. E. Houghton, J. C. Leonard, L. D. Lamson, Julius Tacke, 
David How, E. R. Shook, H. Humrichouser, J. H. Beeber, N. B. 
Klinger, D. Vinnedge, Samuel Freese, J. S. Woodward, M. 
Becker, Adolph Meyers, H. M. Logan, W. W. Hill, William S. 
Vinnedge, Matt Boyd, John M. Shoemaker, George Anderson, 
Charles G. Tibbits,_John Noll, Henry Kuntz, Horatio B. Sellon, 
W. M. Kendall, Henry Botset, Christopher Seitel, Charles Ebal, 
J. Alexander M. La Pierre, H. Sluyter, G. H. Wilbur, Thomas K. 
Houghton, A. Johnson, John W. Patterson, Henry McFarlin, 
J. W. Houghton, Jerry Blain, D. B. Armstrong, J. L. Cleaveland, 
Joseph Lauer, Henry M. Hilligas, J. N. Freese, F. Mullen, D. R. 
Davidson, William Babington and Michael Stoll. The first offi- 
cers were J. B. N. Klinger, foreman; Stephen A. Francis, assist- 
ant foreman; William C. Shirley, treasurer; D. McDonald, 
secretary; E. R. Shook, steward. Although the company met 
with considerable opposition, as all new enterprises do, yet it has 
served and acted well its part when occasion required. 

Adriatic engine company was organized about December 8, 
1865. On January 3, 1866, a fire broke out on the west side of 
Michigan street, which consumed the whole block. The books 
and papers of the company were in the law office of Amasa John- 
son and were destroyed. Nothing in regard to its organization 
appears on the present record. Torrent hose company, in con- 
nection with the engine company, was organized December 8, 
1865. R. W. Comfort was the first foreman, and Sigmund Mayer, 
secretary. These three companies were organized into what is 


called a fire department, under the direction and control of the 
city council. 

City Hall. — The city hall and engine house was completed 
in the fall of 1875, by R. McCance and W. P. Beaton, contract- 
ors, at a cost of $4,200. The construction of the building was 
under the immediate supervision of Alfred Morrison, Piatt 
McDonald and W. D. Thompson, at that time members of the 
cit}^ council. The building is thirty-four feet wide by fifty feet in 
length; the walls are thirty-live feet high, eighteen inches thick 
to the second story, and twelve inches from there to the top. The 
tower is nine feet square and fifty-nine feet high. The first story 
is in one large room, in which are kept the implements of the 
fire department, consisting of one hand engine, hose cart, hook 
and ladder, etc. The upper story is divided into two rooms, one 
for the fire department and one for council's chamber and May- 
or's office. The building is large enough for the use of the city 
for many ^-ears to come. The building is the best of its kind in 
northern Indiana, and is one of which the citizens of Plymouth 
are justly proud. 

Fires. — Plymouth has had its full quota of fires since its or- 
ganization. The most destructive conflagration of record oc- 
curred on Sunday morning, March 22, 1857. The fire was first 
discovered in the rear of the building, occupied and formerly 
owned b}' Robert Rusk, on the east side of Michigan street, on 
the lot now occupied by Nussbaum & Mayer. The alarm was 
sounded about i o'clock in the morning. The buildings were all 
of wood, and there being no fire department In those days, and 
not even so much as a "bucket brigade," the citizens betook 
themselves to removing the contents into the street, knowing that 
any effort they might make to save the buildings would prove 
entirel}' fruitless. The intense heat occasioned by the burning 
of an entire block of buildings, aided by a brisk northeast wind, 
carried the fire to the west side of the street, and the goods in 
the street and the entire block on the west side of Michigan 
street, with the exception of Mr. Corbin's residence, on the north 
part of the block, was entirely consumed. The loss in property 
and business was immense and was variously estimated at from 
$75,000 to $125,000. Fully four-fifths of the business establish- 
ments were destroyed, upon which was an insurance of but $5,000. 
A careful estimate of the actual cash losses at the time footed 
up $62,050. 

Another disastrous fire occurred January 3, 1866, consuming 
the entire block on the west side of Michigan street, between 
La Porte and Garro streets, and resulting in losses amounting to 
from $50,000 to $75,000, with but little insurance. 

August I, 1872, Hoham's block, containing eleven business 
rooms, situated on what is known as the bank lot on the river, 


fronting on La Porte street, was entirely consumed by fire. The 
entire row of buildings was owned by John Hoham, who sustained 
a loss of about $12,000. The total loss sustained by the business 
men occupying the rooms was about $32,000, on which there was 
an insurance of only $3,000. The sufferers were J. C. Kern, 
O. H. P. Bailey, John Gartner, Dr. J. J. Vinall, Nicoles & Maxey, 
Col. Poe, A. O. Shultz, P. Stegman, C. Bergmann, B. Nussbaum, 
J. W. Cleaveland, Wilcox & Leonard, M. Ruge & Co. With 
characteristic energy, Mr. Hoham at once commenced cleaning 
away the rubbish, and now fine brick buildings have taken the 
place of the old wooden structures. 

Plymouth Postofficc. — The postoffice is the most important 
branch of the public service, and is entitled to a passing notice 
in this connection. It ought to be an easy matter to sketch its 
history, as a record is made of all matters connected with it, but 
like everything else, the attempt to arrive at anything tangible 
from the early records, has been an entire failure. From those 
who ought to know, however, the following facts are gleaned, 
from 1S35 up to the present time: 

William G. Pomeroy was postmaster from 1835 to 1837, under 
Andrew Jackson. Mr. Pomeroy was a whig. Amzi L. Wheeler 
settled in Plymouth in December, 1836, and being a democrat, 
and believing that " to the victors belong the spoils," relieved Mr. 
Pomeroy, under Martin Van Buren, from 1837 to 1841. In 1840, 
Harrison was elected, and Mr. Pomeroy again took the office 
from 1841 to 1845. James K. Polk was elected in 1844, and James 
Bannon took charge of the postoffice as a democrat. Under 
Taylor, in 1849, Joseph Griffiths served until some time in 1850, 
when he accidentally shot himself, from the effects of which he 
died. Levi C. Barber was then appointed to fill the vacancy. 
Taylor died July 9, 1850, and Mr. Barber served out the remain- 
der of the term under Fillmore. The administration changed 
again upon the election of Franklin Pierce, and D. McDonald 
was appointed, and relieved Mr. Barber in the spring of 1853. 
He held the office a portion of the term and resigned, when 
John K. Brooke was appointed to fill the vacancy. On the in- 
auguration of James Buchanan, James F. Van Valkenburgh was 
appointed. William C. Edwards also served a portion of the 
time under Buchanan. President Lincoln appointed O. H. P. 
Bailey, who assumed control of the office in 1S61, and served un- 
til the death of Lincoln, in 1865, when President Johnson relieved 
him and appointed Gideon Blain. Mr. Blain served but a short 
time when Mr. Bailey was again re-appointed and served until 
the election of President Grant. John M. Moore then received 
the appointment, but was taken sick and died before he assumed 
the duties of the office. William M. Kendall was then appointed 
and served out Grant's first term, was continued under his second 
8— B. 


and served out his third term, having been appointed by Presi- 
dent Haj'-es. He was also appointed by the Garfield administra- 
tion and served some time into Cleveland's term, when he was 
relieved by Dr. G. R. Reynolds, who at the end of his term was 
succeeded by John W. Seiders, the present incumbent. 

The banking business has increased from an extremely small 
beginning to proportions equal to the demands of trade. 

The first bank organized was under the free banking act of 
1852. It was called the Plymouth bank, and had an authorize ' 
capital of $200,000, all in the name of George O. Jennings, of N 
York. The articles of association declared that it should com^ 
mence operations in Plymouth on the 5th day of October, 185 
and continue until the 5th day of October, 1872. It was a Petei 
Funk concern and soon collapsed. 

The Marshall county bank was commenced May i, 1854, and 
was to continue until May, 1S72, but suspended not long after- 
ward. The capital stock was $100,000, divided into 1,000 shares, 
all taken in the name of L. T. Meriam and J. H. Kibbee, of War- 
ren, Ohio. William J. Moir and John Porter were managers of 
the bank. 

About 1858, A. L. Wheeler erected a bank building, arranged 
with an excellent vault and other conveniences, expressly for the 
transaction of financial business. A branch of the bank 
of the state of Indiana occupied the building for some time. 
After it was transferred to the Fletchers, of Indianapolis, Mr. 
Cressner took charge of it and removed it to the rooms, up-stairs, 
over N. S. Woodward's building, on the west side of Michigan 
street. Mr. Wheeler opened a bank in the building which he 
continued to operate until 1865, when he diverted his means into 
other channels. 

A branch of the State bank was established and occupied 
Mr. Wheeler' building until 1S70, when the Plymouth bank was 
organized, with A. L. Wheeler, banker; E. R. Wheeler, cashier. 
Mr. Wheeler closed his bank in the early part of 1878. 

The First National bank of Marshall county was organized 
about 1872, with a capital of $50,000, M. A. O. Packard, presi- 
dent; James A. Gilmore, cashier. Mr. Packard, the president, 
has erected a magnificent bank building on the southeast corner 
of Michigan and Garro streets, at a cost of probably $25,000. It 
is the finest business building in the county, and is a monument 
of the good taste and enterprise of the owner. 

The Exchange bank of Buck & Toan was organized several 
years ago, and is managed by the proprietors in connection with 
their extensive hardware establishment. They occupy a new 
and elegant two-story brick building, erected by them in 1878, 
expressly for the transaction of the business in which they are 



The following is an extract from a response to the toast, "Our 
City — Retrospective," by Hon. C. H. Reeve, at the commence- 
ment exercises of the Plymouth high school, in 1878: 

Go back with me, in imagination, and look at the town as I 
saw it. Where stands your classic school building was a forest 
of great trees, and beneath them were resting the bodies of a 
few of the early settlers, just gone before. Where stands the 
commodious station of the Great Trunk railroad were the out- 
lines of a rude burial-place in the forest. On the corner diag- 
onally opposite where we now are was a common log house in 
which lived the father or uncle of Mrs. Griffin. Where is now 
the brick block east of us was a rough log store, and on the op- 
posite corner a log tavern. Where are now your finest residences, 
the wild deer passed and re-passed in the forest without fear. 

Later, there stood on the corner where Mr. Dial lives, a rude 
school-house of the old type, and on the lot north of Mr. Will- 
iamson's was an unsightly one-story structure, used as a church. 
Where Mr. Freese lives was an uncouth, one-story, unpainted 
building, used as a court-house. 

A few poor dwellings dotted here and there, and between the 
tangled undergrowth of hazel, oak, hickory, sumach, blue-grapes, 
bitter-sweet, pigeon-berry and other growth, interspersed with 
large trees, covered the earth. Around was a forest and marsh, 
and swale and swamp. 

Leading westward, a narrow sinuous path, worn deep in the 
ground, was the trail of the Indians to their mission on Twin 
lakes. Northwest, another led away to their settlement on Pine 
creek. Southeast, another led to the settlement on Tippecanoe. 
The Michigan road to South Bend, and Yellow river road to La 
Porte, our only open streets. The waterfowl frequented the 
surroundings here in numberless flocks, The long trails of 
squaws, papooses and ponies in single file, with the male Indians 
on foot, armed, wending their way in the narrow paths and along 
the roadside to the larger towns of La Porte, South Bend and 
Logansport to trade, and in and around where now the white 
man's skill has given us our pleasant little city, wild nature — in 
manj^ things as Columbus found it on our shores — held somber 
court and greeted all who came. 

In consequence of the early opening of the Michigan and 
Yellow river state roads through the Indians' country while 
they owned it, we were always fortunate as to mails. Always 
one daily from north and south, and one every other day from 
east and west. The great coaches on good roads, and the huge 
mud-wagons when the roads were bad. The driver's tin horn 
giving notice of his coming, drew the few residents together to 
see who was traveling. When the road was hard the four horses 
came into town at a spanking gait, and at other times they moved 


like snails, not infrequently getting stuck between the river and 
where is now the tannerj-. 

Where Wheeler's block is now, A. L. Wheeler had a one- 
story frame store, and wliere Abe Becker is now, the Carters, of 
Michigan City, had another, in which Gilson S. Cleaveland and 
Charles Palmer, severally, were educated as merchants. 

Johnson Brownlee and myself were about the only young men 
of marriageable age at one time, and we rambled from the river 
to the tannery on moonlight nights, in the middle of the road, 
and sang songs and whistled in parts, as full of romance as if we 
were born princes. He clerked for Wheeler, and worked as a 
tailor on the counter, at least to make his own clothes, and I 
thought nothing of walking ten miles to attend a suit before a 
countrj' justice for $2 or $3, which I never got sometimes. 

Buggies and spring wagons were not a part of our property, 
except wooden springs. 

H. B. Pershing was a tailor, and worked in a little shop where 
Brooke's cigar store now is. John Cougle kept a little one-story 
grocer3' and lived where Humrichouser and Dial do business. 
James Russel had a harness-shop where Lauer's store now is. 
Lester, Charley Wilcox's father, had a gunsmith's shop where 
Becker & Wolf are, and acted as justice in the front part. 

Grove Pomeroy, 1 think, Frank Dawes, John Houghton and 
William M. Patterson, whose descendants are among us, and 
others, successively "kept tavern" on Corbin's corner. Will- 
iam C. Edwards lived where H. A. Work does now, and was 
constable, and Joseph Evans, later, kept tavern where Has- 
langer does. 

I cannot pause to go over more particulars. But few are left 
of those who played marbles on the streets, watched the flies 
buzzing about on the lazy days, sat in the sun when the ague 
came on, and waited for the town to grow and settlers to come 
in; while the amusements were hunting and fishing, and plenty 
of leisure for it. Messrs. Wheeler, Palmer, Cleaveland, Belangee, 
Edwards, Fuller, Hervey, Pershing, Houghton, David How, the 
McDonalds, Woodwards, Mistresses Dunham, Dawes, A. P. El- 
liott, Maria Elliott, How, Griffin and a few others alone remain 
who have seen the changes of fort3^-two to fort3'-six years, since 
the treaty of Tippecanoe, when the Pottawatamies gave their 
great inheritance to the white man, and the county was organized. 

In 1852, 1857, 1866 and 1S73, sweeping fires laid our little town 
waste, and left our people — with their limited means — well- 
nigh penniless. With their accustomed energy, they sprang 
Phcenix-like, from the ashes, and again built up as best they 
could. While no effort has been made to create a manufactur- 
ing locality, our growth has been permanent and substantial, and 
is not ahead of the country. Little by little the forest and the 


swamps disappeared, the frame took the place of the log build- 
ing, and the bricks the place of the frames. The mud roads 
gave place to the graded streets, and the winding paths to the 
comfortable plank walks. The steam car took the place of the 
mud-wagon, and the plumed hearse the place of the hand bier. 
One by one the most of the pioneers have gone back to dust, and 
the few remaining ones will soon follow. 

In 1SS8 the city council determined to put in water-works, and 
that year, put in 18,012 feet of pipe, put in the necessary' engines 
and constructed the reservoirs at a cost of $17,000, and during 
the year 1890, 2,757 feet of additional pipe have been laid at a 
cost of $1,100, making the aggregate cost of our water-works 
only the very low and reasonable sum of $iS,ioo. The reservoirs 
are filled from several flowing wells that have been sunk near the 
engine house of the water-works. This water, which is as pleas- 
ant and wholesome as the world affords, is used by most of the 
wealthier citizens of the place for all domestic, irrigating and 
other purposes, and although the works have been in operation 
less than two j^ears, the water rental now goes far toward de- 
fraying the expenses of the entire system. There are thirty- 
three hydrants placed in the most available positions in the city, 
for extinguishing fires, and in every case of fire since the comple- 
tion of the works they have given entire satisfaction, except in 
one instance, at the extreme limits of the city, and that was oc- 
casioned by an excessive use of water by customers for sprinkling 
purposes, and on account of not giving sufiicient power or pres- 
sure for the great distance the fire was from the engine. The 
works are a great success and convenience, and have already, al- 
most, if not quite, saved the city their cost, by the timely ex- 
tinguishing of fires. The old fire department consisted of " Pro- 
tection hook and ladder company No. i," which was entitled to 
forty men; the "Adriatic engine company No. i," which was al- 
lowed sixty men; "Torrent hose company No. i," which had 
twenty members; " Wide Awake hose company No. 2," composed 
of eighteen members, and the " Alert hook and ladder company 
No. 2," consisting of twenty members. The above members in- 
cluded the officers of the respective companies, and the full mem- 
bership or force aggregated 158. 

Since the completion of the water-works, the department con- 
sists of 106 volunteer firemen, including the officers, who are at 
this time as follows: Chief, Fred. H. Kuhn; first assistant chief, 
A. R. Underwood; foreman Adriatic engine company, John C. 
Kuhn; foreman Protection hook and ladder company, Robert 
McCance; foreman Torrent hose company, D. B. Armstrong; 
foreman Wide Awake hose company, A. R. Underwood. 

The apparatus now composing or constituting the fire depart- 
ment of the city, is, one hand engine, large size, two hose carts, 


one hose carriage, two hook and ladder trucks, 1,250 feet of No. i 
hose, 350 feet of No. 2 hose and the waterworks above described. 

In the year 18S8 it was also decided to light the city with elec- 
tric lights, and at this writing, August, 1890, the city has twenty- 
five arc lights placed in such position that ours is one of the best 
lighted cities in the state. Each light costs about $80, which 
makes the lighting of the city cost $2,000 per year. Each year 
additional grading and graveling are being done and at this time 
there are about four miles of as nicely gravel-paved streets as 
will be found in any city of its size in the state. 

Candor compels the compiler of this chapter to say that the 
manufacturing establishments of Plymouth never have been, are 
not now, and most likely never will be, either numerous or large. 
In fact, the auspicious day for the establishing of manufacturing 
interests in the place has evidently passed. Years ago, when the 
best of timber was plenty and being slaughtered and destroyed, 
many establishments for the manufacture of furniture and all 
implements made of wood could have been successfully operated 
but nothing less than the devouring saw-mill was ever thought 
of, and at this day its work of destruction is almost completed, 
enough of valuable timber having been wantonly destroyed in 
the past twentj'-five years to have furnished hundreds of opera- 
tives with employment for as many years to come and to have 
made many others wealthy and influential citizens of the place. 
In fact the good citizens of Plj'mouth have been most unfortunate 
in every effort they have made to secure the establishing of per- 
manent manufacturing enterprises in the city. Some ten years 
ago the Adams Chilled Plow company was organized under ap- 
parently very favorable circumstances and flattering prospects 
of success, but this only ran about one year before it " busted 
up," ending in litigation, many of those who had gone into the 
matter in good faith losing all they had invested in the enter- 
prise and having their faith in the honesty of many of their ac- 
quaintances and fellow citizens sadl}' shaken and their ardor for 
assisting in enterprises of a public nature, almost entirely cooled 
off. But in 1 888 another greater and more general effort was 
made by the citizens to secure the location and establishment of 
an institution that would give employment to a large number of 
hands. This effort was made upon the proposition of the Fort 
Wayne Jenn Electric Light company to move a great portion of 
their works to Plymouth if the citizens would raise a certain 
amount as a donation and subscribe for a specified number of 
shares of stock. The poorer portion of the citizens, assisted to 
some extent by the richer, raised the amount asked for — $15,000 
in cash and ten acres of ground in the city limits, and the build- 
ing was erected, but the subscribers of the stock, for reasons 
that were good to them, concluded to not pay for their stock and 


this action on the part of the stock subscribers was seized upon 
by the members of the Fort Wayne company as an excuse for 
not complying with their part of the contract, and no machinery 
for the manufacture of electric light apparatus was put in, and 
after a time the citizens appointed a committee to look 
into the matter, who, after a thorough investigation, brought 
suit against the Fort Wayne company in the name of the citizens 
of Plymouth for the recovery of the amount of the donation and 
for damages. The suit was brought in Allen county. A change 
of venue was taken to the Wells county circuit court, where the 
citizens won the suit, but from this decision the Fort Wayne com- 
pany has taken an appeal to the supreme court of the state, 
where the cause is now pending; but those who have watched the 
termination of similar cases have but little hope of the people 
finally winning the suit, and it would certainly be difficult to now 
get up anything of a boom or donation for another company or 

In the building erected by the people's money and on the 
grounds donated by them a few individual citizens have started 
a factory for the manufactory of electric batteries, in which a few 
hands are worked a portion of the time. The truth is that Ply- 
mouth has always been cursed with a few money sharks who have 
gotten rich by loaning money at extortionate rates of interest, 
taking mortgages and foreclosing them and getting the property 
at from one-half to one-third of its real value. These men never 
invest to any extent in any kind of manufacturing interests or 
improvements, and when they are pressed to pay taxes on even 
the one-tenth of their ill-gotten gains they move away to some 
larger place where they are not known, and there, by making a 
false statement annually, avoid taxation almost entirely. Taking 
these facts into consideration it is not to be wondered at that our 
city has not prospered as it should have done in the way of 
manufacturing interests. 

Arthur L. Thomson has for years run a very reliable planing- 
mill, sash, door and blind factory immediately south of Thayer's 
grain elevator, and J. F. Behrens has also for years run a similar 
factory two squares east of the Lake Erie & Western railroad 

A few months ago Mr. Behrens died and a short time ago Mr. 
C. L.Morris rented the plant. The following from the Doiiocrat 
of August 2S, 1890, will explain the new enterprise entered into: 

" A new industry which in the course of time will be familiarly 
known as the Acme Novelty Works, has been started in Plymouth. 
Mr. C. L. Morris is directly interested in the business in a financial 
way and has associated with him Mr. G. W. Marble as general 
manager, who has had wide experience in the line of manufac- 
turing they will engage in. They have leased J. F. Behrens* 


planing-mill and its machinery, and as soon as new machinery- 
can be placed will start up with as many hands as can be conven- 
iently used. They will work in hard and soft wood lumber and 
make a specialty of wood work for electric companies, automatic 
turned work and rods for bending- and dowels, all kinds of chair 
stock, table tops and legs, garden hose reels and job work gener- 
ally. It is a new thing for Plymouth, and inasmuch as it is just 
the kind of enterprises we need to make the town grow we wish 
it every success." 

Mr. C. L. Morris is also running a first-class saw-mill immedi- 
ately west of the Vandalia depot and is using up the remnant of 
timber in this vicinity very fast, but he manufactures only rough 
lumber, and his excellent mill will soon be a thing of the past 
for the want of timber to work on. 

The " Plymouth Water Mills," in the northeast part of the 
city, owned and run by William Zehner, has, within the past 
four years been entirely' remodeled and the " roller process" put 
in, and it is one of the finest mills in this part of the state, and 
the " Eureka Mills," now called the " M. J. Disher Mills," east of 
the Parker House on the bank of Yellow river, has also been 
quite generally overhauled and does very fine custom and 
merchant work. 

The tannery, in the northern part of the city, on the east side 
of Michigan street, and owned by John Heultheiss, enjoys a 
good reputation for the manufacture of leather and commands 
a very liberal patronage not only in this but in surrounding 

The above are all the manufacturing enterprises being carried 
on in Plymouth, that can be called to mind. 

The population of Plymouth, 1870, was twent3'-four hundred 
and eighty-two (2,482) ; in 1880 it was twenty-five hundred and 
seventy (2,570) ; and in i8qo, it is twenty-seven hundred and 
thirty-nine U,739), showing an increase of eighty-eight between 
1870 and 1880, and i6q between 1880 and i8qo. 

The following statement of the length of the different rail- 
roads in the city, and their valuation for taxation purposes, may 
be of Interest at this time: 

The Lake Erie and Western railroad has 1.30 

miles of main track assessed at $8,450 

.85 of a mile of side track assessed at 1,700 

Improvements on right of way assessed at 365 

Rolling stock — proportion, assessed at 2,600 

Personal property assessed at 20 

Total assessment $i3.i35 


The Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago railroad 

has 1.26 miles of main track assessed at $3=^,280 

1.66 miles of side track assessed at 5,8io 

Improvements on right of way assessed at 5. 950 

Rolling stock — proportion, assessed at 8, i go 

Personal property 935 

Total assessment $56,165 

The Terre Haute and Logansport railroad has 

1. 5 1 miles of main track assessed at $6,795 

.46 miles of side track assessed at 690 

Rolling stock — proportion, assessed at 2,115 

Improvements on right of way assessed at 510 

Personal property assessed at 40 

Total assessment $10,150 

Making the grand total of railroad assessments for 1890, foot 
up $79,450. 

Plymouth's commercial importance is not very great. One 
reason of this is that there are so many rival trading places 
within a few miles of the city. 

The financial condition of the city is good, and our rate of 
taxation is less than that of any other city in northern Indiana, 
that has the improvements and advantages we enjoy. The only 
indebtedness of the city is a balance of $15,000 in bonds issued 
to pay for the water-works. Each year a bond of $1,000 becomes 
due. They bear five per cent, interest. The original amount 
of the bonds issued was $16,000, but the first one was paid the 
ist of July, 1S90, leaving the balance above stated. 

Neiuspapcrs of Plymojitli, 1851 to iSgo. — It is with feelings of 
awe and reverence that we approach the task of sketching the 
rise and progress of our county papers, and those who have been 
connected with their publication since their establishment. Only 
think of the brains that have been racked and the fortunes that 
have been squandered in those nearly forty years, now passed 
into eternity ! All has been 

" Double, double, toil and trouble, 
File burn and caldron bubble." 

Some of the old veterans have passed awa3^ and some who 
were in the prime and vigor of manhood have been cut down by 
the all devouring scythe of time. But their memories shall never 
fade and ther works do follow them. For them — ah, well — we 
drop a tear to their memory, and to the living, we promise our 
support and sympathy until the silver cord shall be loosed, and 
the golden bowl shall be broken ! 


The Plymouth Pilot was the first paper published in Plymouth, 
and although there are no more copies of it to be found, the first 
number must have appeared sometime in June, 1851. The legal 
printing was done by Schuyler Colfax in the St. Joseph Valley 
Register for the May term of the circuit court of that year, and 
the publications were made in the Pilot for the November term, 
1851. The press and material were transported from Rochester 
to Plymouth on wagons, and we remember very well, the day it 
arrived. The population of Plymouth at that time, did not ex- 
ceed 700 or 800, and there were few of the whole number who 
failed to make a personal examination of the novelties connected 
with it, and express an opinion in regard to the enterprise. 
John O. Howell was the reckless disciple of Faust, who made 
the venture. The novelty soon wore off, and Mr. Howell was 
permitted to run it in his own way without any special effort on 
the part of the people, to assist him. It did not prove a paying 
investment and Mr. Howell determined to get rid of it on the 
best terms he could. He succeeded in selling it to Richard Cor- 
baley on the first of March, 1852. Mr. Corbaley changed the 
name of the paper, and sent out Vol. i. No. i, of the Plymouth 
Banner. He continued the publication of the Banner until the 
28th of July, 1853. Mr. Corbaley was clerk of the court at that 
time, and had no particular knowledge of the printing business, 
and the work of publishing the paper was done by jour printers 
and " devils," who made the office a loafing place, and were learn- 
ing to stick type for the fun of it. The rollers always worked 
badly, the type was badly worn and bruised, and the tympan 
sheets were always out of fix, and as a matter of course, when the 
paper made its appearance, it was not the most perfect specimen 
of newspaper printing. Richard was a man of an amiable turn of 
mind, and seldom suffered his natural equilibrium to be dis- 
turbed. On one occasion, however (we shall never forget) , he 
came near saying cuss words, albeit he wouldn't have done so for 
the world. The matter was all up for the paper, and the forms 
ready to go on the press. One of the hands in the office, in at- 
tempting to lift the third page, let it fall, and pied the whole 
form. Richard was not himself for several days. It took about 
two weeks to distribute the pi and get things in running order. 
Mr. Corbaley sold out to William J. Burns and he assumed the 
editorial management of the paper July 28th, 1853, and continued 
until December 4th, 1854. Mr. Burns was an educated news- 
paper man, having been engaged in the business most of his life. 
He told what he had to say in an easy off-hand way, and all in 
all, published a fair local paper. 

" December 4th, 1854, the office passed into the hands of 
Thomas B. Thompson. Mr. Thompson was deputy sheriff at 
that time, and became interested in its management on political 


grounds. He was not a literary man, and made no pretensions 
as a writer. The services of William G. Pomeroy were secured 
to edit the paper, and he launched out on the sea of journalism 
in the following style: ' Omx Banner will always be found against 
the doctrines of slavery extension, and in favor of freedom; 
against drunkenness and in favor of sobriety; against vice and 
in favor of good order; against wrong and in favor of right.' 

"James M. Wickizer became associated with Mr. Thompson 
in the publication of the paper December 28th, 1S54, and on the 
ist day of February, 1855, became the sole owner. A week later, 
February 8th, 1855, he sold out to J. L. and E. A. Thompson. 
After this date the name of Mr. Pomeroy does not appear as 
editor, and diligent search has failed to discover any reference 
to his decapitation, or what were the causes that led to it. There 
is a little inside history, political or otherwise, connected with the 
rapid changes made about this time, not necessary to repeat 
here, and which, perhaps, will never be written. The last named 
proprietors announced: ' Its politics will hereafter be independent.' 
The}' published the paper about five weeks and on the 15th of 
March, 1855, bid good bye to their readers. They said: 'When 
we co^mmenced its publication, we had a faint idea of the diffi- 
culties of publishing a newspaper. We now know that they are 
many more than we anticipated.' 

" William J. Burns again became editor and publisher on the 
22d of March, 1S55, ^^icl continued until July 28th, 1856. On the 
15th of November, 1855, his paper contained the following notice: 
' The Marshall County Democrat will make its first appearance 

"July 28th, 1856, John Greer, representing the republican cen- 
tral committee, purchased the office. The E. A. Thompson 
associated with J. L. Thompson, if we mistake not, was the wife 
of W. E.Thompson, and the daughter of John Greer. Mr. Greer 
representing the republican central committee, perhaps, furnished 
the money for J. L. and E. A., to pay for the paper in the first 
place. Mr. Burns being unable to pay for it, Mr. Greer took it 
off his hands. He secured the assistance of an editor during 
the campaign, but who he was, he did not state, and he remained 
subrosa until the paper passed out of Mr. Greer's hands. 
Ignatius Mattingly purchased the office, and took charge of the 
editorial department of the paper October Qth, 1856. He 
changed the name of the paper from the Plymouth Banner to 
the Marshall County Republican, and issued the first paper as No. 
I, Vol. I. Mr. Mattingly was an old hand at the bellows, and 
conducted it on the red hot principle from the first. Bitter per- 
sonalities (such as would not be tolerated now-a-days) sprang 
up between him and the editors of the Democrat, and were in- 
dulged in for an indefinite length of time, more to the gratifica- 


tion of the writers than their readers. Time," however, hath 
smoothed the wrinkled front of these newspaper warriors, and 
having ' clasped hands across the bloody chasm,' 

' Not a wave of trouble rcUs 
Across their peaceful breasts!* 

" David T. Phillips connected himself with the Republican as 
local editor, February loth, 1859, and continued as such until 
February i6th, i860. Mr. Phillips was an easy writer, and 
although a very quiet and amiable gentleman, could dip 
his pen in gall and dash off a bitter squib with as much 
ease and facility as any other man who flourished the quill in 
those days. He now resides in California. William H. H. 
Mattingly followed Mr. Phillips and continued as local editor 
until August 2d, 1866, when he became one of the proprietors, 
He seems to have gone entirely out of the office Februar}^ 14th. 
1867. He made a good local editor, and in after years he took 
his place among the best writers of the local press of northern 
Indiana. He published the Rochester Union Spy for several 
years, and when the spirit moved him to speak, his trumpet 
issued forth no uncertain sound. John D. Devor was associate 
editor from June 19th, 1S62, to February 25th, 1863. He w^s the 
son-in-law of the senior Mattingly, and was an attorney at law. 
Moses B. Mattingly became one of the proprietors and also local 
editor, November Sth, i860, and sold out and enlisted In the 
Union army July i, 1861. He was connected with several papers 
after the close of the war, and was accidentally drowned, years 
ago, somewhere in Illinois. 

" On the 14th day of November, 1867, I. Mattingly announced, 
'The Infirmities of increasing years added to the fact that our 
editorial duties together with the business of the office are suf- 
ficient to require the time and attention of one person, have 
induced us to retire from the position we have held so long as 
publisher of the Republican.' Moses B. and William H. H. Mat- 
tingly became proprietors and publishers, with Mr. Mattingly 
still retained as editor. They continued as publishers until 
March 26th, 1868, after which time their names do not appear. 
June 4th, 1868, I. Mattingly retired, and in doing so introduced 
D. Porter Pomeroy, who, he said, was not only a practical printer, 
but a gentleman of culture and refinement, and emlnentlj' quali- 
fied to discharge the responsible duties he had assumed. Mr. 
Mattingly concluded his valedictory as follows: ' In conclusion 
we desire to say that we retire without any feelings of animosity 
towards any one — towards our political opponents even, we 
harbor no personal malice. We have endeavored to give those with 
whom we have had controversies as good as they sent, and If we 
overpaid any we freely forgive the debt, and hope they will do 
the same if they think they have overpaid us.' " 


No man living ever labored more faithfully and earnestly for 
the advancement of the interests of his party than did Mr. Mat- 
tingly, during the twelve years he was engaged as editor and 
publisher of the Rcpubluan. In political matters he had a happy 
faculty of making the worse appear the better on the republican 
side of the question, and when speaking of the democracy, he 
never failed to produce the most damaging facts, carefull}- avoid- 
ing the publication of anything it ever did for the benefit of the 
people. He published the best republican paper north of the 
Wabash river, and is entitled to more consideration from his 
party than he ever'received. He established the Bourbon I\Iirror 
about fourteen j^ears ago, and is still engaged in its publication. 

John S. Bender became associated in the editorial manage- 
ment of the Republican August 13, 1S6S. April i, 1S69, D. T. 
Pomeroy left the paper, and left nothing on record to show 
whither he went or how he fared. Mr. Bender then became sole 
proprietor, and continued its publication until July i, 1S66. Mr. 
Bender had too many irons in the fire to give the editorial depart- 
ment very much attention, and having no practical knowledge of 
the printing business, the receipts of the office barely paid the 
expenses. Charles F. Belangee and William M. Nichols pur- 
chased the office from Mr. Bender July 8, 1S69, and secured the 
services of D. T. Phillips as associate editor. Mr. Belangee died 
September 16, 1869. He was a young man, only twenty-two years 
of age, moral and upright, and having energy and some ability, 
had a bright and promising future just opening before him. The 
entire management of the office fell upon Mr. Nichols upon the 
death of Mr. Belangee. D. T. Phillips severed his editorial con- 
nection with the paper November 10, 1870, and H. L. Phillips be- 
came associated with Mr. Nichols as one of the publishers. 
March 23, 1871, Mr. Nichols bade good-bye to his readers, and 
the office was left to the management of H. L. Phillips. He 
continued its publication until April 20, 1871, when the press and 
material reverted to John S. Bender. John Millikan became as- 
sociated with Mr. Bender in the management of the paper 
July 27, 1871. January 4, 1872, Mr. Bender sold the office to Mr. 
Millikan, and bade the dear reader an affectionate farewell. Mr. 
Millikan changed the paper from a folio to a quarto, and continued 
it in that form until he disposed of it to Hon. Jasper Packard, 
June 17, 1875, when the form of the paper was again changed to 
a folio. Mr. Packard being a resident of La Porte, and editor 
of the La Porte Chronicle, Mr. W. W. Smith became connected 
with the RcptMican as business manager and local editor. Mr. 
Smith was a young man, about twenty-five, six feet three in his 
shoes, a printer, convivial in his habits and intercourse, of mod- 
erate ability, and during his staj^ among us was looked upon by 
his associates, to use a slang phrase, as a "bully good boy." His 


head fell into the editorial waste-basket October i, 1S75, upon 
the purchase by Mr. Packard of the Alail and Magnet. At this 
Adite t\\& Mail and Magnet (of which we shall speak in another 
place) was merged into The Marshall County Rcpttblicaa, and Mr. 
Howard Brooke, editor of the Mail and Magnet, became mana- 
ger and local editor. Upon the consolidation of the two papers, 
the Rcpitbliean was enlarged to a nine-column folio. During a 
portion of Mr. Packard's editorial career, Mr. Henry D. Stevens 
was connected with the paper. On the 2Sth of December, 1S76, 
David E. Caldwell purchased the paper, and continued its publi- 
cation until February 21, 1S7S, when he disposed of it to J. W. 
Siders and Walter L. Piper, both of Illinois. Mr. Piper left the 
paper October 10, 1S78, and was succeeded by Howard Brooke. 
Mr. Brooke retired in October, 1879, and was succeeded by his 
brother, Mr. Ed. S. Brooke. Mr. Siders and Mr. Ed. S. Brooke 
continued to publish the Republican as partners, until July 18, 
1890, when Mr. Siders disposed of his interest to Mr. Brooke, his 
former partner, and Mr. William Hendricks, who are publishing 
the paper at the present writing. 

The Marshall County Democrat was established by Thomas 
McDonald and H. B. Dickson, and the first number of the paper 
was issued November 15, 1855, with the senior proprietor as edi- 
tor. The office was situated in the building now occupied as a 
residence by J. D. McLaren, Esq. The building had formerly 
been occupied as a carriage house, and was built by Mr. Wheeler 
who owned the lot an which it stood. The material for the office 
was purchased in Cincinnati, and transported in wagons from 
Peru, our then nearest railroad station. Mr. Dickson having 
only a money interest in the paper, transferred it to T. McDon- 
ald not long after the paper was started. November 13, 1856, 
A. C. Thompson and Piatt McDonald leased the office and pub- 
lished the paper with T. McDonald as editor, until November 12, 
1857. Daniel McDonald became local editor February 5, 1857, 
and continued as such until November 12, 1857. At this date 
pater faniilias disposed of the office by giving it to his sons, 
Daniel, Piatt and John McDonald. John was a minor at that 
time, and D. & P. McDonald became accountable to him for his 
interest, and commenced the publication of the paper in the name 
of McDonald & Bro., with M. A. O. Packard as editor. Novem- 
ber 26, 1857, upon retiring from the editorial chair, Mr. McDon- 
ald said: "With an entire democratic government — with the 
wounds of 'bleeding Kansas' healed, and the people about to 
make their own government; with success everywhere of the 
principles we have advocated; with the worst financial crashes 
past, and the current of trade setting in, in our favor; with uni- 
versal peace and unbounded prosperity around us, we shall leave 
our patrons and readers to the care of younger heads and more 


ready hands, and hope their 'bairns bairn may see no check to 
our nation's onward movement, nor clouds overshadow the bright- 
ness around us." 

The paper was ensmalled to six columns, and was published in 
that form until June, 1S5S. Mr. Packard retired June 3, 1858. 
The paper up to that time had never paid expenses, and the new 
proprietors having no other means of support were compelled to 
cut off all expenses and run it themselves or go under. 

McDonald & Bro. ended their connection with the paper Au- 
gust II, 1859. After casting up their accounts, they found their 
interest in the Democrat had been swallowed up in debts con- 
tracted in publishing the paper. William J. Burns purchased the 
effects, and being unable to pay for it, transferred it to A. C. 
Thompson, January 26, 1S60. No paper was published from De- 
cember I, 1S5Q, until January 26, i860. Mr. Thompson changed 
the name from the MarsJiall County Democrat to \.\\& P/y month 
Weekly Democrat, No. i. Vol. i, and said: " We make our hasty 
bow and consider ourselves in." April 11, 1861, he sold it to T. 
and P. McDonald, and in his valedictory the spirit moved him to 
soliloquize as follows: " Coming events are casting their shad- 
ows before, and the country stands amazed, confounded and par- 
alyzed. God only knows what is in store for us; but whatever 
it may be, it is certainly of such a nature that it will puzzle the 
brain and grieve the heart of all philanthropists and patriots. 
May the God of our fathers save us from the horrors of civil 

April 18, 1861, the paper appeared with T. and P. McDonald, 
proprietors, Piatt McDonald, editor, and John McDonald, local 
editor. During the fourteen months following, the war excite- 
ment was at its highest pitch, and the editor-in-chief found it a 
difficult matter to criticise any of the war measures of the admin- 
istration, without incurring the displeasure of some of the truly 
loyal, and running the chances of having his office demolished. 
He was the recipient of several anonymous communications 
through the postoffice, and one placed under his door, and one 
on the stairway leading to his office, one night after he had gone 
to bed, all of which contained warnings of the wrath to come. 
He was not easily frightened, and knowing that they were the 
fulminations of men who were too cowardly to confront him face 
to face, he pursued the even tenor of his way, and continued un- 
molested until he sold out to D. E. Vanvalkenburgh, July 17, 1862. 
John G. Osborne became associated with the paper as editor-in- 
chief, the proprietor acting as local. Mr. Osborne left the paper 
November 13, 1S62, and Mr. Vanvalkenburgh became editor and 
proprietor. The war excitement was still raging with unabated 
fury; martial law, or what was about the same thing, had been 
declared in Indiana; drafting into the army had become what 


was declared to be a necessary war measure, and a public man, 
and an editor especially, hardly knew whether his soul was his 
own or not. In April, 1863, General Mile B. Hascall, command- 
ing the military district of Indiana, issued " order No. 9," vir- 
tually taking away the freedom of the press, and subjecting the 
people to military rule. Ed. Van. gave the order the benefit of 
his circulation, and commented on the author in the following 
language: " Brig. Gen. Hascall is a donkey, an unmitigated, un- 
qualified donkey, and his bray is loud, long and harmless; merely 
offensive to the ear; merely tends to create a temporary irrita- 

For this little piece of indiscretion, a dozen soldiers, under 
command of a captain, pounced in upon the young man about 4 
o'clock one morning, a few days after the article was published. 
He was sleeping in the bed room in the back part of Wheeler's 
bank, and he was ordered to arise. He did not stand upon the 
order of going, but went at once, knowing that resistance would 
only make matters worse. He was taken to Indianapolis and con- 
fined in Camp Morton a day or two, and had the pleasure of meet- 
ing Gen. Hascall. He was taken from thence to Cincinnati and 
ushered into the presence of Maj. Gen. Burnside, who, after read- 
ing the article, inquired: " Why did j^ou call Gen. Hascall a don- 
key?" To which Ed. replied: " Because he is a donkey!" The 
general admonished him to never call Gen. Hascall a donkey 
again, and gave him permission to go hence without delay, fully 
discharged and acquitted. Mr. Vanvalkenburgh continued as 
editor until October 22, 1863, when he disposed of the office to 
John G. Osborne, who controlled it until May q, 1865, when he 
sold it to S. L. Harvey, but still remained on the paper as one of 
the editors. Mr. Harvey raised the price on advertising and 
job work fully fifty per cent., and was the first publisher who 
made anything beyond a living out of it. He established it on a 
paying basis, and left it in a prosperous condition, financially. 
He sold it to John McDonald, October 31, 1867, who ran it alone 
until July 2, 1868, when failing health compelled him to quit the 
business. He sold out to Michael W. Downey, A. C. Thompson 
and D. E. Vanvalkenburgh, and the paper was edited by them- 
selves and others who felt inclined to write for it. Ed. Vanvalk- 
enburgh took charge of it March 25, 1869, and so continued 
until December 2, 1S69, when Piatt McDonald again purchased 
an interest, and the new firm kept it going until June 12, 1873, 
when Mr. McDonald made the following announcement: 

"Our connection with the Democrat, editorially and proprietary, 
ceases to-day. Let not the suddenness with which an editorial 
light has been snuffed shock your -nerves, dear reader, for the 
thing has been done before and may be done again. We go with 
no grumblings and few complaints, conscious of having labored 


with good intentions toward our fellow man, and in turn of being 
the recipient of kind treatment from all with whom our business 
has brought us in contact. We bequeath whatever of good name 
we have to our family; our fortune to our creditors, and our pen- 
cil, scissors and paste pot to our successor." 

Mr. Vanvalkenburgh continued to edit and publish the paper 
until October g, 1873, when he sold an interest in the office to 
William Geddes. Messrs. Vanvalkenburgh & Geddes continued 
the publication until the 2d day of July, 1S74, when Piatt 
McDonald again purchased the interest of D. E. Vanvalken- 
burgh. Mr. Vanvalkenburgh then retired from the editorial chair 
and became a private citizen. Upon the consummation of this 
change, Piatt McDonald became editor, and Mr. Geddes as- 
sumed the management of the mechanical department. This 
arrangement continued until May 27, 1874, when Mr. Geddes 
sold his interest to Mr. McDonald and went to Fort Wayne to 
take charge of the job department of the Fort Wayne Gazette. 
Mr. Geddes was an excellent job printer, a rapid typo, and thor- 
oughly understood the multifarious duties connected with coun- 
try newspaper printing. The printing business having increased 
rapidly, it became necessary to purchase a cylinder press, engine, 
boiler and fixtures, and additional material. Mr. McDonald sold 
one-half interest in the office to Daniel McDonald, August i, 
1875, since which time the paper has been conducted by the 
proprietors under the firm name of McDonald & Brother. Sep- 
tember 23, 1875, the following announcement was made: 

Steam Printing. — " This issue of the Democrat is printed on a 
cylinder press, with steam power — the first newspaper ever 
printed in the county with the best and latest improved ma- 
chinery. Our new steam engine, manufactured expressly for 
us by W. J. Adams, machinist, of this city, was put in position 
last Saturday, and on Monday the first side of the Dcniocrat 
was printed. To say that we are proud of this new addition to 
our printing facilities is to draw it mild; in fact, all who have 
seen it or heard of it, are proud that our city contains an estab- 
lishment alike creditable to the proprietors and the people who 
support it. Tne engine is of six horse power, neatly and hon- 
estly made, and is capable of driving as many presses as we will 
probably have use for some time to come. We are not only 
proud of the engine as an instrument for good, but because it 
is a product of ourcity, and is unsurpassed by those manufactured 
elsewhere. There are connected with the publication of the 
Democrat at this time: Piatt McDonald and Daniel McDonald, 
proprietors; Arthur T. Metcalf, Daniel B. Langenbaugh, Mark 
Tuttle, Arthur Underwood, Elmer H. Dunham, John N. Milice, 
compositors; Frank D. Lamson, Thomas Whitmore and Peter 
Kruyer, general work; G. M. Myers, extra work, and twelve 


local correspondents; in all, twenty-three persons who assist regu- 
larl}' in the publication of the paper. In addition to a large 
amount of job work, the following publications are printed and 
the work all done at the Democrat office: The Restitutioi, a six 
column folio weekly; the Sunshine, a Sunday-school paper, 
twenty-four column quarto monthly; the Farmers Monthly, four 
column octavo monthl}-. The presses and fixtures, engine, 
boiler, type, furniture, and appurtenances and good will of the 
office is considered reasonabl}- worth $9,000." 

On the 22nd of February, 1S76, atthe solicitation of the super- 
intendent of public instruction of Indiana, the proprietors issued 
a mammoth double page edition, which afterward came to be 
known as the Centennial Democrat. It contained the most com- 
plete historj' of the county that had been written prior to that 
time. It was illustrated with cuts of the court house, public 
school building, and engine house of Plymouth; portraits of 
Thomas McDonald and Ignatius jNIattingly, and a fine map of 
the county. A personal letter to the proprietors from the super- 
intendent of public instruction, to whom copies of all papers in 
the state published on that date, had been sent, stated that the 
Centennial Democi'at was the handsomest among them all. The 
paper was issued at a loss to the proprietors over receipts, of 
about $200. 

October i, 1877, Piatt McDonald sold his interest in the paper 
to Daniel McDonald, who became sole proprietor. The office 
was at once put into a complete state of repairs and a grand recep- 
tion given on November 2Sth, following. The following copy of 
the invitation circular will give the reader an idea of the charac- 
ter of the reception: 

Grand Reception. — "The Plymouth Democrat Steam Printing 
establishment will be thrown open to the public on Wednesday 
evening, November 28, from 7 to q o'clock P. M. The steam cyl- 
inder press, capable of making thirty impressions per minute, 
will be in operation, papers will be folded and mailed as they 
come from the press, showing the manner of pasting the printed 
mailing slips on the papers by machinery. In the composing 
room, the job press will be in operation and compositors will be 
setting and distributing t^-pe, etc. Everything pertaining to the 
mechanical department of the office will be fully shown and ex- 
plained. The office throughout, from the editorial room to the 
press room below, has been thoroughly painted, renovated and 
repaired. It is supplied with over 150 kinds of type, and is pro- 
vided with everything else to make it a first-class printing office 
in every respect," etc. 

The reception was a grand success. The issue of the Demo- 
crat the da}- following contained the following in regard to it: 
" Notwithstanding the snow and wind storm that prevailed dur- 


ing the evening, fully i ,000 people honored the invitation extended 
to all to take a bird's eye view of the Democrat Steam Printing 
establishment in full operation. About 1,700 copies of the Rcsti- 
hiiion, a publication issued from this office, were printed on our 
steam cylinder press and were all folded and mailed between 7 
and 9:30 P. M. Arthur Underwood, the foreman of the compos- 
ing and press room, printed a circular in five different colors at 
one impression, keeping the little jobber busy during the even- 
ing. The job was perfectly executed and the operation gave de- 
light to all who witnessed it. All the employes were busy, doing 
their work faithfully and well, and everything connected with 
the office was explained as fully as could be done under the cir- 
cumstances. We believe all went away satisfied with their visit." 

Daniel McDonald sold the office on January i, 1S79, to Hon. 
Henry A. Peed, of Shoals, Ind. On the retirement of Mr. 
McDonald, the employes of the office — eight in number — pre- 
sented him with an elegant gold headed cane, suitably engraved, 
as a mark of esteem. On the loth day of March, 18S1, Mr. D. 
McDonald re-purchased or took back the office from Mr. Peed, 
and has been editor of the paper ever since. For the past few 
years the Democrat has been published by D. McDonald & Co., 
the company being Mr. Louis McDonald, son of D. McDonald, a 
young man of ability and sound democracy. He is the general 
business manager of the paper, and also does a good portion of 
the editorial work on the Donocrat. 

The Mail and Magnet. — This is the title of a paper the first 

issue of which was published on the day of , 1S74. The 

proprietors were Cliffe M. Brooke and A. B. Clark. It was 
started as an independent paper with republican proclivities. 
The editors were both young men just merging into manhood, 
and the paper was run on the Young America high pressure 
principle. Mr. Clark severed his connection with the paper a 
few months after the first number was printed, leaving the entire 
management in the hands of Mr. Brooke. During the political 
campaign of 1874 it became the organ of the grangers, who had 
nominated a people's ticket and succeeded in inveigling the re- 
publican party into endorsing its candidates. Its columns were 
thrown open to any who wished to advocate the dogmas of the 
people's party, and during the entire campaign its columns 
teemed with abuse and vilitication of many of the best men in 
the county. The election not resulting favorably to the cause it 
had espoused, it soon began to show signs of weakening, and 
early in the spring of 1875 it was purchased by Howard Brooke, 
who, having experience as a practical printer, and being a gen- 
tleman of respectability, infused a better spirit into the paper, 
and under his management it became an average county publi- 
cation, and was continued by him as such until he sold it to Jas- 



per Packard, October i, 1875, when it was merged into the 

The Restitution. — T\\^ Restitution is a religious paper of 
twenty-four columns, published by the Christian Publishing asso- 
ciation of Plymouth, Ind. The printing and work on the paper 
is done by McDonald & Co., at the office of the Plymouth Demo- 
crat. The paper is now in its twenty-fourth volume, having been 
formerly published in Chicago, from whence it was removed to 
Plymouth, December i, 1874, where it has since been issued. It 
is published at $2 per year in advance; Hiram V. Reed, editor-in- 
chief; Elders S. A. Chaplin, T. Wilson and J. M. Stephenson, cor- 
responding editors. It advocates " the restitution of all things 
which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since 
the world began." It has a circulation of 2,000, and copies of it 
find their way into almost every kingdom and province on the 

The Indiana Greenbacker. — This paper was started during the 
campaign of 1878, as the organ of the greenback cause in Mar- 
shall county. Later, it announced itself as the organ of the 
greenback party of the thirteenth congressional district, and still 
later as the organ of the party in Indiana. M. W. Downey and 
D. McDuffie were the first editors. They were succeeded by 
Phil Corcoran, and he by A. W. Barlow, and he by Robert Neil. 

Tlie Farmers Monthly. — This was an octavo publication com- 
menced in 1876, at Plymouth, Ind., by H. V. Reed. It started 
out with a subscription list of 700, and was, in every respect, an 
excellent paper. For want of sufficient support it was suspended 
some six months later. 

The Church Monitor, by Rev. }. J. Faude, of the Episcopal 
church, Plymouth, was published about nine months, in 1877. It 
was a quarto, neat in mechanical make-up, edited with tact and 
ability, but for want of sufficient support its publication was dis- 

Tlie SunsJiine. — This was a Sunday-school paper, started in 
1876 by J. F~. VVilco.x, who at that time resided in Goodland, Ind., 
in the interest of the Sunday-schools of the Christian church. It 
was printed at the Democrat office, and lived about a year, when 
it expired for want of financial nourishment. 

Public Schools of Plymouth. — Information respecting the schools 
•of Plymouth anterior to 1869, must be obtained from one of three 
sources, viz.: The records of the state educational department, 
the newspaper comments, and personal recollections. A thor- 
ough research among the dusty documents of state officials and 
the reports of school officers reveals the fact, that however val- 
uable these statistics may have been to the state printer in the 
footings of accounts current for stationery, or however satisfac- 
tory they may have appeared as specimens of mathematical skill. 



they are nearly worthless for giving any definite idea of the 
schools then in existence. Whether the omission of the very 
items which are desirable, or the gross inaccuracies of those 
given, are the more to be deplored, will ever be a matter of doubt 
with those who have occasion to use them. Reports which show 
the enrollment of the schools to be greater than the entire pop- 
ulation between the ages of six and twenty-one years, must be 
received with some suspicion. They either prove the falsity of 
the saying, that " figures will not lie," or disclose a remarkable 
thirst for knowledge on the part of the adult and married por- 
tion of the community. Newspaper comments of that day and 
generation, display a notable unanimity in glorifying the common 
school system in theory and condemning it in fact, thus leading 
a latter day inquirer to conclude that the "practical workings" 
of the schools did not come up to the advertisements of their 
friends, or that the editorial comments were written in a Pick- 
wickian sense. Besides, such statements as " Miss A.'s school 
closed on Friday with exercises which were highly creditable to 
both pupils and teachers," after the lapse of years, do not give 
the most satisfactory view of the attendance, studies, methods 
and successes of the schools. Personal recollections, like per- 
sonal opinions, are found to be somewhat discordant. No better 
evidence could be had that " our life is a dream," than the effort 
to detail the circumstances and events of a quarter century ago. 
Like the remembrance of a dream by one who wakens, are the 
visions in memory, spectres of the living realities that once occupied 
the mind. This somewhat lengthy review of the means of in- 
formation, which, by the way, is intended for the relief of the 
writer rather than the edification of the reader, explains the im- 
possibility of drawing a perfect comparison between the schools 
of the present and those of earlier time. All that can be done 
or expected in this article, is to give a hasty sketch of the former 
condition of affairs, showing that the advancement in educational 
matters has been commensurate with that in material interests, 
and that in the advantages which Plymouth employs, her schools 
are not the least. The first school in Plymouth was taught by 
O. F. Norton, in the fall or winter of 1837. The school was held 
in the old court house, which then stood on the lot now owned 
by Mr. J. N. Freese on East Michigan street, near Adams. Mr. 
Norton is said, by one who knew him, to have been a man of 
more than ordinary intelligence, of great amiability of charac- 
ter, and as possessing the respect of his fellow citizens. He 
afterward filled the position of county clerk. The next school 
of which we get any account, was taught by Mrs. Erskine, who 
erected a building, which is now used as a residence, immediately 
south of the residence of Mr. J. M. Klinger, near the Catholic 
church. This school was commenced about 1S40, and was taught 


for some time between that year and 1845. A school-house was 
then built on Adams street, on the lot now owned by Mr. John 
Dial, in the rear of the Lutheran church. This building was 
used until December, 1S54. It has since been moved to Walnut 
street, and is occupied as a residence. 

The first school in this building was taught by a Mr. Reed. 
He had a hard set of scholars to manage, if his story was true, 
and he was a hard man to get along with, if any dependence 
could be put upon the reports of his pupils. He was followed by 
Willoughby M. McCormick, and he by Mr. Clark, Mr. Crusan 
and others, all of whom closed their labors with indifferent 

Until 1851 the schools were under the jurisdiction of the town- 
ship trustee, although by the school law at that time in force, 
their jurisdiction was almost or entirely nominal, their school 
duties being little more than to make a donation to the teacher 
of the morsel of interest coming from the school fund. The 
usual custom seems to have been to apply the public school fund 
to the benefit of any 'teacher who chose to start a school, he 
making up the deficiency by tuitions from the pupils, although 
there were some entirely free schools during this period. The 
first agitation of school questions appears to have taken place 
about 1S53. From the time when the town was incorporated in 
185 1 to the fall of 1853, the evidence shows that there was no 
public or private school in Plymouth, as the corporation trustees 
report at the latter date a larger school fund than could have 
accumulated in less than two years. 

In the Plymouth Banner of March 24, 1853, appeared an 
article, signed " S. M. E.," calling attention to the need of a 
school, stating in most forcible language the evils and the in- 
efficiency of the private school system, and proposing a plan for 
the future. The article is especially noticeable from the fact 
that it describes the graded school system as it now exists in all 
cities and towns of any educational repute. There was not then 
such a school in the state, and very few in the Union. If the 
writer is living, he has the satisfaction of knowing that the plan 
suggested by him, and which undoubtedly was viewed by the few 
who read it as chimerical and visionary, has been universally 
adopted as the only feasible method of public instruction. In the 
same paper of April i6th of the same year, was issued a call for 
a meeting of the people, to consider the propriety of employing 
Mr. and Mrs. Etter, of Rochester, who were mentioned as being 
teachers of a different grade from that with which the town had 
been afflicted thus far. The writer of the call indulged in some 
very plain remarks, in which he cited the people to the " hum- 
buggerry which had been practiced upon them by the strolling 
quacks who called themselves teachers," and urged the economy 


of the management of the schools by the town authorities, and 
particularly of lavishing upon the teachers larger salaries. As 
no rejoinder to his criticisms appeared, it may be mferred that 
they were substantially true, or that the school masters were all 
abroad when the article appeared. At the same meeting the ad- 
visability of building a school-house was discussed. The popula- 
tion of Plymouth at this time is given as 670. 

May 26th an election was held upon the proposition to levy 
taxes for the support of schools, at which the vote stood five in 
favor and eight against such tax. June 23d a township election 
was held for the same purpose, at which the vote stood thirteen 
opposed, to seven in favor. About this time Mr. and Mrs. Etter, 
Mr. James Thrawls, Mr. J. M. Wickizer and others, taught pri- 
vate schools. In March, 1S54, the lot donated to the county for 
seminary grounds, was sold to the town for the nominal sum of 
$100, and on the 30th of the same month a contract for building 
a school-house was entered into with Mr. S. Morgan. This 
building was completed in December of the same year. It con- 
tained three school rooms and one recitation room, and was a 
credit to the town. It is now known as the Eureka Mills. Mr. 
W. J. Moir was chosen principal of the schools, and had as as- 
sistants the first term, Mrs. E. Crum and Miss E. Adams. The 
attendance was at first about 150. The text books used were 
Sander's spellers, Parker's readers, Davies' arithmetic, Mitchell's 
geography and Clark's grammar. 

Of all the teachers of former times, Mr. Moir has left behind 
him the most pleasant recollections. He is uniformly mentioned 
with great respect by those who were his pupils, and there can 
be no doubt that he inaugurated a new era in school matters. 
Mr. Moir was succeeded by Mr. C. H. Blair, who was principal 
but a part of one year when he was followed by Mr. H. C. Burlin- 
game, late auditor of Marshall county. Mr. Burlingame re- 
tired from the management of the schools in 1861, concluding 
that he had done his share of missionary work, and that he 
would seek some less "promising" but more lucrative employ- 
ment. Mr. Mark Cummings, who was for many years county 
examiner, then took charge of the schools. He was followed by 
Mr. D. D. Luke, who remained as principal until August, 1870, 
when he was elected superintendent of the Goshen schools. In 
186S the building in the Third ward was erected. Upon the re- 
tirement of Mr. Luke in 1870, Mr. R. A. Chase was chosen as 
superintendent and has continued such to the present time. 

Upon the records appear the following names of teachers who 
were emplo3'ed either in public or private schools within the 
period from 1S55 to 1870: Miss Holloway, Miss Ackermann, 
Miss Fuller, Miss Patterson, Mrs. Locke, Miss Woodbury, Miss 
Briggs, Mr. and Mrs. Comstock, Miss Howe, Miss French, Miss 


Westen, Miss Hawley, Miss Borton, Mr. J. A. Rousch, Mr. R. M. 
Johnson, Miss Van Vallc^nburgh, Miss Wright, Miss Kidwell, 
Miss Blair, Miss Thompson, Miss Coffy, Miss Russell, Miss Ed- 
wards, Miss Chamberlain, Miss Pierce, Mr. T. |. Goble, Miss 
Barber, Miss Nichols, Miss Morrill, Mr. R. A. Hume, Miss 
Ewalt, Miss Mattingly, Mr. J. F. Lentwine. 

Since 1870, either for better or worse, many important changes 
have been made in the administration of the schools. A syste- 
matic course of study has been adopted and is in use, the schools 
have been graded, a more exact discipline has been introduced, 
and from a state of comparative confusion as regards anj' settled 
policy of action, the business of the schools is as well and com- 
pletely systematized as that of any mercantile firm in town. In 
1874 a new school building was erected which is at present occu- 
pied by the schools. It is of brick, of two stories with a base- 
ment story available for school rooms. It has nine school rooms, 
with private and recitation rooms, is supplied with the best 
quality of school furniture and in Its finish and adaptation has no 
superior in tlic state. It has rooms for 500 pupils and is warmed 
by four large furnaces of the Ruttan style. It has also the cele- 
brated Ruttan system of ventilation. 

Within the past fourteen years the facilities for advanced 
classes have been much increased, especially hy the instruction 
offered in the high school grade. The position of high school 
teacher was held during 1872-3 and '74, by Miss Louise Cleave- 
land. She was succeeded in 1875 by Mr. D. E. Prescott, of Chi- 
cago, and he by Mrs. D. B. Wells, who formerly was principal of 
schools in Detroit. Under Mrs. Wells, the instruction in the 
high school has been surpassed by none in the country, and its 
classes would be a credit to any institution. 

The schools are now divided into nine grades, and the high 
school with nine teachers besides the superintendent. The in- 
struction in the grades below the high school embraces the com- 
mon school branches. The high school gives instruction in 
mathematics as far as to surveying, in natural science, including 
botany, phj-sical geography, chemistr}-, physiology, astronom3^ 
natural philosophy — its course in the English language embraces 
analysis, rhetoric, and English literature, to which is added 
political economy, general history, and a thorough knowledge of 
book-keeping. Such classes as may be desired are also formed 
in German and Latin. The study of the constitution of the 
United States is required of pupils entering the high school. 
The exercises in literary work consist of debating, essays, 
declamations and readings, and are held dail}', thus affording an 
amount of drill which could not be had when the exercises were 
held monthly. A weekly recitation in the current news of the 
day is had in the high school and first grade. Written examina- 


tions are held when deemed advisable, generally monthly, and at 
the close of each year an annual exarnination is had. The school 
was honored in 1874 by being enrolled by the state board in the 
list of schools whose graduates would be received at the state 
university without examination. 

It is not intended in this article to belittle or underestimate 
the labors or accomplishments of teachers and school officers of 
other days. In looking at their work, and considering the lack 
of buildings, of money, and often of a kind and encouraging 
public sentiment, the wonder is that they did so well. While to 
the teachers have come, in a great measure, the rewards and en- 
couragements of success, it must be remembered that to the 
teachers and school men of early times, we are altogether in- 
debted for our school system, and a large part of our school 
revenue. If any improvement has been secured in the Plymouth 
schools, within the past few years, it is due to the generous sup- 
port of the public, and especially to the wisdom, forbearance, 
and firmness of the several boards of education. If the exper- 
ience of the past twenty-five years teaches anything, it is wisdom 
of the policy inaugurated and pursued by these respective school 
boards, which may be briefly summed up in these words: 

1. That a public school, to be successful, must be managed 
upon the same principles as any other great business enterprise. 

2. That a public school, to fulfill its object, as well as to jus- 
tify its support, must be divorced from all party, clique, or sec- 
tarian influences or control. 

3. That as high order of talent is needed in primary instruc- 
tion as in higher grades, and since the majority of pupils are in 
the primary rooms, the employment of cheap teachers for lower 
grades is unjust and injurious. 

4. That the worst extravagance of which a city can be guilty, 
is the employment of cheap teachers, entailing, as it does, the 
double loss of the parents' money, and the children's time. 

5. That the public schools are not intended as a hospital for 
the sick and infirm, who may be unable to endure physical labor, 
nor as an asylum for distressed widows and helpless maidens, 
who, because they can do nothing else for a livelihood, infer that 
they can teach school. That nothing but her success can be 
taken as the estimate of a.teacher's worth. 

6. That while the schools are for the people, and like other 
public institutions, are under the control of the people, that con- 
trol must be exercisecf through the appointed legal means, viz.: 
the officials who have been chosen by the people for that 

It is not too much to say, that these principles have produced 
a great revolution in the Plymouth schools. 

The public schools of the city are still superintended by Prof. 


R. A. Chase, and have the reputation of being second to none 
in the state for good discipline, good attendance and general 

The following is from the Plynioiitli Donocrat of August the 
28th, 1890, and is a brief summary of the last school year's work. 

The City Schools. — The Democrat has just completed printing 
the report of the city schools for the years 1889-90, which will 
probably be distributed the latter part of this week. It contains 
much interesting and valuable information and should be care- 
fully perused and preserved for future reference by parents and 
others interested in our excellent schools. 

From it we learn that 655 pupils were enrolled within the 
year, the average membership was 554.8, per cent, of membership 
on enrollment 85, on enumeration 51, and the number in school 
at the end of the year was 523, the per cent, of attendance was 
96.7, and during the year 73 pupils were neither absent nor 
tardy. There were only 24 cases of tardiness during the year, 
22 of which were in H, I and K rooms. Besides this informa- 
tion of a general character the report gives the standing of each 
pupil attained at a final examination in each study, in which each 
pupil is represented by a number known only to the pupil and 
his parents. The volume also contains a catalogue of the school 
library, which contained on August 20th, 3,073 books, of which 
387 are private property, leaving 2,685 belonging to the library. 
The library has become an important feature of the citj' schools 
and according to the rules established by the board of education 
every resident family has a right to use one book from the 
library at the same time and retain it for two weeks. 

One of the important educational institutions of Plymouth is 
St. Michael's academy, founded in 1870, by the Catholics. It is 
a boarding and day school for young ladies, also for small boys 
under twelve years of age. This institution is under the direc- 
tion of the Sisters of the Holy Cross, from their Mother Home, 
near South Bend, Ind. To quote the glowing words of one of 
the managers: "The course of study combines the solidity of the 
scientific and literary pursuits with those light and graceful ac- 
complishments which throw a charm over domestic life, and con- 
tribute so essentially to elevate the tone of society at large." 
St. Michael's academy at present occupies a two-story brick 
building. The pupils occupy two large rooms which are well 
filled. Three rooms are devoted to music and are furnished 
with two pianos and one organ. The academy is under the 
guidance of five sisters, of whom Sister M. Pulcheria acts as 

Rcligiojis Societies. — One would naturally suppose that it would 
be an easy matter to gather the statistics of the churches, and 
trace the rise and progress of religious matters, since the organi- 


zation of the county; but such is not the case. Like everything 
else of a secular nature, the records, such as have been made at 
all, have been poorly kept, and the information gained from an 
examination of such as are at hand, is of a very indefinite and 
unsatisfactory nature. 

Several of the earliest settlers were members of the Presby- 
terian church, before they came here. In May, 1S3S, a Presby- 
terian church was organized in Plymouth, which at the first, 
numbered twenty-two members, and several others joined soon 
afterward. Of the meeting which was held at the formation of 
this organization, Rev. W. K. Marshall, of La Porte, was mod- 
erator. About the commencement of 1S39, Rev. E. W. Wright 
became the pastor of this church and acted in that capacity about 
one year. Mr. Wright possessed excellent abilities as a preacher, 
and was apparently a worthy young man. For several years af- 
ter Mr. Wright left, the church was without a pastor. During 
the year of 1S43-44, Rev. William Westervelt preached in 
Plymouth for a few months, with much acceptability, and then 
returned to Oberlin college, of which institution he was at the time 
a student. In 1845 the Presbyterian church of Plymouth, ob- 
tained a pastor in the person of Rev. John M. Bishop, who had 
then just graduated at Lane seminary. Mr. Bishop possessed 
learning, fine abilities, and other characteristics that were calcu- 
lated to make him highly useful in the ministry. His stay of two 
years is remembered by many with great pleasure. The suc- 
cessors of Mr. Bishop came to Plymouth about in the following 
order: Rev. C. D. Meeker, Rev. N. L. Lord, Rev. J. B. L. Soule, 
Rev. J. H. Spellman, Rev. N. Armstrong, Rev. William Porter, 
Rev. Mr. Campbell, Rev. William Lusk, Rev. J. E. Chapin, Rev. 
A. Taylor, Rev. George A. Little, Edwin P. Thomson and Wal- 
ter O. Lattimore, present incumbent, and the congregation, 
which numbers among its membership, some of the most sub- 
stantial citizens of the place, is in a flourishing condition. 

In Center township there are nine organizations — six of 
which are located in Plymouth: Methodist, Church of God, 
German Lutheran, Episcopal, Presbyterian and Catholic. The 
Methodist society erected the first church edifice, which is now re- 
moved to the " fair grounds." It was built about 1S50, and was 
considered at that time, a very convenient and commodious house 
of worship. It was owned and occupied by that society until 
about the year 1S67, when the present brick structure was com- 
pleted at a cost of some $12,000. The ministers in charge have 
been as follows: Thomas Owen, J. B. Mershong, Isaac Stagg, 
W. J. Forbs, Elias Daud, Albert Munson, Arthur Bradley, J. C. 
Robins, Thomas C. Hackney, Daniel M.Hancock, Rev. Sals- 
bury, W.J. Forbes, Rev. Casper, J.G.Osborne, Lucas Neba- 

ker, N. L. Brakeman, William Reeder, William Harker, W. P. 


Watkins, Philander Wiley, C. A. Brook, T. E. Webb, J. C. Mahin, 
W. R. Mikels, L. C. Buckels, J. L. Boyd, J. L. Stephens, T. C. 
Stringer, G. B. Bawer, W. P. McKinsey, A. A.Gee,W.C. David- 
son, J. A. Maxwell and Dr. H. A. Tucker, now officiating. 

The Methodist congregation was organized in Plymouth in 
the year 1836. The membership was small in the beginning, but 
steadily increasing until 1849, the membership was sufficient to 
justify the erection of a building for their own accommodation. 
The building was erected and used until 1S67, when the present 
church building was erected. 

The Episcopal society was formed about 1S63. From quite a 
small beginning, the church has increased until it now numbers 
about fifty communicants. Those who have been in charge of 
the rectorship are Rev. L. P. Tschiffely, Rev. Portmess, Rev. A. 
Youndt, Rev. William Lusk, Rev. Dr. Hume, Rev. J. J. Faude, 
Rev. S. T. Buster and Rev. Dr. Kemp. 

SL JMicIiacl's Congirgatioii, of Plymouth, Ind. — The follow- 
ing historical paragraphs concerning the Catholic, or St. Michael's, 
congregation, of Pl^^mouth, Ind., are taken from an address 
delivered before said congregation, by Mr. Michael Ryan, Feb- 
ruary 18, i8qo, upon the occasion of the deliverance of the church 
from a debt that had been hanging over it for many years: 

Previous to 1861, Plymouth was a missionary station, visited 
by priests from South Bend and Valparaiso. W^e think it is in order 
here to give a brief history of the block upon which the church, 
the pastoral residence and the academy stand to-day. 

Lots Nos. 58, 59 and 60, original plat of Plymouth, were trans- 
ferred from Zebedee Brown to David Vinnedge, December 19, 
1856. They remained in the possession of David Vinnedge dur- 
ing the years 1857, 1858, 1859 and i860. In the month of April, 
1861, the valuation for purpose of taxation of lot No. 58 was $350, 
and improvements, $150; total, $500; total tax, $4.00. The valua- 
tion of lot No. 59 was $275, and improvements, $150; total, 
$425; total tax, $3.40. The valuation of lot No. 60 was $300, no 
improvements; amount of tax, $2.40. The total amount of tax 
for the three lots and improvements for 1S61, was $9.80. The 
13th day of June, 1861, Rebecca Vinnedge, the widow of David 
Vinnedge, deeded to Rt. Rev. Bishop Luers, lots No. 59 and 60. 
The i8th day of February, 1863, Rebecca Vinnedge, by Nathan H. 
Oglesbee, administrator, deeded to Rt. Rev. Bishop Luers, lot 
No. 58. [I will state here that lot No. 58 is situated on the south 
end of the block, while No. 59 is the center lot, and No. 60 is the 
one on which the church now stands.] 

The administration of Rev. Father Volkert, the first resident 
priest of Plymouth, began in the year 1862, and closed in 1864. 
During his administration the lots to which we have referred 
were purchased for St. Michael's congregation, and our church 


was erected and completed in 1863. In September, 1863, the 
church was dedicated by Rt. Rev. Bishop Luers. Priests were 
present from many places. A very large congregation was 
present, many having come from La Porte and other places; re- 
duced rates having been secured on the old " Huckleberry Road," 
and also the P., Ft. W. & Chicago R. R. 

His successor was Rev. Father Steiner, whose administration 
began in 1S64, about six months before the close of the great 
■civil war. Anxiety and deep gloom prevailed everywhere. 
Politics and war seemed to rule the hour. Rev. Father Steiner 
had very poor health while in Plymouth. His administration 
closed in 1866. 

He was succeeded by Rev. Father Siegelack, whose adminis- 
tration began in 1866. It was during his administration that the 
St. Boniface Benevolent society was organized in 1869, since 
which time it has flourished, being a sweet guardian angel to 
many in the dark hours of sickness and sorrow. It was also 
during this administration that the statue of the Blessed Virgin 
was procured and an altar erected in her honor. His adminis- 
tration closed in 1869. 

The Catholic school, from 1861 to 1869, inclusive, was taught 
by the following named persons: Miss Dwyer, Miss Howard, 
Miss Buchanen, Miss Manahon, Miss Day, Mr. Weber and Mr. 
Stevens. Miss Kate Stokes, of Valparaiso, was the last teacher 
previous to the Sisters. She taught during the first few months 
of the administration of Rev. Father Zurwellen. We feel confi- 
dent that we are right in stating, not, however, in a spirit of criti- 
cism, that the above mentioned ladies and gentlemen were 
good teachers, but how discouraging must have been their daily 
task amid such surroundings. 

In October, 1S69, Rev. Father Zurwellen was sent to us as our 
pastor. The pastoral residence was situated in those days upon 
lot No. 58, that is, on the southwest corner of the block. 

St. Michael's academy is the name given to the institution of 
learning established in 1870. The building is of brick, substan- 
tially built, well arranged for the purpose for which it is used 
and cost about $12,000. It was during this administration that 
the large bell was procured. The day on which it was blessed it 
was placed near the sanctuary, and each contributor to the bell 
fund had the privilege of tolling the bell once for each dollar 
donated by him. The fifty cent fellows were in mourning. 

The next important acquisition made by the congregation was 
lot? No. 67, 68 and 96. They were purchased November 20, 1S72, 
from Nathan B. Ridgway, of La Porte, Ind. By way of ex- 
planation I will state that lot No. 67 is the one on which St. 
Joseph's hall is situated. 

Dear friends, how many present to-day remember with 


regret that the remains of some dear one, one whom they have 
known on earth, lies moldering in that one acre of ground, do- 
nated to the Catholics of Plymouth, by Uncle Johnny Hughes, 
as he was called. All honor to that brave old pioneer, his heart 
was in the right place, but his farm was too far north for a burial 
ground, yet the poor Catholics of Plymouth were glad to accept 
it from the hands of the cheerful giver. It was used for many 
years, until in 1S71, the city gave us the privilege of using a por- 
tion of Oak Hill cemetery, for burial purposes. So matters 
stood until the 15th day of April, 1875, Rev. Father Zurwellen 
purchased from Place and VanPelt, of La Porte, Ind., the four 
acres of ground which we now call our own, and which is used 
as a cemetery by the members of this congregation. This we 
think is a pretty complete history of the purchases made and 
improvements accomplished by Rev. Father Zurwellen. 

On the 6th day of February, 1SS3, Rev. Father Moench, our 
present beloved pastor, arrived in Plymouth. He was sent to us 
at the very moment when this congregation mourned the loss of 
one who had been a spiritual father to us for fourteen years. He 
found us in tears, and we are convinced that many were the tears 
he shed on that never to be forgotten occasion. But with an 
humble trust in God and St. Joseph he surveyed the field, con- 
sulted few, built his fortifications, disciplined his army and the battle 
began. War was declared against what ? Against that standing 
debt of $5,000. Against that annual interest of $500. Against a 
certain class of individuals calling themselves Catholics, and who, 
when the hour of action came, remained in the back-ground or 
under the ammunition wagon, who never assisted in defraying 
even the ordinary expenses of the congregation. They were 
told to g'O or shoulder their musket and come to the front. Thus 
with a determined leader, with an united and harmonious con- 
gregation, with a ready trust in God, with humble prayer and 
believing hearts, the battle was fought and the victory won, and 
on this, our day of joj', St. Michael's congregation, of Plj'mouth, 
may point with pride to the banner on which is inscribed the 
glorious record of the last seven 3'ears. 

Here it is: In the year 18S3 was paid on the standing debt, 
$1,215 of the principal, and $302.25 interest. In 1884, $632 of the 
principal, and $174 interest. In the same year the pastoral resi- 
dence was erected at a cost of $1,131.37, also the statue of St. 
Joseph was secured and an altar erected in his honor. In 1885, 
$385 dollars principal, and $141.70 interest. It was likewise in 
1885 that the church was frescoed and repaired at an expenditure 
of $660.77. In 1886, $784 paid on the principal, and $202.50 inter- 
est. It was also during that year the banners of the Rosary 
society and the Young Ladies' sodality were bought. In 1887, 
$650 principal, and $84.95 interest. It was in 1887 that the beau- 


tiful altar was donated. In 1888, $550 principal, and $53.11 inter- 
est, and St. Joseph's hall was built at a cost of $1,298, and the 
beautiful stained windows were placed in the church. In 1889 
the new iron fence was built, and the stone sidewalk laid, and 
$150 principal, and $14 Interest was paid, thus wiping out the 
last dollar of that cruel debt. Comment is unnecessary. Actions 
speak louder than words. 

The German Evangelical St . JoJnis Congregation (not Lutheran, 
as It is usually called) was organized in 1862, by Rev. C. Bofinger, 
who preached once a month until iS6s. In the same manner 
did Rev. F. W. E. Werner from 1S65 to 1S68. In 1868, while the 
Rev. Jak. Kammerer had charge of the congregation the church 
was built, a handsome and commodious brick building, situated 
at the corner of Center and West Adams streets. It cost about 
$15,000. From 1870 to 1874, Rev. C. Nussbaum, Rev. E. Keur- 
ben. Rev. C. A. Behrend, and from 1874 to 1877 Rev. C. Bofinger 
had charge. The next eight years there was preaching once a 
month by Rev. J. Grunert, of Wanatah. In 1885 Rev. C. Bofin- 
ger came back and has had charge of the congregation since 
that time. The congregation numbers 128 communicants. The 
Sunday-school has sixty-seven scholars with seventeen teachers. 
Superintendent is Mr. J. Hoham; treasurer and secretary, Mr. 
William Hausler. A ladies' society of twenty-six members, 
Mrs. E. Ruge, president; Mrs. Magd Wendling, treasurer, and 
Mrs. K. Hauk, secretary, are very active in promoting the inter- 
est of the church. The house situated next to the church was 
bought October, 1888, for a parsonage, costing $2,050. The con- 
gregation belongs to the Michigan district of the German 
Evangelical synod of North America. 

ChurcJi of God. — The following is a brief outline history of 
several churches which have been organized In Marshall county, 
Ind., and designated collectively and denominationally as the 
" Churches of God In Christ Jesus." These organizations are 
often spoken of as " Advent Churches," from the prominence 
that has been given to the doctrine of the second advent of 
Christ, and kindred doctrines, both by the ministry and the mem- 
bership of these churches. Their history, in this count}', com- 
mences about 1S46-7, when Elder Ephraim Miller and Elder 
Hoyt came and held a series of meetings near Wolf creek mills, 
at a place known as Pisgah church, when a very favorable Im- 
pression was made, as to the correctness of the doctrinal views 
presented. During the two years Immediately succeeding. Elder 
N. M. Catlin came, at stated intervals, and preached at the same 
place. It was here that the first church in the county had its 
origin, being composed, mainly, of members of an older organ- 
ization of the Disciples of Christ, or Campbellites, as they are 
many times termed. The two elders of the older church em- 


braced the views set forth by the above-named preachers, and 
continued their official relation with the church under its new 
form. These elders were Henry Logan and Hugh S. Barnhill. 
It was in January, 1830, that Elder S. A. Chapin, made his first 
visit to this church, whose labors with churches, located at dif- 
ferent points in the county, covered a period of forty years, with 
but slight interruptions. Churches have since been organized at 
Antioch, Argos, Salem, and at these points houses of worship 
have been erected. There is also an organization not far from 
Maxinkuckee lake, but of these our limits forbid details. In the 
autumn of 1874 Elder H. V. Reed removed from near Chicago 
to Plymouth, where he lived upward of two years, preaching 
mostly in town, but extending his labors to surrounding churches. 
He was also influential in bringing about the organization of 
the Christian Publishing association, of which the more immedi- 
ate object was the publication of a weekly paper. The Restitution. 
Of this journal he became editor, and so continued for over two 
years, when he was succeeded by S. A. Chapin, who held the 
position until September iS, 1S89, a period of nearly thirteen 
years, since which its editing has been done by the board of di- 
rectors. Many of the quarterly and annual conferences of the 
churches in northern Indiana have been held in this countj', at 
which times the attendance has usually been quite large. There 
were no convocations of a more general character than these 
held till quite a recent date. It was not till November 16-26, 
A. D. 1888, that "the first annual conference of the churches of 
God in Christ Jesus for the United States and Canada," was held 
in the city of Philadelphia, Penn., and the second general con- 
ference, of like character, was held in 1SS9, one 3'ear later, in 
Chicago, 111. In relation to preachers of later times Elder L. C. 
Conner and Elder N. H. Geiselman may be mentioned, who have 
done quite an amount of pastoral and evangelizing work during 
the few past years, and with marked success. The church polity 
is congregational, and, following the divine model, each church 
elects its own elders and deacons, and when occasion requires, 
its own clerk and treasurer. None are admitted to membership 
but immersed believers of the gospel. The Lord's supper is 
observed as a sacred commemorative institution. Brevity for- 
bids any enlarged statement of doctrinal views on human destiny 
or the future of this planetary world; but with no creed but the 
Bible it is an axiom in these congregations, that these moment- 
ous topics must be presented in the positive and liberal language 
of Holy Writ to challenge the belief of any person. 

St. Paul's Reformed CImrcIi. — This church was organized in 
Plymouth, August 22, 18S1. The following are the names of the 
ministers who have officiated: J. B. Henry, W. A. From, P.J. 
Spangler, N. H. Loose and J. T. Hale, present incumbent. In 


1885 the society built a very commodious church, immediately 
northeast of the seminary square. The organization has fifty 
members, who are among our very best citizens. The present 
officers are Noah V. Hoover and Jacob Suit, elders, and J. Mat. 
Keyser and G. W. Kreigbaum, deacons. 

Benevolent Soeietics. — With the advancement of civilization 
and the increase in population, came the necessity for the organ- 
ization of societies for mutual benefit and social amusement. 
The oldest of these, and the first established in Marshall county, 
was a branch of the Masonic system. The traditions in regard 
to the history of Masonry are numerous, and so far as it is now 
known, its organization dates so far back in the world that the 
memory of man runneth not to the contrary. Originally, 
Masonry was an operative organization, attaining its greatest 
degree of perfection at the building of King Solomon's Temple. 
Since that time, perhaps less than 200 years ago, it was changed 
into a speculative science, still retaining the working tools of 
operative Masonry, and giving to them a symbolic meaning, illus- 
trating the erection of a human temple, perfect in all its parts. 

Plymouth lodge, No. 149, was organized under dispensation, 
April 2, 1S53, and chartered May 23, 1S53, with seven members 
to begin with. Its place of meeting was on Center street, in the 
second story of a building opposite where the old Christian 
chapel formerly stood. John G. Osborne was the first master, 
and served as such for a number of years. The petitioners were 
John G. Osborne, G. P. Cherry, H. B. Pershing, George Pomeroy, 
W. J. Burns, Jacob Knoblock, J. Y. Moore, W. K. Logan. The 
first admitted were John Coleman, John Hall and VV. B. Moore, 
April 15, 1853. First initiated, U. D., Hiram Pomeroy, John C. 
Mathews, H. P. Steel, April 13, 1853. Its emblematic broken 
column commemorates the names of many distinguished citizens 
who have, from time to time, passed over the " valley and shadow 
of death." But two who were members in 1S57, remain: Horace 
Corbin and A. P. Elliott. Others, however, have taken their 
places, and the membership is now 125. Kilwinning lodge. No. 
135, was chartered May 23, 1871, with thirteen members. Dan 
McDonald was the first master. These lodges are now united 

under the name of Plymouth-Kilwinning lodge. No. . Each 

of these lodges have furnished a grand master of the state: 
Martin H. Rice, of Plymouth, and Daniel McDonald, of Kil- 
winning. Plymouth chapter. No. 49, Royal Arch Masons, was 
organized May 19, 1864. Martin H. Rice, first high priest, with 
nine members. It now has a membership of fifty-five. Plymouth 
council. No. 18, Royal and Select Masters, organized Ivlay 22, 
1866, Martin H. Rice, first ill. master, with nine members. It 
had a membership of fifty, at the time it ceased to work about 
twelve years ago. Plymouth commandery. No. 26, Knights 
10— B. 


Templar, was chartered April 27, 1875, starting with a member- 
ship of thirteen. Henry G. Thayer first em. commander. It 
now has a membership of about fifty. 

Independent Order of Odd FcIIozvs. — This order is similar in its 
work and teachings to the Masonic organization. It differs only 
in the ceremonial ritual and the qualification of candidates for 
membership, and the manner of dispensing its charities. Each 
member disabled from sickness, receives a stipulated amount per 
week, and, in case of death, a specific amount is appropriated 
for funeral expenses. Thomas Wildy, whose mortal remains lie 
buried in the citj' of Baltimore, was the founder of the order in 
America, about sixty years ago. Since that time it has increased 
in numbers more rapidly, perhaps, than any other similar organ- 
ization. In Indiana it numbers about 500 subordinate lodges, 
with a membership approximating 30,000, and in the United 
States about half a million. Its motto is F., L. & T., signifying 
Friendship, Love and Truth. 

Americus lodge, No. 91, was the first organized in Marshall 
county. It was instituted March 4, 1S51. The petitioners were 
W. G. Pomeroy, Gilson S. Cleaveland, William C. Edwards, 
Wesley Gregg, Grove O. Pomeroy and J. W. Bennett, and con- 
tinued to work until July 22, 1855, when it ceased to exist. It 
was again resuscitated July 14, 1859, and continued until July 18, 
1862, when the charter was surrendered. The charter was again 
restored April 16, 1868, and has continued work until the present 
time, and is now in a healthy and prosperous condition, with a 
contributing membership of forty, with a large general and 
orphans' fund at interest on first mortgage securit3^ 

A branch of the order is represented in what is called an 
encampment. It is composed of fifth degree members, and is 
similar in its workings to the Masonic order of Knights Templar. 
Plymouth encampment. No. 113, was organized under charter 
May 24, 1872, R. McCance, J. C. Kuhn, J. A. Palmer, S. Becker, 
S. Meyer, Henry Spier, A. L. Reeves and others, eighteen in all, 
charter members. 

The encampment has now thirty-five active members, quite a 
number of whom are from neighboring lodges. New life and 
vigor appear to have been infused into the order lately, not only 
in Plymouth, but throughout the county, and the prospects of the 
fraternity for good, were never better in this vicinity than now. 

Attached to the order of Odd Fellows, is a " ladies' depart- 
ment," called the " Daughters of Rebeka." This degree was 
originated by the Hon. Schuyler Colfax several years ago, and 
has become quite popular among the wives, mothers, sisters and 
daughters of Odd Fellows, who alone are entitled to receive it. 

Knights of Pythias. — Hyperion lodge. No. 117, Knights of 
Pythias, was organized in Plymouth, May 13, 1884. The lodge 


now has eighty members, and Plymouth division, No. 17, uniform 
rank of Knights of Pythias has a membership of forty. The 
financial condition of the lodge is good, and the members, who 
are young and middle aged men, are working together in peace 
and harmony, and therefore the results can be nothing but suc- 
cess. The officers for 1S90 are as follows: chancellor commander, 
George E. Paul; vice chancellor, Rollo B. Oglesbee; prelate, 
Clarence Sluyter; master finance, Oliver G. Soice; master ex- 
chequer, Louis McDonald; keeper of records and seals, Luther R. 
Cressner; master-at-arms, Thomas Rollins; inner guard, Frank 
Red; outer guard, Lawrence S. Learned. The lodge meets every 
Monday night. 

Royal Arcamivi. — Gyrene council, No. 944, Plymouth, Ind., of 
the order or society of the Royal Arcanum, was organized Janu- 
ary 23, 1S86, with eighteen charter members, and now, 1890, its 
membership numbers eighty-five. The condition of the council 
is good financially and otherwise. The present officers are as 
follows: past regent, L. Tanner; regent, F. M. McCrory; vice 
regent, Amasa Johnson; orator, Charles R. Leonard; chaplain. 
Rev. N. R. Loose; guide, Walter A. Reynolds; secretary, Cal- 
vin P. Klinger; treasurer, James A. Gilmore; collector, Rollo B. 
Oglesbee; warden, J. Mat. Keyser; sentry, J. E. Bentz. One 
death — suicide — has occurred since the organization of the lodge, 
that of James A. McDonald, and the amount paid his widow as 
insurance was $3,000. It is a semi-business and social organi- 



Daniel B. Armstrong, foreman of the sash, door a'nd blind 
establishment of J. F. Behrens, was born in Columbia county, 
Penn., August 8th, 1836, and is a son of James and Catherine 
(Baughert) Armstrong, the father a native of New York, and 
the mother a native of Pennsylvania. When a young man 
James Armstrong removed to Pennsylvania, where he followed 
the trade of shoemaking, and where he was .married. In 1839 he 
went west and located in Rush county, Ind. He subsequently 
moved to Henry county where he remained three or four years, 
and then took charge of a saleratus factory at Knightstown, 
moving from thence to Eagle village where he was similarly en- 
gaged for about three years. In March, 1S49, he removed to 
Marshall county, locating first at Plymouth, where he continued 
the manufacture of saleratus for one year, when he removed to 
a farm nine miles southeast of the county seat, where he also 


followed saleratus making. His wife dying, he afterward made 
his home with the subject of this sketch, with whom he has hved 
for ten years. Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong were the parents of 
seven children, three of whom grew to manhood, but only one of 
them, the gentleman whose name introduces this sketch, survives. 
Daniel B. Armstrong remained under the parental roof until his 
seventeenth year, and then went to Michigan City where he 
served an apprenticeship at carriage and house painting. He 
completed his trade at Rockville and then located at the town of 
Eugene, Vermillion county, Avhere he remained about one year, 
moving thence to Plj'mouth. He afterward worked at his trade 
at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and returning to Indiana again located 
in Vermillion county, where in 1S56, February 17th, he was united 
in marriage to Mary A. Melton, a native of Indiana, and daugh- 
ter of William S. Melton. In the fall of the above year he again 
became a resident of Plymouth, where he worked at his trade 
until the breaking out of the late war. He entered the army at 
La Porte, September 7th, 1861, in Company D, of the Ninth 
Indiana volunteers, with which he served for a period of three 
years. From the time of his enlistment until January, 1S62, he 
was on duty in West Virginia, but later accompanied his com- 
mand to Nashville, Tenn., where his regiment was assigned to 
Nelson's division, nineteenth brigade, army of the Ohio. Among 
the engagements in which he took part were Greenbrier, Stone 
River, Chickamauga, where he had a horse killed under him, 
Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and numerous others, in all 
of which he bore the part of a brave and gallant soldier. De- 
cember 31st, 1S62, in the first day's fight at Stone River, he was 
severe!}' wounded by a minnie ball in the left ankle which neces- 
sitated his retiring from active service for several months, dur- 
ing which time he was confined in the hospital. A short time 
before receiving his wound the horse which he was riding fell 
beneath him pierced with seven balls and a piece of shell. When 
sufficiently recovered, he rejoined his command at Manchester, 
Tenn., August 6th, 1S63, and December, 1863, after the battle of 
Missionary Ridge, he was furloughed for twenty days with in- 
structions to report to Indianapolis at the end of that time. He 
•did so report but Gov. Baker, then provost marshal, sent him 
home to remain during his regiment's furlough, at which time he 
rejoined his command at X'alparaiso, where he remained until 
ordered to report at Indianapolis for light duties, his wound 
rendering him unfit for service in the field. He was on dut}' in 
that city in the quartermaster's department until September, 
1864, when he was mustered out of the service with the rank of 
sergeant major, he having been promoted to that rank Decem- 
ber the 1 8th, 1S62, just thirteen daj's before he was wounded at 
Stone River, and having held that rank until the end of his term 


of three years' enlistment. After his discharge he was made quar- 
termaster of the sixth district of Indiana, which position he lilled 
for a period of nine months. In June, 1S65, he returned to Ply- 
mouth and resumed work at housepainting, which he was soon 
compelled to abandon on account of his wounded leg which 
made such work impossible. He continued the business of car- 
riage and sign painting, but owing to the extra amount of poison 
inhaled by being confined to the shop his health finally gave way 
entirel3^ so he had to quit the shop also and give up his trade. 
In 1S7S he accepted the position of deputy sheriff of Marshall 
county, the duties of which he discharged four years, and in 1S83 
became member of a business firm dealing in sash, doors and 
blinds, building material, etc., which was succeeded in 1884, by 
J. F. Behrens, who now operates the same. Since the latter j^ear 
Mr. Armstrong has been foreman of the establishment, and 
much of its success is due to his energetic oversight. Mr. Arm- 
strong's first wife died in April, 1S62, about seven months after 
he had gone to the front. Three children were born to this 
marriage, all of whom survived their mother, two of whom are 
living at this time, Hattie B., and Mary A. Mr. Armstrong's 
second marriage took place in June, 1866, to Margaret Spangler, 
of Pulaski county, who died December 30th, 1876. Mr. Arm- 
strong was elected city treasurer of Plymouth in 1S74, and held 
the position four years. 

Prof. Wellington E. Bailey, superintendent of the public 
schools of Marshall county, one of the leading educators of In- 
diana, is a native of Miami county, this state, born July 5, 1S41. 
His father, Stewart Baile3^ was a native of Onondaga county, 
N. Y., in which state he married Miss Sally Berry, and later, in 
1831, moved to Miami county. Ind., having been among the pio- 
neers of that section of the state. He purchased a tract of land 
from the government, and cleared a farm upon which he lived 
until 1849, when he moved to Cass county, and settled in the 
vicinity of Logansport. Six years later he returned to Miami 
county, where he resided until the spring of 1861, at which time 
he became a resident of Marshall county, locating at the town of 
Bourbon, moving thence to the vicinity of Plymouth two years 
later. He afterward returned to his farm in Miami county, 
where his death occurred in 1S77. His wife preceded him to the 
grave, dying in 1873. ^^ addition to farming Mr. Bailey for a 
number of years carried on the brickmaker's trade, at which he 
worked in various localities where he resided. He was a min- 
ister of the Methodist church, and during the early days of Mar- 
shall, Miami and other counties, assisted in the organization of 
a large number of congregations and societies. His experience 
in the sacred calling partook largely of the characteristics of that 
well-known character, Peter Cartwright, whose methods of work 


were strikingly similar to his own. He was a man of limited 
education, but possessed in a marked degree the elements of a 
popular pulpit orator and successful pastor, which peculiarly 
fitted him for pioneer Christian work in the sparsely settled dis- 
tricts of northern Indiana. Stewart and Sally Baile}' were the 
parents of ten children, five sons and five daughters, three of the 
latter deceased. The following are the names of the children: 
Melinda D. (deceased), Stewart J., of Menomonee, Wis., mem- 
ber of the Wisconsin legislature; W. E.; Caroline, wife of David 
Black; Walter C, attorney at law, Peru, Ind.; Daniel S., of Wis- 
consin; Nancy M.,wife of A. S. Benedict; Olive J., deceased wife 
of Wesley Eurit; William H., dentist, of Menomonee, Wis., and 
Laurie E., deceased wife of A. P. Carvey. Prof. W. E. Bailey 
was reared in Miami, Cass and Marshall counties, and received 
his early educational training in the common schools. He sub- 
sequently attended the Logansport seminary, in which he made 
substantial progress in the higher branches of learning, and after- 
ward worked with his father at farming and brick making until 
1861, when he and an older brother, Stewart J. Bailey, enlisted 
in Company G, Ninth regiment, Illinois cavalry, both going from 
their home in Bourbon to Chicago in order to join a cavalry 
regiment. At Helena, Ark., our subject was thrown from a 
horse in 1S62, the effect of which was to incapacitate him from 
further active duty in the field. He was then sent to the United 
States general hospital, Keokuk, Iowa, where he remained an 
invalid from September, 1S62, until March, 1863, at which time 
he was discharged from the hospital, and placed in command of 
the provost guard, at that post, holding his position about 
eighteen months. His term of three years' enlistment having ex- 
pired, Mr. Bailey was honorably discharged at Springfield, 111., 
and immediately thereafter returned to Marshall county, where 
in March, 1865, he was married to Susan E., daughter of Solo- 
mon Linn, one of the pioneers in this part of the state. Mr. Linn 
moved to Marshall county from Kentucky in i836and took an ac- 
tive part in the early development of the county. After his mar- 
riage, Mr. Bailey began the manufacture of brick in Bourbon, 
and in 1S66, entered upon his career as a teacher, by taking 
charge of a country school not far from the above town. He 
taught three successive terms in this locality, working at the plas- 
terer's trade during tne summer season, and in 1869, was ap- 
pointed principal of the Bourbon public school, which position 
he filled in a creditable manner, for a period of three years. He 
"was one of the prime movers in the organization of the Marshall 
county teachers' association in 1869-70, and was treasurer of the 
same until the enactment of the county superintendency law in 
1872-73, when the society was merged into the present county 
institute work. In 1872 he was appointed teacher of room B, of 


the Plymouth public school, and while thus employed, was ap- 
pointed to fill out the unexpired term of Thomas McDonald, 
county school superintendent. He became superintendent by 
appointment the following June, and was three times re-elected 
to the same office in 1875, 1877-79, respectively, and discharged 
the duties of the position until 1881. He retired from the office 
that year, and became special agent for the Union Central Life 
Insurance company, of Cincinnati, Ohio, in which capacity he 
continued until June, 1887, when he was again elected to the su- 
perintendency, being the present incumbent. As an educator, 
Mr. Bailey is well known throughout Indiana, and as a popular 
superintendent, few in the state enjoy a more extended reputa- 
tion. No better evidence of his ability and efficiency can be ad- 
duced than the fact that though Marshall county is largely dem- 
ocratic, he has served over ten years in the principal educational 
office. He is a supporter of the republican party, a member of 
the Masonic fraternity, and an active worker in the G. A. R. 
Mrs. Bailey is a lady of intelligence and refinement, and has con- 
tributed largely to her husband's success in life. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Bailey four children have been born as follows: Clara B. 
(deceased) ; Walter H., in business in Chicago; Norman E. and 
Maud M. Mr. and Mrs. Bailey belong to the Presbyterian church 
at Plymouth. 

Among the successful business men of Plymouth few occupy 
a more conspicuous place than Philip J. Ball, senior member of 
the mercantile firm of Ball & Carabin, extensive dealers in dry 
goods, notions, clothing, hats and caps, and the leading merchant 
tailors of Marshall county. Mr. Ball was born in Alsace-Loraine, 
France, now a part of Germany, May i, 1836. He grew to man- 
hood in his native countr}^ and there learned the tailor's trade in 
which he became a very skillful workman and which he followed 
both in Germany and the United States. He came to this coun- 
try in 1S54, and located at the town of Java, N. Y., where he 
worked at his trade for three years, and later worked at different 
places in that state until 1862, at which time he went to Michigan 
where he remained for two years. He next went to Fort Wayne, 
Ind., and after working for some time there located at Columbia 
City, Ind., where he did a successful business until 1875. In the 
meantime, 1S66, he revisited his former home in Germany where 
he remained for a period of about six months. During the last 
years in Columbia City, he carried on business for himself, and 
while there formed a partnership with August Carabin, and the 
firm thus formed was moved to Plymouth in 1S75, where it has 
since carried on a very successful business. On coming to this city, 
Messrs. Ball & Carabin carried on the merchant tailoring busi- 
ness alone, but since that time have added dry goods, hats, caps 
and notions, and now have one of the largest mercantile estab- 


lishments in Plymouth. Mr. Ball was married in 1S67 to Cath- 
rine Carabin, to which union five children have been born as 
follows: Prosper A., Jerome A., Edward J., Alfonse J. and Marj^ L. 
Mr. Ball and family are among the well-known citizens of Ply- 
mouth. They are members of the St. Michael congregation, of 
which Mr. Ball is treasurer. 

Among the enterprising citizens of Plymouth is John F. 
Behrens, who for a number of years has been prominently iden- 
tified with the lumber interests of the county, and who is, at this 
time, one of the largest dealers in lumber, sash, doors, blinds, 
shingles and building material, in this part of the state. Mr. 
Behrens is a native of Germany, born 1837, in Schleswig-Hols- 
tein. He left his native country in i860, and immigrating to the 
United States, located first at Davenport, Iowa, where he learned 
the cooper's trade, and in 1861 came to Pljmiouth, where for a 
period of three years he operated a cooper shop doing a good 
business. In 1864 he engaged in the dry goods and clothing 
business, boots and shoes, in Plymouth, also dealing in and man- 
ufacturing lumber, operating various saw-mills in different parts 
of the count}'. In 1881 he moved his mercantile business to 
Walkerton, where he still conducts a large dry goods house and 
also operated a successful lumber trade in Plymouth. From 
time to time he closed out his manufacturing business, disposing 
of his saw-mills, and for some time past has turned his attention 
largely to the lumber trade and in dealing in sash, doors, blinds, 
and building material of all kinds. He has a large establishment 
at the corner of Gano and Plumb streets, which, under the con- 
trol of his son, Charles F. Behrens, has become one of the largest 
and most successful enterprises of the kind in Marshall county. 
Mr. Behrens has been quite active in public affairs during his 
residence in Plymouth, and as a local politician has been a 
potent factor in the success of his party in a number of closely 
contested campaigns. He is essentially a self-made man, and as 
such, ranks with the most enterprising citizens of the county. 
He came to Plymouth possessed only of his trade, but by the 
practice of economy and good business methods he has suc- 
ceeded in overcoming the obstacles before which men of less 
energj- would have been discouraged, and is now regarded as 
one of the substantial and well-to-do men of the city. He was 
married in 1864 to Amelia Angerman, a native of southern Ger- 
many. She was born in 1838, came to the United States in 1854, 
and was, for a number of years, a resident of New York city. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Behrens have been t^rn five children, three 
living, viz.: Charles F., John A. and Anna A. Charles F. Beh- 
rens, oldest son of the above and manager of his father's exten- 
sive business interests, is one of the rising young men of 
Plymouth. He was born in this city January 4th, 1S68, received 


a good education, and on leaving school, entered his father's em- 
ploy and, as already stated, is now the business manager. He is 
a young man of excellent business habits, and possesses in a 
remarkable degree the confidence and esteem of his fellow citi- 
zens. He is a member of the Odd Fellows order, belonging to 
the Americus lodge. No. 91, of Plymouth. 

Few men in Indiana are more widely known than Hon. John S. 
Bender, a leading politician and prominent attorney of Plymouth, 
who was born in the state of Pennsylvania, near the city of Car- 
lisle, Cumberland county, on the 26th day of January, 1827. His 
parents were Jacob and Jane (Dobbs) Bender, natives respect- 
ively of Cumberland and Juniatta counties, Penn., the father a 
miller and farmer by occupation, and a descendant of German 
ancestors, who were among the earliest settlers of Virginia in the 
time of the colonies. Jacob Bender was an industrious and up- 
right citizen, of strong religious tendency, and a prominent mem- 
ber of the United Brethren church. The family came to Indiana 
a number of years ago, and settled in that part of Marshall 
county which now belongs to the county of Stark, where Mr. 
Bender purchased a farm and afterward engaged in the manu- 
facture of flour. Of the children born to Jacob and Jane Bender, 
the following are living: the subject of this biography; Robert H., 
present auditor of Stark county; Susan J., wife of Edward Tib- 
betts; Adaline, wife of Lorenzo D. Glazebrook, and Jacob G., a 
commercial traveler of Goshen, Ind. John S. Bender spent the 
first ten years of his life near the city of Carlisle, Penn., and later 
moved with his parents to Wayne county, Ohio, locating near the 
city of Wooster, where he attended school at the village of Mill- 
brook during the years 1838-30. In the spring of the latter year 
the father took charge of a mill in Millbrook, which he operated 
for some time, the subject assisting him and attending school at 
intervals. In 1840 they removed to Shreve, Ohio, in which place 
the subject attended school during the winter seasons, and as- 
sisted in the mill the rest of the year, becoming thoroughly fami- 
liar with the miller's trade. In 1843 he accompanied his parents 
to Richland county, Ohio, locating near the city of Mansfield, 
where the family remained three 3'ears, during which time he at- 
tended school and worked in the mill of nights. The family 
came to Marshall county in 1846, and settled in that part of the 
county which has since been added to the county of Stark, and 
here John S. assisted in building the first school-house In the lat- 
ter county. He taught school In the winter of 1846-47, and in 
the latter year did general farm work, and also engaged in raft- 
ing on the Kankakee river. In 1S48 he took charge of the North 
Liberty Mills, St. Joseph county, with his father, and continued 
business there until the destruction of the mill by a cyclone in 
the year 1850. In the meantime he became severely afflicted 


with inflammatory rheumatism, in consequence of which he was 
compelled to abandon milling, and for several years thereafter 
taught school in St. Joseph and Stark counties. In 1850-51 and 
1S52, he attended the high school at South Bend, where he made 
rapid progress in his studies. Having a decided taste for the 
scientific branches, he read extensively upon the subjects of as- 
tronomy, natural philosophy, geology, mineralogy, etc., besides 
•giving considerable attention to mathematics and the classics, in 
all of which he became thoroughly well informed. In 1852 he 
began the practice of surveying and civil engineering, which he 
continued as often as his abilities in this direction were required 
for a number of years. His health failing him in 1856, he was com- 
pelled to relinquish the duties of active life, and at the solicitation 
of his friends was induced to make the race for the clerk and audi- 
torship of Stark county, to which office he \vas elected, and the 
duties of which he discharged in a highly satisfactory manner 
four years, refusing a re-election. In the meantime he had given 
considerable attention to the legal profession, having become 
well informed in the same by extensive reading, and on retiring 
from the office of auditor he turned his attention almost exclu- 
sively to the practice of law in Marshall, Stark and other coun- 
ties. Mr. Bender has been an important factor in the political 
history of northern Indiana, having entered politics when a young 
man and continued in the same ever since. He was educated in 
the political faith of the democratic party, with which he affili- 
ated until the breaking out of the late war, and which he repre- 
sented as a delegate in a number of state conventions. His first 
recognition as a delegate was in the democratic state convention 
in 1859, in the deliberations of which he took a very active and 
prominent part. Becoming dissatisfied with the policy of the 
democratic part}' at the breaking out of the rebellion, he severed 
his allegiance from the same and cast his first republican vote 
for i\braham Lincoln when the latter made his second race for 
the presidency. He opposed Lincoln's first election, voting for 
his competitor, .Stephen A. Douglas, for whom he did valuable 
service during the campaign as a speaker and political writer. 
Mr. Bender was uncompromisingly in favor of prosecuting the 
war, and used all of his energies toward raising troops and fur- 
nishing supplies, spending freel}' of his own money in this laud- 
able work. Owing to injury received a number of years previous 
which unfitted him for active service in the field, he was reluc- 
tantly compelled to remain out of the army, though offered the 
position of civil engineer with the pay of colonel. In 1864 he 
was a delegate to the republican state convention, and was simi- 
larly honored in ever}' state convention from that year to 1S76, 
inclusive. A close and conscientious student of political econ- 
omy, Mr. Bender gave a great deal of attention to financial mat- 


ters, and becoming satisfied that the republican party did not oc- 
cupy the proper position upon this great question, he became a 
member of the national greenback party in 1878, since which 
time he has been one of the exponents of its principles and 
strongest advocates in this part of the state. In 1879 he helped 
to construct an entirely new platform for the party, having been 
a delegate to the national convention that year, in which he served 
on the platform committee. He was again chosen delegate to 
the national convention held in St. Louis in 1S80, in which he 
also served upon the committee to prepare a platform, and was 
the author of the first resolution in favor of the enfranchisement 
of women ever offered in a national convention. Mr. Bender 
served as a postmaster of Stark for some time, by appointment 
of Abraham Lincoln. It will thus be seen that his life has been a 
very active one, and his abilities, which are recognized as of a 
high order, have been given almost exclusively to public affairs. 
He is not unknown to the literary world, having contributed to a 
number of periodicals, besides publishing several more preten- 
tious works, among the best known of which are " Hoosier's Ex- 
perience in Europe" and "Money; Its Definition." In the field 
of journalism he has had considerable experience, having con- 
ducted The PlymoutJi Republican, a political paper, from 1868 
until 1S75. He is a clear and trenchant writer, a close reasoner, 
and eminently fair in the discussion of political questions. Mr. 
Bender was married in 1855, to Miss Maggie Bowers, daughter of 
Samuel Bowers, of Richland county, Ohio. She died in 1S56. In 
March, 1858, Mr. Bender's marriage with Miss Rachel Houghton, 
daughter of James Houghton, of England, and an early settler 
of Marshall county, was consummated. Mr. and Mrs. Bender 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, to which he 
has belonged since 1854. He is a prominent member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, belonging to Plymouth lodge and commandery, 
No. 26, K. T. 

T. A. Borton, M. D., a popular physician and surgeon of Ply- 
mouth, was born in Ohio, Stark county, December 16, 1831, the 
son of Samuel and Mahala (Nash) Borton. His parents were 
residents of the above county and state, and were descended 
from Quaker ancestry. Of their children the following are liv- 
ing: Lizzie, wife of Dr. Lanning, of Clay county, Kan.; Louise, 
for many years a teacher in the public schools; Rhoda A., wife of 
Dr. Johnson, of Bourbon, and the subject of this biography, who 
is the oldest member of the family. The doctor was reared in 
Stark county, received his rudimentary education in the common 
schools and afterward pursued his literary studies in the high 
school, and also attended select school for some time. During the 
progress of his education, he chose the medical profession as the 
channel in which his life's voyage was to be made, and began the 


Study of the same in his native county in the office of Dr. Day, 
under whose instructions he continued for sometime making sub- 
stantial progress. Actuated by a desire to increase his knowl- 
edge of the profession the doctor subsequently entered the Starl- 
ing Medical college at Columbus, Ohio. On quitting college, he re- 
mained in the office of Dr. Day for one year in order to obtain a 
practical knowledge of the healing art, and having thus familiar- 
ized himself with the details of the profession he came to Ply- 
mouth and began the active practice of the same in Marshall 
county. His thorough preparation and scientific devotion to his 
profession has given him a creditable rank among the physicians 
of the city, and his practice which extends throughout Marshall 
and other counties is very extensive and constantly increasing. 
The doctor was married in 1857, to Miss Jennie Green, daughter 
of George A. Green, of Portage county, Ohio, a union blessed 
with the birth of four children, viz., Haddie, wife of C. W. Boyd, 
of Salt Lake City; Grace W.; May, a student at the Western Fe- 
male seminary, Oxford, Ohio, and Lewis G. The doctor is a 
member of the county medical society, and for two years held the 
position of surgeon on the P., Ft. VV. & C. R. R. He is a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian church, in which he holds the position of 

Marion A. Bland, farmer and county commissioner, was born 
in Miami county, Ohio, April 3rd, 1S40, and is the son of William 
and Nancy (Ziegler) Bland, the father a native of Virginia, and 
the mother of [Pennsylvania. The family came to Marshall 
county in 1870, and purchased a farm in Bourbon and Walnut 
townships, where the father died in 1875, ^i^d where his widow 
still lives. The following are the names of the living children of 
William and Nancy Bland: John, of Findlay, Ohio; Mary, wife 
of Charles B. McKinne}', of Bourbon; Arthur S., of Dakota; 
William T., of Findlay, Ohio; Marion A., Minerva; Ida B., wife 
of Edward Alexander, of Ohio; Frank, of Montana, and Harry, 
who resides on the homestead. The subject of this sketch was 
reared to manhood in Ohio, was educated in the public schools 
and has always followed farming. He came to Marshall county 
with his parents, in 1870, and remained with them until 1S76, at 
which time he purchased his present farm in Center township. 
He is a successful farmer, a democrat in politics, and as such, was 
appointed county commissioner, October, 1889. Fraternally, he 
is a member of the Masonic order, belonging to lodge 227, at 
Bourbon. Miss Alice Greer, daughter of Moses Greer, of Center 
township, became his wife in 1871, and to their union have been 
born two children: John W. and Pearl E. 

Joseph W. Boggs is a hative of Marshall count3^ born in Cen- 
ter township, February 20, 1856. He is a son of Lewis and 
Sarah (Devault) Boggs, who are among the pioneers of this 


county, settling on what is now known as the Parker farm. Mr. 
Boggs was an active member of the Advent church, a democrat 
in his political belief, and died May ]6, iS88. His widow sur- 
vives him and resides on the home farm. They were the parents 
of eight children, of whom seven are now living, viz.: James, 
Jefferson, Sarah Jane, Franklin, Lewis B., Joseph W. and Axie. 
Joseph W. Boggs was raised in his native township, in the schools 
of which he received a fair English education, and began life for 
himself as a farmer, which calling he still continues. He owns 
a well-improved place of 162 acres, and is one of the thrifty and 
well-to-do citizens of the community in which he resides. He 
was married in 1882 to Miss Ollie Davis, daughter of Jackson 
Davis, of Walnut township. Coral, Bonnio and L. J., are the liv- 
ing children born to this marriage. Chloe, the oldest child, died 
in 1885. 

John B. Bowell, the well-known proprietor of the popular 
Ross House, of Plymouth, was born in Walnut township, Mar- 
shall Co., November 25, 1854, and is the son of B. N. and H. 
(Kinett) Bowell, both parents natives of Clark county, Ind. Mr. 
and Mrs. Bowell were among the pioneers of Marshall county, 
locating in Walnut township about the year 1850, where Mr. 
Bowell engaged in farming in connection with which he also car- 
ried on the saw-milling business. Later he carried on a meat 
market at Argos, where he is still living, having retired from 
active live. His wife, who died about 1872, was the mother of 
eight children, six of whom survive, viz.: George W., Mrs. Ann M. 
McGriff, William N., John B., B. C, Louis, A. J. and Addie M., 
wife of John Wallace. The subject of this mention remained 
with his parents until ten years of age, at which time he 
went to reside with Dr. R. B. Eaton, with the object of pre- 
paring himself for the medical profession. The first four years 
he was with Dr. Eaton he attended school and also studied 
telegraphy, and later secured a clerkship in the dry goods store 
of Parker & Atkinson, at Argos, with which firm he continued 
four years. During the following three years he was manager 
of the dry goods establishment of David Kershaw, Argos, and 
at the end of that time engaged in the dry goods trade at the 
above place as member of the firm of Bowell Bros. In 1876, he 
accepted a position with S. Becker, a dry goods merchant of 
Plymouth, and subsequently engaged with the firm of Ball & 
Carabin, dealers in dry goods and clothing, in which capacity 
he continued until March, 1SS9. He retired from the mercan- 
tile business in that year, and leased the Ross house, the leading 
hotel at Plymouth, of which he has since been proprietor, and 
which under his successful management, has become one of the 
popular stopping places for the traveling public in northern 
Indiana. Mr. Bowell possesses fine business ability, and in his 


capacity as salesman and as "mine host" has won great popu- 
larity among all classes of people. Politically he is a republican, 
but has never been an aspirant for official honors, preferring to 
give his attention entirely to his business. He is a member of 
Hyperion lodge, No. 1 1 7, K. of P., and of Cyrene council, No. 944, 
Royal Arcanum, and for a number of years has been a commun- 
icant of the Methodist Episcopal church. He was first mar- 
ried March, 1S75, to Sarah E., daughter of David and Elizabeth 
(Butterworth) Kershaw, who was born in Marshall county, July, 
1S36, and died February 24, 1883, leaving two children: Daisy B. 
and Bert D., whose births occurred Januarys, 1876, and Octo- 
ber 13, 1877, respectively. Mrs. Bowell was a lady of many ac- 
complishments, and was widelj' and favorably known for her 
many noble qualities of mind and heart. She was a consistent 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and her life was in 
harmony with her religious profession. Mr. Bowell was married 
the second time January 25, 1887, to Elizabeth J., daughter of 
R. H. Cox, who has borne him one child, a son, Lloyd. In his 
second marriage Mr. Bowell was fortunate in securing a woman 
who has proved a help-meet in the true sense of the word. She 
is a consistent member of the Episcopal church of Plymouth. 

Herbert A. Brenner, proprietor of one of the leading livery 
stables of Plymouth, is a native of Marshall county, born in Cen- 
ter township, January 13, 1857. His parents, Peter and Sarah J. 
Brenner, natives respectively of Pennsylvania and New York, 
were married in Marion county, Ohio, and came to Marshall 
county, Ind., about the year 1855. After living here a short time, 
they moved to Illinois, from which state they afterward emi- 
grated to Kansas, locating at Leavenworth, from which place the 
father subsequently drove cattle to Pike's Peak, Col., for the gov- 
ernment. Rejoining his family, he returned to Marshall county, 
Ind., and engaged in farming in Center township, where he lived 
for a number of years, during a part of which time, he was en- 
gaged in the saw-milling business. He afterward removed to 
Fulton county, and is still residing there. The mother died in 
1871. They had a family of seven children, of whom the follow- 
ing are living: Henry A., Ida B., wife of B. Collins, Elizabeth, 
wife of William Dutton, Florence D., and the subject of this 
sketch, who is the third in point of age. Herbert Brenner, 
though still a young man, has had a varied business experience. 
He was reared in Marshall county, attended the county schools 
and the schools of Plymouth, and for some years worked as a 
farm assistant in Wabash county and the state of Wisconsin. In 
1882 he formed a partnership with D. A. and D. E. Snyder, 
in, the grain business, and after continuing the same for one 
year, he disposed of his interests in the elevator and engaged in 
the restaurant business at Inwood. He continued this about one 


year, and then began farming in Center township, which he after- 
ward abandoned and opened a restaurant in Bourbon. He again 
took up the pursuit of agriculture, but after following it a short time, 
moved to Plymouth, where he again engaged in the restaurant 
business, which he continued until 18S9, when he established his 
present livery business in partnership with Mr. Goudy, whose in- 
terest he purchased in 1890, and became sole proprietor. He was 
married in 1880 to Samantha J., daughter of Gideon Wolf, the 
fruit of which union is four children: Ethel, Edwin, Bessie and 
Ida. Mr. Brenner is a democrat in politics, and has held the of- 
fice of assessor of Center township. 

Ed. S. Brooke was born in Plymouth, Ind., June 23, 1858. He 
was reared and educated in his native town, receiving a liberal 
English education in the city schools. In 1871, he became an ap- 
prentice to learn the printer's trade under Van Valkenburgh & 
McDonald, editors of the Plymouth Democrat. In 1874 he be- 
came a journeyman at his trade, and since 1878 he has been iden- 
tified with the Plymouth Republican, and since 1879, he has been 
identified with the Republican as one of its proprietors and edit- 
ors, being associated with J. W. Siders from April, 1879, to July 
1890., In July, i8go, William G. Hendricks purchased Mr. Siders' 
interest, and now the publishers are Brooke & Hendricks, the 
former having charge of the editorial, the latter of the typo- 
graphical department. Mr. Brooke is recognized as an able 
editor, and together with his energy and practical education and 
ability, he has achieved perhaps more than an ordinary success 
in the newspaper field. He is a decided republican in politics, 
having cast his first national, or presidential, vote with the re- 
publican party, of whose political principles he is an ardent advo- 
cate. In 1S81 he was united in marriage with Miss Lillian O. 
Outcalt, a native of Plymouth, Ind., and three children have been 
born unto the marriage. Mr. Brooke and wife hold a member- 
ship in the Presbyterian church of Plymouth. He became self- 
supporting at the age of fourteen years when he began his ap- 
prenticeship, and is in every respect a self-made man. He is a 
highly respected, trusted and representative citizen of Marshall 

Jerred E. Brooke, retired physician and prominent citizen of 
Plymouth, was born in Chester county, Penn., nine miles west of 
Valley Forge, in a small hamlet known as Lawrenceville, August 
9th, 1820, being the third son of Mark and Mary (Koons) Brooke. 
The parents were both natives of Pennsylvania, the father born 
in 1791, and the mother in 1794, and were descended from Eng- 
lish and German ancestors respectively. Mark Brooke was a 
gunsmith by trade and during the war of 181 2 manufactured 
fire-arms for the American army, receiving $16 for each musket 
bearing his brand. Later in life he followed blacksmithing, and 


in 1843 moved from Chester to Schuylkill county, where he died 
in 1849. Mrs. Brooke afterward came west with her son Jerred, 
and daughters, Mrs. Halsey and Patterson, and died in Plymouth, 
in 1871, aged seventy-seven years. The immediate subject of 
this sketch grew to manhood in Chester county, Penn., where, 
after receiving a good education he began the study of medicine, 
which he continued as his health would permit. At the age of 
twenty-three he came to Indiana, locating in St. Joseph county, 
where he accepted a situation as clerk with his brother, James K. 
Brooke, who carried on business at Mishawaka. He continued 
in this capacity one year, and then accepted a clerkship with the 
Mishawaka Furnace company, with which he continued identi- 
fied about three years, when in 1847 he purchased the Mishawaka 
Linseed Oil mill, which he operated successfully for some time. 
During the years that he was engaged in business he still kept 
up his professional reading and the better to prepare himself for 
practice attended two courses of lectures at La Porte and sub- 
sequently entered the Indiana Central college at Indianapolis, 
from which he graduated in 1851. After the destruction of his 
oil mills bj' fire he turned his entire attention to his profession, 
and began the practice of the same in Illinois, where he remained 
until 1854, at which time he located in Plymouth. He had a 
lucrative practice here until 1862, when he entered the United 
States service as assistant surgeon, and was assigned to Memphis, 
Tenn., and subsequently was transferred to the Benton barracks 
general hospital. He afterward returned to Memphis, thence 
to Louisville, and later was assigned to duty in the prison hos- 
pital at Rock Island, where he remained for a period of sixteen 
months. From that time until the close of the war he was simi- 
larly engaged in the Louisville and Jeffersonville hospitals, and 
in June, 1S65, left the service and returned to his home in 
Plymouth, where he resumed the practice of his profession. He 
continued in active practice until within a few years when he re- 
tired, but still gives attention to his office practice. He has been 
one of Marshall county's successful physicians and surgeons and 
ranks among the leading medical men of northern Indiana. 
September 30th, 1S47, he was married to Miss Mary R. Williams, 
of La Porte, who was born July 27th, 1827, in Shelby county, Ind., 
the daughter of Judge Azariah and Mary (Eddy) Williams, 
natives respectively of Massachusetts and New York. Judge 
Williams and wife were married in New York, in 1816, and came 
west in 1820, locating in Decatur county, Ind., moving thence in 
the fall of 1S22 to Shelby county, settling upon the present site 
of Shelbyville. He died in i86q. Dr. Brooke's marriage has 
been blessed with the birth of eight children, two of whom died 
in infancy and six of whom grew to maturity, viz.: Estella, 
widow of Ezra Helm; Howard M., Clifford M., Ed. S., editor of 


the Plyviojith Rcp2iblican; Chester V. and Harry R. Mrs. Brooke 
is a member of the Episcopal church, and during her school days 
was a class mate of the late Vice President Hendricks. Dr. Brooke 
is a sfaunch democrat in politics, and has worked earnestly for 
the success of his party in Marshall county. 

Stacy Burdon was born in Clinton county, Ohio, May 8, 1820. 
His parents, Edward and Hannah (Kelly) Burdon, were both 
natives of New Jersey, which state they left at an early day, and 
emigrating to Ohio, settled in Stark county, where Mr. Burdon 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. Here the mother died, and 
later the father married Miss Lavina Mason, and about 1850, 
came to Marshall county, Ind., and settled upon a part of the 
farm now owned by the subject, where he died in 1S52. The 
children of his first marriage were two in number, viz.: Mary 
Ann, wife of Jesse Coleman, and Stacy. The second marriage 
resulted in the birth of five children: Rebecca, wife of John 

Carter; Shadrach, Leonard, Margaret, wife of George G. , 

and Martha Ann. The subject of this biography resided in 
Clinton count}', Ohio, until his sixteenth year, at which time he 
came to La Porte county, Ind., where he found employment by 
the day's work at different occupations. Two years later, he 
moved to Kosciusco county, thence to Wayne county, where he 
also remained two years, working during that time as a farm 
laborer at $10 per month. He returned to Kosciusco county in 
1843, s-^d four years later came to Marshall county and located 
upon his present farm, which he has since cleared and brought 
under a high state of cultivation. Mr. Burdon was thrown upon 
his own resources in early life, and with little capital, save a de- 
termined will, has succeeded in placing himself in very comfort- 
able circumstances. By his first wife, Elizabeth Hutchings, whom 
he married in 1843, and who died in 1852, he had five children, 
only one of whom is living, Mrs. Agatha Ellen Horton, of 
Center township. In 1854 Mr. Burdon was again married to 
Sophia Showaker, who has borne him a family of si.\ children, 
of whom the following are living, viz.: Amos, Jesse, Mrs. Re- 
becca Carpenter, and Stacy. 

Gilson Strong Cleaveland, among its present residents, was 
the first man in Plymouth. He was born in Ontario county, 
N. Y., about seven miles from Canandaigua, the county seat, 
November 12, 1812, the son of Willard and Sally (Strong) 
Cleaveland, the father a native of Massachusetts, and the mother 
of Connecticut. Mr. Cleaveland was reared on the farm until sev- 
enteen years of age, at which time he entered the employ of Oliver 
Rose, the proprietor of a hotel called the "Temperance House," 
in Canandaigua, where he remained for a period of two years, 
when he succeeded Mr. Rose in the hotel business. Mr. Rose 
came to Indiana in 1834, and settled in Marshall county, upon 
II— B. 


the present site of Plymouth, in which town he opened the first 
mercantile establishment shortly after his arrival. He soon re- 
turned to New York for his family, and it was with the^ that 
Mr. Cleaveland came to Marshall county, in 1835, at which time 
there were but three buildings on the present site of Plymouth, 
all of which were used for hotel purposes by one Grove 
Pomeroy, who was among the first settlers of the county seat. 
Shortly after his arrival Mr. Cleaveland engaged in farming, 
teaming and working in Mr. Rose's store. In 1839 he entered 
the general store of Amasa L. Wheeler, one of the early mer- 
chants of Plymouth, in whose employ he continued about three 
years. Severing his connection with Mr. Wheeler, he afterward 
became local salesman for a Michigan City firm by the name of 
Carter & Carter, who brought a stock of goods to Plymouth 
about the year 1842. He was connected with this firm in the 
capacity of clerk for about three years, and then became a part- 
ner in the establishment, which under the firm name of Carter & 
Cleaveland, continued about eight years. Mr. Cleaveland then 
spent several years in settling up the business affairs of the firm, 
at the same time holding the office of recorder. In 1854 he re- 
moved with his family to Madison, Wis., where he remained 
until the spring of 1855, when he returned to Plymouth, and 
again engaged in general merchandising. He continued the 
goods business by himself and with others until 187 1, at which 
time he removed to Chicago and engaged in the hat and cap 
trade with a man by the name of Johnson, under the firm-name 
of Cleaveland & Johnson, where he remained one year, return- 
ing to his home in Plymouth at the end of that time. Since 
leaving Chicago Mr. Cleaveland has not been engaged in busi- 
ness, having practically retired from active life. He owns 320 
acres of fine farm land in West township, three miles west of 
Plymouth, besides owning other valuable property in the city and 
the country. In 1866 he erected his present comfortable resi- 
dence on the corner of Center and Gano streets, where he is now 
passing his closing years in the enjoyment of that peace and con- 
tentment which only those who have battled successfully with life 
for over three-quarters of a century know how to appreciate. In 
his early life Mr. Cleaveland was a member of the Odd Fellows 
order and Sons of Temperance, but at this time does not affiliate 
with any secret society. He is an active member of the Episco- 
pal church, and as such has been a liberal patron of the congre- 
gation in Plymouth. Mr. Cleaveland was first married at South 
Bend, Ind., November 15, 1S38, to Caroline A. Rose, daughter of 
Oliver Rose, his old employer in New York state. She was born 
July 28, 1817, and died March 30, 1868, the mother of three 
children, two of whom are living, viz.: James O., born May 28, 
1845, and Caroline L. (wife of W. W. Culver), born August 26, 


1847. The oldest daughter, Mary Ellen, who died June lo, 1845 
was born October 4, 1842. Mr. Cleaveland's second marriage 
was solemnized in Plymouth, September 23, 1869, with Jane N. 
Thompson, a native of Connecticut, and daughter of Isaac and 
Mary (Holbrook) Thompson. Mrs. Cleaveland was born July 24, 
1832, and is the mother of two children, viz.: Holbrook Gilson, 
born August 13, 1870, graduated from the Plymouth public 
schools, later graduated from the Smith academy of St. Louis, 
and is now in his first year of a four years' course at Ann Arbor, 
Mich. Victoria C. was born December 12, 1872, is also a gradu- 
ate of the Plymouth high school, and is now a student at St. 
Mary's female school in Knoxville, 111. Mrs. Cleaveland's family 
left Goshen, Conn., and moved to Ionia county, Mich., where her 
mother died, about 1837, and her father in the year 1865. Mrs. 
Cleaveland graduated at Albion, Mich., in 1854, and afterward 
spent several years in teaching school, and for three years before 
her marriage was a teacher in the Plymouth public schools. 

C. F. Chaney, agent of the American Express company, at 
Plymouth, was* born in Guernsey county, Ohio, January 14, 1846, 
son of Findley and Jemima (Reed) Chaney, both parents natives 
of the same county and state. Findley Chaney was a shoe- 
maker by trade, and died in the year 1840. His widow subse- 
quently married John M. Smith and moved to Iowa in 1853, in 
which state the family lived until their removal to Illinois in 
1859, afterward emigrating to Adams county, Ind. Mr. Smith 
was killed in the late war and his widow afterward lived in 
Adams county, Ind., and moved to Kansas where she is now liv- 
ing. To her first marriage were born three children, all of 
whom are living, viz.: George R., of Nebraska; Sarah Ann, 
wife of S. A. Daggert, and the subject of this sketch. The sec- 
ond marriage resulted in the birth of five children, three of 
whom are living, Jacob A., Benjamin F. and J. L. Smith, all of 
whom reside in Kansas. C. F. Chaney was educated in the 
common schools, and early engaged in farming, which he fol- 
lowed until 1874, when he came to Plymouth and engaged with 
the Adams and United States express companies. He is also en- 
gaged in the ice trade, being the only retail ice dealer in the 
city. July 17, 18S7, he became agent for the American Express 
company, and has since held that position. He was married 
April 9, 1876, to Rebecca, daughter of Thomas Johnson, of 
Adams county, Ind., to which union seven children have been 
born, of whom only four survive, viz.: Thomas, of Nebraska; 
•fFrank, Effie and Elmer, the last three residing at home. 

Among the successful educators in Indiana, the name of 
Prof. Roscoe A. Chase, principal of the Plymouth high school, 
is widely and favorably known. Prof. Chase is a native of Con- 
necticut, born in the town of Killingly, that state, December 20th, 


1847, the son of Albert A. and Minerva A. (Smith) Chase, na- 
tives respectively of Connecticut and Rhode Island. Albert H. 
Chase was a distinguished clergyman of the Free Baptist church, 
a man prominent in religious and educational work, having had 
charge of the schools among the freed men of the south during 
the late war. He died in Ohio in the year 18S3. His widow still 
survives, residing at this time in Hillsdale, Mich. Beside the 
subject of this sketch, Mr. and Mrs. Chase had one child, 
Mary E., formerly preceptress of an educational institution in 
northern Ohio, and for three years assistant teacher of the high 
school at Elkhart, Ind. In addition to her educational work, 
she has given considerable- attention to literature, being a con- 
tributor to a number of magazines and well known periodicals. 
She is now a resident of Hillsdale, Mich. When eight 3^ears of 
age. Prof. Chase was taken by his parents to Ashtabula county, 
Ohio, and later attended the Orwell academy, in which he made 
substantial progress in his studies, especiall}- mathematics, hav- 
ing completed the usual course in algebra before his tenth year. 
He also received instruction in a select school, taught by Miss 
Ellen Smith and Mrs. J. F. Johnson, the latter for many years 
preceptress in Oberlin college, and the former professor of lan- 
guage in the university of Nebraska. Prof. Chase completed 
the common branches and some of the higher studies, including 
algebra, and began Latin and Greek at the early age of ten 
years. He afterward became a student of Hillsdale college, 
Mich., in which he took the full classical course, graduating in 
1869. On completing his education he taught in the preparatory 
department of the college for two years, and for one year was 
principal of the schools of Bristol, Ind. In September, 1S90, he 
took charge of the Plymouth high school, and in addition to his 
duties in this capacity he was superintendent of all the schools 
of the cit}^ which have greatl}' increased in efficiency and 
thorough work under his successful management. Prof. Chase 
possesses many of the elements of a successful instructor, is enthu- 
siastic in his chosen calling, and as a disciplinarian is perhaps 
without a superior among the educators of the state. 

Augustin Carabin, junior member of the mercantile firm of 
Ball & Carabin, was born in Huron count}', Ohio, and is the son 
of Augustin and Catherine (Hetel) Carabin, both natives of 
Germany, the father born in Alsace, and the mother in Baden. 
They both came to the United States when quite young and were 
married near the town of Norwalk, Ohio, on the place where 
Mrs. Carabin still resides. The family were among the early 
settlers of Huron county, locating there when there were but 
few white people in that part of the state. Mr. Carabin was a 
farmer and blacksmith by occupation, and died March 2, 18S0, in 
the seventy-second year of his age. His widow still survives 


having reached the ripe old age of eighty-four years. They 
were both members of the Catholic church, and their three 
sons and five daughters, are all living. The subject of this 
sketch was born February 15, 1843, and grew to manhood on a 
farm, receiving his educational training in such schools as the 
country afforded, which he attended during the winter seasons 
while living with his parents. He left home at the age of twenty- 
two, and went to Fort Wayne, Ind., in which city he remained 
one and a half years, going at the end of that time to Plymouth, 
where he remained about one year. He went from Plymouth to 
Columbia City, and there engaged in merchant tailoring in part- 
nership with his brother-in-law, and present partner, Philip J. 
Ball, of whom a sketch appears elsewhere in this volume. The 
business was moved to Plymouth in 1S75, since which time the 
firm has built up a large trade in merchant tailoring, dry goods, 
clothing, oil cloths, carpets and gents' furnishing goods, their 
house being the largest of the kind in the city. Mr. Carabin was 
married in Plymouth, May, 1SS3, to Miss Anna Day, a union 
blessed with the birth of four children: John A., Mary L., I^osa, 
Irene and Francis A. Mr. and Mi-s. Carabin are members of the 
Catholic church. 

John C. Cummings, engineer of the Plymouth water-works, 
and son of Edward and Margaret Cummings, was born in county 
Tipperary, Ireland, May 15, 1839. The mother died in that 
country, and the father came to America about 1S55, and for some 
time thereafter resided in Canada, moving thence to Iowa, 
where his death occurred. JohnC. Cummings came to this coun- 
try with his father, and after living for some time in Canada, en- 
gaged in the dredging business which he followed at different 
places in Michigan and Illinois, his last work of the kind being 
on the Illinois and Michigan canal. He came to Plymouth in 
1 87 1 and engaged with the Plymouth, Kankakee & Pacific rail- 
road company, with which he worked for some time, and for sev- 
eral years was engaged in running a steam stationary engine 
for this company at different points. November i, 18 — , he ac- 
cepted his present position as engineer of the Plymouth water- 
works, having previously operated the engine for the electric 
light plant. He married in 1871, Miss Katie O'Brien, of Ply- 
mouth, who died in 1878, leaving one child, E. J. He was again 
married in 1881, to Miss Catherine Fitzgerald, who has borne 
him three children, viz.: Florence M., William L. and Mary 
Teresa. Politically he is a democrat and in religion a Catholic. 

D. G. Denman was born in Orange county, N. Y., April i, 
1822, and is the son of Andrew and Eleanor (Stillwell) Den- 
man, both natives of the same county and state. They came to 
Marshall county in 1856, and settled in Bourbon township, mov- 
ing here from Marion county, Ohio, where they located in 1S37. 


They both died in this county. Three sons and one daughter 
are still living, viz.: Isaac, Mrs. Elizabeth Taylor, John, and the 
subject of this sketch. The last named is the oldest living mem- 
ber of the family. Daniel G. Denman moved with his parents, 
to Ohio in 1837, where he grew to manhood and where he re- 
sided until coming to Marshall county, in 1853. He purchased 
his present farm in Center township that year, and from an al- 
most unbroken forest, has cleared and developed one of the best 
cultivated places in Center. He was united in marriage in 1848, 
to Miss Tabitha Rupp, of Cumberland county, Penn., and daugh- 
ter of George Rupp. The following are the names of the chil- 
dren born to Mr. and Mrs. Denman: Mary E., wife of Thomas J. 
Hindel, Emma Amanda, wife of Richard Brough, George D. and 
Ella Minerva, wife of Elias Shearer. Mr. Denman and wife are 
earnest and consistent members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and in politics he is an active supporter of the democratic 

Peter Disher, a well known citizen of Plymouth, and proprie- 
tor of the Eureka flouring mill, is a native of Kentucky and dates 
his birth from September 3, 1849. His father, Jeptha Disher, one 
of Marshall county's old and well known farmers, was born in 
southern Indiana, but moved to Kentucky when a young man and 
was there married to his cousin, Nancy J. Disher, who bore him 
seven children, five of whom survive, viz.: John, Peter, Alice, 
William and Owen, all of whom with the exception of Alice, now 
Mrs. Iden, who lives in Nebraska, reside in Marshall county. 
Jeptha Disher moved to Indiana in 1854, locating in Bourbon 
township, Marshall county, and later moved to Tippecanoe town- 
ship where he still resides. The subject of this sketch was reared 
on the farm, received a common school education, and on attain 
ing his majority engaged in the mercantile business at Bourbon, 
where he carried on a successful trade for nine years. He closed 
out his business in 1S79, from which time until 1SS6, he resided 
upon a farm near the village of Donaldson, during which time he 
carried on agriculture in connection with the lumber business. 
In the latter year he moved to Plymouth and engaged in the 
manufacture of flour, purchasing the Eureka mill which he thor- 
oughly remodeled in i88q, supplying new engines and boilers and 
the latest improved machinery for the manufacture of flour by 
the roller process. His plant is a very valuable one, contains four 
double and one single set of rollers, and has a daily capacity of 
seventy-five barrels, besides manufacturing large quantities of 
crushed feed for which there is a constantly increasing demand. 
The well-known " Disher Boquet " brand of flour is noted for its 
excellence, and has much more than local reputation. Mr. Disher 
is a member of the Royal Arcanum and Maccabees fraternities, 
and as a citizen, commands the respect of all who know him. 


Martha J. Senior, daughter of Zachariah Senior, became his wife, 
November 12, 1871, the result of which marriage is the following 
children, viz.: Flora, Nellie, Charles, Blanche and Ruble. 

Anthony Flarchentrager was born in Bavaria, Germany, 
July 18, 1824, and is the son of John and Catherine Flarchentra- 
ger. He was reared and educated in his native country and 
early learned the trade of gardener, which he followed in Ger- 
many, until immigrating to the United States in 1852. He fol- 
lowed gardening in New York city for some time, afterward went 
to the town of Haverstraw, where he was similarly employed for 
about six months, and then went to St. Louis, Mo., where he fol- 
lowed his calling one year, when he was obliged to abandon it 
on account of sickness in his family. From St. Louis he returned 
to New York, where for some time he was engaged in the butcher 
business and gardening, and afterward followed pork packing for 
several years. The war interfering with this business, he retired 
from the same, and later canne to Jasper county, Ind., where he 
engaged in gardening, and also farming, having purchased a farm 
there soon after his arrival. He afterward sold the farm, and 
again returned to New York, where, for about five years, he was 
steward of a large garden on Long Island. In 1876 he came to 
Plymouth, Ind., and purchased land in the city upon which he 
started a large garden, one of the first of the kind in Marshall 
county. He has added many valuable improvements to his place 
and is now in the enjoyment of a very successful business. He 
was married in New York city in 1852 to Miss Josephine Hoetner, 
a native of Germany, who has one child living, Taradora, wife 
of George Nagle. Mr. Flarchentrager is a democrat in politics, 
and with his family belongs to the Catholic church. 

Prominent among the successful self-made men of Marshall 
county is David L. Gibson, who was born in Highland county, 
Ohio, on the 25th of March, 1824. He is ason of Johnand Mary 
(Looney) Gibson, who left their native state of Kentucky at an 
early day, emigrating to Ohio, thence in 1827 to Rush county, 
Ind., where the father cleared two farms and where he resided 
until 1834. In October of the latter year, he came to Marshall 
county, Ind., and located in Center township, which at that time 
was an almost unbroken forest. He developed one of the first 
farms in the township, produced the first wheat ever raised in 
Marshall county, and also started a tannery which, though not 
very successful financially, was highly prized by the early settlers 
of the community. He was a man prominent in count}' affairs, 
served as a member of the board of commissioners in 1837, and 
took an active part in the moral as well as the material develop- 
ment of his adopted county, having been one of the leading Pres- 
byterians in this part of the country. He became identified with 
the church when a young man and continued a consistent mem- 


ber of the same for overa half century. He assisted in building the 
first Presbyterian church at Plymouth, was for man}- years an 
elder of the congregation there, and against his moral character 
no breath of suspicion was ever known to have been uttered. 
He departed this life in iS66 and his faithful wife with whom he 
had lived for so many years, was laid to rest within one week 
after the death of her husband. She was also a pious member 
of the Presbyterian church and raised a family, six members of 
which are still living, viz.: the subject of this sketch; Peter, who 
resided in Center township; Mrs. Elizabeth McCoy, of Chicago; 
Mrs. Sarah Barden, of Nebraska; James, who also resides in Cen- 
ter township, and Mrs. Mary Boggs, who lives near the village of 
Argos. David L. Gibson came to Marshall county when about 
ten years of age, since which time he has been one of its most 
prosperous and well-known citizens. His educational training 
was obtained in the country schools which in the time of his 
youth were of a very indifferent character, hence it may with pro- 
priety be said that he is a self-educated man, his knowledge being 
of that practical kind, the result of intelligent observation and 
contact with the world in various business capacities. He as- 
sisted his father on the farm until attaining his majority, and in 
1850, in company with two companions, made the long overland 
trip to California with an ox team, and was there engaged in the 
gold fields for a period of about eighteen months. He met with 
reasonably fair success in this venture, and returning to Marshall 
county purchased his present place in Center township which he 
cleared from the woods, and which is now one of the finest farms 
in this part of the state. With a desire of improving his fortune 
he made a second trip to the west in 1859, this time going to 
Colorado, where he remained for only a limited period, return- 
ing to Marshall county and resuming farming, which with stock- 
raising, has been his business ever since. Mr. Gibson is essentially 
a self-made man, and as such ranks with the most successful farm- 
ers and stock-raisers of "the county. He began life for himself 
with little capital save a well formed determination to succeed and 
his present social and financial standing show how well that de- 
termination has been carried into effect. He has traveled ex- 
tensivel}- through the western and southern states and now owns 
a fine orange farm in Hernando county, Florida, which returns 
him a comfortable revenue. He was married in 1853 to Han- 
nah D., daughter of Huron Haines, of Marshall county, to which 
union three children have been born, viz.: Alice, wife of Dr. 
B. W. Parks, of Bourbon; Lizzie, wife of W. S. Howard, of Ash- 
land, Kan.; and John H., who lives on the home farm. John H. 
Gibson married Miss Jennie \"an \'actor, daughter of Rilej- \'an 
Vactor, of Center township. Politically Mr. Gibson's views are 
in accord with the republican party, but he has never asked nor 


SOU ght official honors at the hands of his fellow citizens. He is a 
leading member of the Methodist Episcopal church of Center 
township and assisted liberally in the construction of the build- 
ing in which the congregation worships. 

James A. Gilmore, cashier of the First National bank of Ply- 
mouth, was born in the state of New York, Livingston county, 
July 29, 1840, son of John and Margaret (Skellie) Gilmore, both 
natives of the same state. John Gilmore was for some years 
prominently identified with sheep-raising in Genesee county, of 
the above state, where his death occurred in 1S82. His wife died 
in 1S68. They had a family of five children, whose names are as 
follows: John E., Jane E., Martha A., Sadie and James A., our 
subject. James A. Gilmore grew to manhood in Genesee county, 
N. Y., and after obtaining his early educational training in the 
common schools entered the Alford academy, Alleghenj' county, 
which he attended for some time, obtaining therein a practical 
knowledge of the higher branches. On leaving school he farmed 
for some time, and later engaged in the mercantile business at 
Warsaw, Ind., in which city he located in 1866. He continued 
there for seven years, a part of which time he served as agent 
for the Adams and American Express companies, and in 1S73 
became a resident of Plymouth, since which date he has held an 
official position in the First National bank. Mr. Gilmore is an 
accomplished accountant, a successful business man and pos- 
sesses the confidence of the corporation by which he is employed. 
He is at this time city treasurer of Plymouth, which office he has 
held for thirteen years, with two more to serve. Politically he 
is a supporter of the democratic part}^ 

Henry Grossmann, whose brief biographical sketch is here- 
with presented, is a son of Jacob and Mary (Landis) Grossman, 
who were natives of Lancaster county, Penn., where their 
respective deaths occurred in the years 1857 and 1888. Jacob 
Grossman was by occupation a farmer and drover and was 
widely and favorably known in his native county as an active 
member of the Lutheran church, of which his wife was also a 
communicant. Of their ten children, nine are living, viz.: John, 
of Lancaster count}^ Penn.; Mrs. Maria Kreider, of the same 
county and state; George, of the city of Lancaster; Henry; Mrs. 
Margaret Zehner, of Plymouth; David, of Rutland, this county; 
Levi, of Chester county, Penn.; Mrs. Catharine Hartzler, of 
Lancaster county, Penn., and Daniel, of this county. Henry 
Grossman received his education in the township schools in Lan- 
caster county, and having a taste for mechanical pursuits, early 
learned the carpenter's trade in which he became quite skillful, 
and which he followed for a period of seven years. He came 
to Marshall county, in 1857, and the same year was united in 
marriage to Mary R. Shoemaker, daughter of John Shoemaker, 


of Center township, to which union the following children have 
been born, viz.: Iden Monroe, Howard J. (deceased) , Matilda 
E. (deceased) , Isaiah H., Stacy F.. Grace R., Eunice S., Sidney C. 
and Erdie B. Mrs. Grossman died in 1878, and in 1879 Mr. 
Grossman married his present wife, Mrs. Sarah Seider, widow of 
John Seider. Immediately after his first marriage, Mr. Gross- 
man began farming in Center township, where he now owns 251 
acres of fine land which is one of the best places in this part of 
the county. He is a member of the Reformed church, and as a 
democrat has filled several ofiicial positions in the township. 

Among the leading German citizens and business men of Ply- 
mouth, is Joseph Haag, senior member of the firm of Haag & 
Wade, extensive dealers in groceries, provisions, hardware, cut- 
lery and crockery. Mr. Haag is a native of Germany, having 
been born in Kaiserslautern, Rhein Pfaltz, Bavaria, on July 8, 1840. 
After leaving school he learned the blacksmith trade, and in 
1864, he emigrated to the United States, landing at New York 
after a trip of about sixteen days on the ocean. From New York 
he came direct to Plymouth, where he had relations and acquain- 
tances residing. Upon his arrival in this place he went to work 
at his trade, for the Haslinger Bros., with whom he was employed 
until the spring of 1S6S, and then entered the hardware store of 
Buck & Toan, where he clerked until the fall of 1883, when he 
engaged in his business with his present partner. Mr. Haag was 
married in the old country, in 1862, to Elizabeth Schoner, who 
was born in Bavaria, in 1S39. One child was born to them in the 
old country, which died when but six weeks old. Four have been 
born to them in Plymouth, as follows: Ernst, in 1866; Henry, in 
1869, learned the tinner's trade and is in that business at Marmont, 
Marshall county; Amelia, born in 1877, and Bertha, born in 1882. 
Mr. Haag and family are members of the German Lutheran 
church. He is considered one of the representative German cit- 
izens of Plymouth, and is an enterprising and energetic business 

W. H. Hallock, night ticket agent on the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R. 
Co., is a native of Litchfield, Conn., in ^hich state his ancestors, 
both paternal and maternal, settled in an early day and resided 
many years. His grandfather, Benjamin Hallock, was a native 
of Litchfield county, and a shoemaker by trade, which calling 
Charles Hallock also followed. The family moved to Ottawa, 
111., 1S50, and in 1872, came to Marshall county, Ind., locating in 
Plymouth, from which city they afterward moved to Medina 
county, Ohio, where the father and mother died. They were the 
parents of three children, all living: Fannie, wife of Austin 
Peet; A. P. and W. H. Our subject remained in Connecticut 
until thirteen years of age, and then accompanied his parents to 
Illinois, in which state he resided until his removal to Marshall 


county, in 1872. Prior to moving to this county, Mr. Hallock 
was engaged in agricultural pursuits, but for the past eighteen 
years has held his present position with the railroad company, a 
fact which speaks well for his efficiency as a trusted employe. 
He was married in 1879, to Miss Jennie Gault, daughter of Jacob 
Gault, of Kosciusko county, who has borne him two children: 
Alice and Cora. Mr. Hallock takes an active interest in politics, 
and is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, holding the 
position of steward in the Plymouth congregation. 

James E. Hanes, freight and passenger agent of the P., Ft. W. 
& C. R. R. Co., is a native of Ohio, born in the city of Lima, 
Allen county, that state, April 4, 1845. His parents, Isaac and 
Lydia (Harrison) Hanes, were natives respectively of Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio, the former born January 25, 181 2, and the latter 
in the year 1815. Isaac Hanes removed to Ohio in 1845, and 
was one of the early settlers of Allen county, where he followed 
the occupation of farming, and where his death occurred in 1876. 
His wife died in 1S55. Of their several children, only three are 
living at this time, viz.: Frances E., wife of William McClain; 
James E., for whom this biography is prepared, and Samuel, a 
farmer of Allen county, Ohio. James E. Hanes spent his youth- 
ful years upon a farm in Allen county, in the common schools of 
which he received a good English education. February 24, 1S64, 
he left the paternal roof and began his career of railroading as 
one of the section force of the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R. Co., and in 
November, 1865, began breaking on a freight train, in which de- 
partment of the work he continued until August, 1867. At that 
time he was promoted freight conductor on the western division 
of the above road, and in the spring of 1870 became extra pas- 
senger conductor and continued as such until promoted regular 
passenger conductor in 1871, running between Fort Wayne and 
Plymouth. He held this position until January 11, 1887, at which 
time he was appointed freight and passenger agent of the com- 
pany at Plymouth, and has since had charge of the office at this 
place. Mr. Hanes has been with the above company for twenty- 
six consecutive years, having risen by regular promotions from 
the very humble beginning of section hand to the responsible 
position he now holds. He possesses the confidence of the 
wealthy corporation by which he is employed, and is one of the 
oldest employes in point of continued service on the western 
division. May 14, 1869, Mr. Hanes and Miss Alice Farnan, 
daughter of Owen Farnan, of Fort Wayne, were united in mar- 
riage, a union blessed with the birth of four children, viz.: Cath- 
erine Frances, John E. (deceased), Charles D. (deceased), and 
James A. Mr. Hanes and family are members of the Catholic 
church at Plymouth. Mr. Hanes is a member of the city council, 
and takes an active interest in the deliberations of that body. 


Among the old and honored citizens and business men of 
Pl3-mouth, is William \V. Hill, who for nearly half a century has 
resided in Marshall county, and for over thirty-five jears has 
been a citizen of the county- seat. Mr. Hill was born at Coving- 
ton, Kj'.. on February 6. 1S30, and is the son of Jordon and 
Denisa (Hawkins) Hill. The father was a native of Kentucky. 
At an early date Jordon Hill removed from Lexington to Cov- 
ington, where he was married, and where he engaged in the 
manufacture of ropes and the ferrj- business, being the first man 
to run a fern,- boat between Covington and Cincinnati. His 
death occurred at Covington in 1S37, and his widow soon after- 
ward removed her family' to Indiana, locating in Bartholomew 
county. In 1S41 she removed to Peru, Ind., and in 1S43 came to 
Marshall county and settled near Maxinkuckee lake. In about 
1S64-5 she removed to a farm about two miles west of Argos, 
where she is residing at present, and is in her eight3--fifth jear. 
There were four children born to the parents, two of whom are 
living. The children are, our subject and younger brother 
George, who resides near Argos. The mother was married a 
second time, while living in Bartholomew count)-. Ind., to James 
Finne)-. and to this second marriage six children were born, five 
of whom survive. While at a verj- tender age our subject was, 
bj- the death of his father, thrown upon his own resources. With 
but little more than the rudiments of an education, and while 
but a mere bo)-, he was apprenticed to a baker at Peru, with 
whom he remained long enough to acquire a very good knowl- 
edge of the trade, and then came to Plymouth, and for one year 
worked in the bakery- of X. R. Packard. Being by force of cir- 
cumstances verj- economic and possessed of a laudable ambition 
to succeed in life and rise above being a wage-worker, he ac- 
cumulated a small sum of mone\-, and left the emplo}- of Mr. 
Packard to open an establishment of his own, which was neces- 
saril}- a small affair. He established a bakery first in a small 
house south of the river, but soon built a two story structure on 
Michigan street, and removed his business thereto. This build- 
ing, however, was destroyed by fire on March 21, 1857, but he at 
once rebuilt, and carried on business successfully until January, 
1866, when he was again burned out, losing in the last fire over 
$3,000. Nothing daunted he again rebuilt, and has since contin- 
ued business, meeting with deserved success. He now has the 
largest as well as oldest establishment in his line in the city, and 
does the bulk of the bakerj- and confection business of Plj-mouth. 
Mr. Hill is a member of the Masonic fraternit\-, belonging to 
Pl\mouth-Kilninning lodge, No. 149, of Plymouth chapter,"Xo. 49, 
and Plymouth commandery, K. T., Xo. iS. He has filled most all 
of the chairs in the chapter and commander)', and is a past eminent 
commander. He was married on January i, iS57,to Joanna Anger- 


man, who was born in Solon, Saxony, Germany, and came with 
her parents to the United States during the fifties, and settled 
first at South Bend, Ind., and subsequently settled in Plymouth. 
To this union four children have been born, only two of whom 
surwve: Fred W., in business with his father, and Anna B., now 
the wife of C. H. Buck, formerly of Plymouth, but now of St. 
Mary's, Penn. 

J.N. Holem, proprietor of a livery stable and dealer in agri- 
cultural implements, was born in West township, this county, 
January 31, 1S54, and is a son of Peter and Rebecca (Weyrick) 
Holem, who have been residents of Marshall county for a num- 
ber of years. Mr. Holem was reared in his native township on 
a farm, attended the public schools for some years, and subse- 
quently entered the Valparaiso normal school in which he ob- 
tained a professional training for teaching. He followed this 
useful calling for a number of years, having taught fifteen terms 
of school, all in West township, a fact which speaks well for his 
abilit}' as a competent instructor. He also followed agricultural 
pursuits for some 3-ears, and on January ist, 1S77, was married to 
Miss Ellen C. Fertig, daughter of David and Elizabeth (Freese) 
Fertig, residents of West township. For some time after his 
marriage he farmed on the place of his father-in-law, but 
abandoned agricultural pursuits in iSSSand purchased an interest 
in a livery business in Plymouth which for some time was con- 
ducted under the firm name of Holem & Swigard. In June, iSqo, 
Mr. Holem traded his interest in the livery to J. W. Brown for 
the right to a patent tongue support or spring, for Indiana, and 
is now operating the same. Mr. Holem deals quite extensively 
in agricultural implements and farm machinerj^ and is the 
patentee of a device for supporting the tongues of vehicles 
besides having a patent on a double dash churn. He is a public 
spirited citizen, democratic in politics, and is now the representa- 
tive of the Second ward in the Plymouth city council. He and 
wife are members of the German Baptist church. They have 
three children, viz.: Franklin O., Oran F. and Clara Alice. 

John Hoham, an old and honored citizen of Plymouth, was 
born in Alsace, Germany, in the city of Strasburg, June 17, 1S20. 
In September, 1S31, he left home and began working on a farm, 
and in 1840 came to the United States, landing in New York city 
after a voyage of fifty-six days. From that city he went to 
Lyons, N. Y., near which place he found employment on a farm 
at $100 a year, and after remaining there one year he found 
similar employment near the city of Buffalo, where, in addition 
to farm work, he was also engaged in the lumber business. He 
then came west, and in September, 1S44, located in Marshall 
count}', Ind., purchasing a farm of eighty acres in the old Indian 
reserve at Lake Maxinkuckee, in Union township. He was the 


first one to purchase real estate in that part of the county, and 
for one year lived entirely alone in the little log cabin which he 
had erected upon his land. In 1845 he was married to Mary 
Moller, a native of Germany, but living at that time in Fulton 
county, this state, where the marriage took place. He contirfued 
to reside on his farm for eight years, in which time he added to 
his original purchase, becoming the possessor of 160 acres of 
land. He disposed of his farm in 1852 and purchased a farm of 
200 acres in West township, 125 acres of which he cleared and 
put in cultivation and resided upon the same for a period of about 
five years. During the years 1854-55 he was joined by his 
friends and relatives from the old country, his father and mother 
having died in Germany previous to that time. In October, 
1S57, he purchased three acres of land one mile southwest of 
Plymouth, to which he at once removed and upon which he 
erected the first brewery in Marshall county. He continued the 
brewing business and in connection with the same carried on 
farming and stock-raising quite extensively for a period of ten 
years, when he sold the brewery to his brother-in-law and part- 
ner, John Klinghammer, who continued the business, Mr. Hoham 
remaining possessor of the outside property. In 1867 he pur- 
chased from Henry Carter, of New York city, the block between 
Center and Michigan streets, in Plymouth, Ind., paying for the 
same the sum of $15,000. Returning to Plymouth he erected 
nine one-story business houses which, with those already on the 
property, made twelve in all, of which he was at that time 
owner. He purchased at the same time lot 176, Center street, 
upon which his present residence is standing. In i86q he em- 
barked in the hardware business, in which he was engaged about 
five years, disposing of his interest at that time for $13,000. In 
1872, while absent at La Porte, attending the funeral of a friend, the 
greater part of his valuable property in Plymouth was completely 
destroyed by fire, entailing upon him a loss exceeding $25,000. 
With that energy which has always characterized his actions he 
at once began to rebuild, and within three months had com- 
pleted six brick business houses, the aggregate cost of which 
was $20,000. During these years he became the possessor of good 
landed property in the country, having purchased several valuable 
farms which he subsequently sold. He still owns the six business 
houses above mentioned, besides other city property, and about 
eighty acres of land within a short distance of Plymouth, which 
is among the most valuable real estate in the county. While a 
resident of West township he filled the office of trustee for four 
years, aside from which he has not asked nor sought official po- 
sitions. Mr. Hoham's life has been a very active one, and in his 
business ventures he has met with success such as few attain. 
He has been liberal in the use of his means in advancing the 


material welfare of Plymouth, and as a public -spirited citizen 
fully alive to the interests of city and county, few stand higher 
in the estimation of the people than he. His first wife died in 
1875, leaving nine children, seven of whom are living: Oliver C, 
John E., Fred B., William E., Mrs. Catherine Palmer, Mrs.Mag- 
dalena Loesch, Mrs. Louisa Haberkorn. Mr. Hoham was again 
married July, 1876, to Margaret Hansen, a resident of Plymouth, 
but a native of Denmark, who has borne him five children, four 
living, viz.: Mary, George K., Harry and Martin L. Mr. 
Hoham and family are members of the Lutheran church, and 
for twenty-five years he has been an active worker in the Sab- 
bath school. During the late war Mr. Hoham put in a substi- 
tute, whose name was Alexandria Dunlap, and paid him $800. 

Among the old citizens and pioneers of Marshall county is 
Hugh Jackman, who was born in Franklin county, Ind., Decem- 
ber 10, 1815, the son of Edward and Mary (Brison) Jackman. 
The father was a native of Pennsylvania, but when a child was 
taken by his parents to Franklin county, Ind., in which part of 
the state he grew to manhood. Mrs. Jackman was born in Vir- 
ginia, and was the daughter of Hugh Brison, who was a soldier 
in the war of the revolution. She was reared in Franklin county, 
Ind., and with her husband came to Marshall county in 1846, and 
settled in Center township, where their respective deaths after- 
ward occurred. They reared a family of seven children, five of 
whom are living, viz.: The subject of this sketch; William, of 
Howard county; Maria, wife of Joseph Burton, of Wisconsin; 
Edward, of Missouri, and Mrs. Margaret Carr, of the same state. 
When ten years of age Hugh Jackman was taken by his parents 
to Decatur county, Ind., in the primitive log school-houses of 
which he received the elements of an English education. He 
was reared on a farm, and early became a tiller of the soil, which 
useful calling has been his life's work. He settled upon his pres- 
ent place in Marshall county, in 1847, and is now one of the old- 
est residents of Center township. He has a well improved farm, 
and is one of the successful men of the community. He was 
married in Fayette county, Ind., to Julia, daughter of Nathan 
Aldridge, who bore him a family, none of whom are living. Mrs. 
Jackman died in 1848, and the following year Mr. Jackman 
married Caroline Groves, by whom he had the following chil- 
dren: Jasper, Theodore, William W., Marion, and Commodore. 
Mrs. Jackman departed this life in 1872. Mr. Jackman is a 
democrat in politics. 

John C. Jilson, freight and passenger agent of the Lake Erie & 
Western R. R. company, at Plymouth, Ind., is a native of Ohio, 
born January 26, 1846. The father of Mr. Jilson was Sidney Jilson^ 
who was a native of New York state, born in 1813. He removed 
to Ohio in about 1835, and was one of the pioneers of that state. 


He located in Dayton, where for several years he followed car- 
pentering. From Dayton he removed to Troy, where he resided 
for two years, and then went to Piqua. While in Troy he began 
the practice of medicine, having previously fitted himself for the 
medical profession. He continued to reside and practice medi- 
cine in Piqua, until he removed to Plymouth, in the fall of i88g, 
and now makes his home with his son. He was married in Day- 
ton to Ellen B. Chapman, who was born in 1S15, and who is still 
living. There were six children born to the parents, four of 
whom survive. The subject of this sketch remained in Dayton 
until his eleventh year, and then he went to Troy, Ohio, where he 
attended school. He also attended school in Piqua, and in 1864 
left the latter place and went to Rockford, Ills., where he entered 
the grocery store of his uncle as clerk. The same summer, in 
June, he enlisted in Company B of the One Hundred and Forty- 
sixth Illinois volunteer infantry, and served until the close of the 
war, being mustered out at Springfield, Ills. After the war he re- 
turned to Piqua and learned telegraphy, and subsequently he held 
positions as operator at Morrow, Ohio, Richmond, Ind., Colum- 
bus, Ind., Rochester, Ind., and in 1869 he located at Plymouth 
and took the position of agent and operator of what is now the 
L. E. & W. R. R. Co. He has been in the employ of this com- 
pany for over twenty years, and is one of the oldest employes in 
point of experience in the service of the company. Mr. Jilson is 
a member of Killninning lodge. No. 149, F. & A. M., is one of 
Plymouth chapter. No. 49, Plymouth commandery, K. T., No. 26, 
and has filled all the chairs in the different degrees, and is a past 
eminent commander of the commandery, also a member of Cy- 
rene council, No. 944, Royal Arcanum. He was formerly a 
G. A. R. From 18S2 till 18S6 he was clerk of Plymouth, and in 1886 
he was elected to the council from the Second ward, and was re- 
elected, being a member at the present time. Mr. Jilson was 
married in 1876, to Fanny Shearer, who was born at Lima, Ohio, 
and is the daughter of Benjamin F. Shearer. To this union one 
son has been born, J. Romer, in 1885. 

Hon. Perry O.Jones, a prominent member of the Marshall bar 
and present member of the Indiana state senate, representing the 
counties of Marshall and Fulton, was born in Greene township, 
this county, April 5, 1847. His father, Tyra Jones, was a native 
of Pennsylvania, but early moved to Ohio, in which state he was 
married to Sarah Ames, the mother of our subject. He came to 
Indiana in 1S36, and after a short residence in Kosciusko county, 
and in the spring of 1837, settled in Marshall county, locating 
120 acres of land in Greene township upon which he lived until 
his death in the fall of 1876. Mr. Jones is a man of intelligence, 
unostentatious in manner, but very successful in his business af- 
fairs, having accumulated a handsome property, his farm at the 


time of his death, consisting of over 300 acres of valuable land. 
He has always been a public spirited citizen, and though opposed 
to asking for official positions, was honored at one time by being 
elected a member of the board of county commissioners. He 
and his wife, who died in 1S80, were both earnest members of the 
Christian church. To their marriage were born ten children, of 
whom eight are now living. Perry O. Jones spent the years of 
his youth on his father's farm, and in early life enjoyed the ad- 
vantages of a common scoool education. He left the parental 
roof at the age of twenty-two years, and attended school one year 
at Rochester, and later pursued his studies at the Valparaiso nor- 
mal school, which he attended two terms, teaching school in the 
meantime. He was for some months engaged in the sewing ma- 
chine business, but having early manifested a decided preference 
for the law, he entered an office at Warsaw, in 1S71, in which he 
pursued a course of professional reading for about eighteen 
months, becoming a student in the law department of the state 
university at Bloomington. He attended this institution two 
terms, and in the spring of 1873 was admitted to the bar in Mar- 
shall county, and began the practice of his profession at Ply- 
mouth, where he soon earned the reputation of a careful and 
painstaking attorney. After spending ten months in the office 
of C. H. Reeve, he affected a co-partnership with John S. Bender, 
Esq., which lasted until the spring of 1S75. In the preceding fall 
he was elected prosecuting attorney for the district composed of 
Marshall, Fulton and Kosciusko counties, was re-elected in 1876, 
and filled the office for a period of four years. During the years 
1876-77, he was a member of the common council of the city of 
Plymouth, representing the Third ward, in which body he was a 
prominent factor in shaping city legislation, and he was elected 
mayor of said city in 1879, re-elected in 1S81, serving in that ca- 
pacity for four years when he was again elected a member of the 
council. In November, 1888, he was elected upon the democratic 
ticket, state senator for the counties of Marshall and Fulton, and 
is the present incumbent of that office. As a proof of his popu- 
larity with the people. It is only sufficient to say that he was 
never defeated for any position for which he offered himself as a 
candidate. He has been quite successful as a lawyer and enjoys 
a large and lucrative practice in Marshall and other counties. In 
addition to his general practice he has given considerable atten- 
tion to the insurance and real estate business, and also operates 
a fine farm of 170 acres, one and a half miles south of Plymouth. 
Mr. Jones was married April 13, 1875, to Nancy C. Fife, of Mar- 
shall county, daughter of Thomas Fife, deceased, to which union 
four children have been born, of which two are now living, Ar- 
thur C. and Lou Clare. Mr. Jones is a member of the Masonic 
12— B. 


order, Royal Arcanum, and with his wife belongs to the Metho- 
dist church. 

Prominent among the representative citizens of Marshall 
county, Ind., is Major William M. Kendall, who for nearl}' forty 
years has been an honored citizen of Plymouth, and whose 
career as an official, soldier and merchant forms an interesting 
and component part of the history of the county and its capital. 
Major Kendall is a native of the Empire state, having been born 
on March 11, 1841, at Warsaw, Wyoming county. In 1S51, when 
ten years of age, he came to Plymouth with his father, who died 
here two years later. During the period from 1853 to 1857, 
young Kendall made his home with H. B. Pershing, but in the 
latter year he was appointed deputy clerk of Marshall county, 
under N. R. Packard, and discharged the duties of that position 
until September, 1S60. He then entered Ashbury university, 
(now De Pauw) , at Green Castle, where he pursued his studies 
until the following spring, when he returned to Plymouth, and 
took charge of the postoffice, during the absence of the postmas- 
ter, Col. O. H. P. Bailey, who was at the front with the Union 
ami}'. In January, 1862, Col. Bailey resigned and returned to 
Plymouth, and a short time afterward the young deputy post- 
master was commissioned a second lieutenant b}' Gov. IVIorton, 
and at once raised a company of volunteers for the federal 
army, which was mustered into service as Company D, of the 
Seventy-third regiment of Indiana volunteers. The company 
went into camp at South Bend, on July 12, 1862, when Lieut. 
Kendall was unanimously elected by Company' D, as their cap- 
tain. He served gallantly until 1865, and while an inmate of a 
rebel prison in 1864, was commissioned major of the Seventy- 
third Indiana regiment. Upon his release he joined his com- 
mand at Larkinsville, Ala., where he was placed in com- 
mand of the post, and remained there until the war closed, 
and the order came for his command to be mustered out. Re- 
turning on July 12, 1865, he was mustered out of service at 
Indianapolis, with the rank of lieutenant colonel by brevet. 
Major Kendall then returned to Plymouth, and engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits, at which he was successfully engaged until. 1S69, 
when he was appointed postmaster of Plymouth by President 
Grant. He continued to hold the position of postmaster during 
the different republican administrations, and retired from the 
same on August i, 1SS5, being one of the first removed under 
President Cleveland's administration, having served over sixteen 
A ears with satisfaction to all concerned and credit to himself. 
While in the postoffice, in 1872, Major Kendall engaged in the 
book and stationery business, which he has since continued. In 
July, 1 888, he increased his business by adding a large and full 
line of groceries to the stationery business, and at present is 


conducting both enterprises, occupying two large store rooms on 
the southeast corner of La Porte and Michigan streets. Major 
Kendall is a member of Cyrene council, No. 944, Royal Ar- 
canum, and of Miles H. Tibbitt's post, No. 260, G. A. R. Major 
Kendall was married on September 29, 1861, to Harriet E., the 
daughter of Dr. Lyman Griffin, deceased, of Plymouth. She 
was born in Plymouth, in 1843. To their union six children 
have been born, one of whom is deceased. The living children 
are: Grace A., Mark Lee, Raymond Ames, Mary and Edith. 
The family are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
The parents of Major Kendall were Abiather and Dorothy 
(Mack) Kendall. The father was born in Maine and the mother 
in New Hampshire, their marriage occurring in the latter state. 
Abiather Kendall learned the merchant tailor's trade when 
young, which he followed diiring life. He removed to New 
York state in 1840, and in 1847 he came west, and located at 
Grand Rapids, Mich., where he remained until about 1S50, and 
then removed to La Porte, Ind., where his wife died. In 1851 he 
located in Plymouth, where his death occurred in 1853, in his 
forty-eighth year. There were six children born to the parents, 
of which the subject of this sketch was the fourth in number, 
and is the only surviving member. During Major Kendall's resi- 
dence in Plymouth, he has taken an active and conspicuous part 
in public and political affairs. He has on several occasions led a 
forlorn hope for his party, there being no chance of success on 
account of the large democratic majority. He has served as a 
member of the republican county central committee of Marshall 
county for a great many years, and is at present, and has been 
during four campaigns, chairman of the same. 

Hon. Charles Kellison, the subject of this sketch, was born 
near the city of Hornellsville, Steuben county, N. Y., on the 17th 
day of June, 1S50, being the youngest of seven children, whose 
parents were James and Elizabeth Kellison. His boyhood was 
spent in the severe labor of the farm, and as a consequence his 
opportunities for obtaining an education were confined during 
those years to the country schools of his neighborhood. He 
early developed a strong liking for mathematics, poetry, lan- 
guage, history and science, and by the closest application when 
at school and by employing his-unoccupied hours and evenings, 
while engaged in farm life, succeeded in acquiring a fund of 
knowledge far in advance of the average person of like oppor- 
tunities. In this manner, without other advantages than such as 
were afforded by the district schools, and a few years in the city 
schools of Hornellsville, at the age of eighteen, he possessed 
mental acquirements rarely equalled by those having the ad- 
vantages of a thorough academic course. He was at this time 
a fair Latin scholar and possessed some knowledge of the Ger- 


man. His earliest ambition was to become a lawyer, and when 
about eighteen years of age he decided to take a medical and 
scientific course at college as a better means of preparing him 
for a specialty in the law. He completed this course, took the 
degree of doctor of medicine at the University of Michigan at 
the age of twenty-two. He practiced medicine for two j'ears at 
Scio, Alleghany county, N. Y., for the purpose of earning means 
to prosecute his legal studies, made a decided success, and 
gained considerable reputation as a surgeon. In 1S74, for the 
purpose of getting in the profession of law, according to original 
plan, he left a promising medical practice, and removed to Deca- 
tur, Adams county, Ind., where he entered himself as a law stu- 
dent in the office of Judge Studebaker of that place, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1S76. Mr. Kellison spent several 3'ears of 
his life in the work of teaching in the public schools of New 
York and Indiana, and in Adams county before his admission to 
the bar he was employed in the grammar department of the De- 
catur public schools as a teacher. In 1S77 he settled in Ply- 
mouth, Marshall county, Ind., where he has since been engaged 
in the practice of law. In politics he has always been a demo- 
crat, and has served the people of Marshall county two terms in 
the legislature. The writer has been intimately acquainted with 
him for many years, and is familiar with his standing as a lawyer 
and a citizen. He has a strong analytical mind, indomitable 
pluck and perseverance, and he has met with flattering success 
in the practice of his profession. As a member of the legisla- 
ture of 1SS5 without previous legislative experience or parlia- 
mentary practice, he leaped at once into prominence as a strong 
■debater and parliamentarian. He was particularly noted for his 
absolute fearlessness and rugged honest}^ He vigorously op- 
posed the apportionment bill of 1885 (commonly called the ger- 
rymander), and made a strong speech in opposition to it in the 
house when floors and galleries were packed with people. He 
■appealed to his political associates to refrain from passing so un- 
fair a measure, and predicted the defeat of his party in 1886, if 
they passed the bill, a prediction that was fulfilled to the letter. 
Some of the ward politicians of his city were displeased with this 
action, and sought to defeat him for renomination. They brought 
•out three candidates against him at the primaries, but the demo- 
'Cratic masses of his district were pleased with his loj'alt}' to jef- 
fersonian principles, and Mr. Kellison received more than eighty 
per cent, of the entire vote, and was renominated by acclamation 
in the delegate convention that followed. He was re-elected by 
an increased majority, and at both his first and second elections, 
was the first candidate for representative in his county that re- 
ceived a majority of all the votes cast for that office for a period 
of eight or ten years before his candidacy. In the legislature of 


1SS7, he was one of the foremost figures on the democratic side 
in the stirring scenes incident to the election of Mr. Turpie to 
the senate. He was one of the three democratic members of 
the house that were by universal consent looked to by their col- 
leagues for parliamentary leadership and political guidance. 
These three, Kellison, Jewett and Gordon, represented the demo- 
cratic members of the house in the celebrated " compromise " 
conference that practically guaranteed the election of Senator 
Turpie. Mr. Kellison was chairman of the democratic caucus 
committee of the house during the session of 1887, and presided 
over the joint convention that nominated Senator Turpie. As 
an orator Mr. Kellison had no superior in either branch of the 
general assembly, and as a jury advocate and political speaker 
stands in the front ranks. He took the place of Senator D. W. 
Voorhees as orator of the evening at the Emmett anniversary of 
18S7, and with but few hours for preparation, delivered an ad- 
dress that was pronounced equal to anything that had ever been 
made on that occasion in the city of Indianapolis. As a legisla- 
tor he labored earnestly and untiringly to secure the passage of 
laws that would better "the condition of the masses of the people. 
He endeavored to secure legislation to exempt individuals^ 
whose property was encumbered with valid liens and obligations, 
from paying taxes on what they owed. His celebrated bill to 
reduce interest to six per cent, was the occasion of the greatest 
struggle in the house in the session of 1887. Mr. Kellison's 
speech in support of that measui-e was universally conceded to be 
the strongest array of facts and argument, and the most eloquent 
appeal for the reduction of the burdens of the debtor class, that 
was ever made in the legislature of Indiana. The bill failed by 
a few votes, but the author's speech was published in full in the 
Indianapolis Sentinel, and more than a thousand extra copies 
were purchased and circulated by friends of the measure in the 
house and senate. Mr. Kellison could have received the nomi- 
nation for a third term in 1888 without opposition, but publicly 
and positively declined to be a candidate. His name has been 
mentioned for congress in the thirteenth district, and he has 
long ago earned a nomination to that office by his numerous 
campaigns and able speeches in behalf of democratic congres- 
sional nominees, but he has never asked or been a candidate for 
, that nomination, and refuses to push himself for any office. He 
is honest and straightforward in all his business transactions, is 
industrious and painstaking in all he undertakes, and whether 
he continues in political life, or confines himself to professional 
pursuits, he is a man who is bound to grow in favor u'lth the 

Rudolph C. Kloepfer, manager of the largest dry goods and 
carpet house in Plymouth, was born in the kingdom of Wurtem- 


burg, Germany, December iq, 1849, the son of Rudolph C. and 
Augusta (Colb) Kloepfer, both natives of the same country. The 
father followed the drug business in Germany until 1840, when 
he came to the United States, locating in New York city, where 
he followed the same trade for some years. In 1848, after his 
marriage, he returned to the old country and resumed his busi- 
ness there, but ten years later came back to the United States, 
and located at Joliet, 111., where he remained one year, moving 
thence to Michigan City, Ind., in which city he followed the drug 
business until his death in 1874. His widow, who is still living 
with a daughter at Massillon, Ohio, has reached the ripe old age 
of eighty-one years. Rudolph C. Kloepfer, who is one of five 
children born to the above parents, spent his youthful years 
principally at Michigan City, and received a good education in 
the public schools, which supplemented by a commercial course 
in an institution at Chicago, has enabled him to manage quite 
successfully his various business enterprises. He came to Ply- 
mouth from Michigan City in 1876, for the purpose of starting a 
branch store of his establishment in the latter place, which for 
some time previous had been conducted under the firm name of 
Kloepfer & Co., there being two other partners, Frederick Bof- 
inger and Henry Opperman. Mr. Kloepfer took charge of the 
store in Plymouth, and when the partnership was dissolved a few 
years later, Mr. Opperman withdrawing, another house was 
established in Michigan City, which with the one at Plymouth, 
was conducted under the firm name of Kloepfer and Bofinger 
until 1S83, when thej' were compelled to suspend business on ac- 
count of financial embarrassment. Subsequently Mr. Kloepfer 
purchased the business from the assignee, and has since suc- 
ceeded in building up a very large and lucrative trade, the house 
at this time being the largest establishment of the kind in Mar- 
shall county, the stock representing a capital of $20,000, while 
the annual sales are considerably in excess of $50,000. Mr. 
Kloepfer was married in 1875 to Leonore Bofinger, daughter of 
Rev. C. Bofinger, pastor of the German Lutheran church, at 
Plymouth. Six children have been born to this union, one of 
whom is living, Carl O. Mr. Kloepfer is an active member of the 
Lutheran church, at Plymouth, in which he holds the office of 
trustee and secretary. 

Fred H. Kuhn, proprietor of the leading meat market of 
Plymouth, and chief of the city fire department, is a native of 
Michigan, born in Detroit on the 6th day of Januarj', 1858. His 
father, Henry Kuhn, a native of Germany, came to the United 
States in 1850, and first located at the city of Detroit, where he 
engaged in the tannery business, subsequentlj' following the trade 
at New Baltimore, to which place he moved in 1864, residing 
there until his removal to Port Huron, Mich., in 1867. He still 


1 8.^ 

lives at the latter place and is engaged in the leather and finding 
business, being one of the leading tradesmen of the city. He was 
married in Detroit, Mich., to Elizabeth Meyer, who was born in 
Germany, the result of which union has been six children. The 
subject of this biography remained with his parents until 1S75, 
and received a liberal education in both the English and German 
tongues. He early began to learn the butcher trade in Port 
Huron, and after becoming proficient in the same, went to 
Michigan City, Ind., in 1S77, and continued there working at his 
trade until the fall of the sam.e year, when he located in Plymouth, 
where he remained until July, 1878. At that time he went to 
Chicago and worked in that city until 1879, when he returned to 
Plymouth and engaged in business for himself, establishing a 
meat market which has since grown to be the largest enterprise 
in the city, and one of the most successful in northern Indiana. 
Mr. Kuhn began business upon a very small scale, and with but 
limited capital. But by studying the demands of the trade, with 
a laudable desire to please his customers, he has succeeded in 
building up a handsome business and is now one of the repre- 
sentative men of the city. On May 5, 1884, he was appointed by 
the council chief of the Plymouth fire department, the duties of 
which position he has since discharged in a manner highly cred- 
itable to himself and pleasing to the public. Previous to 1884, 
the head of the fire department was chosen every year, but since 
Mr. Kuhn's appointment, which has been so satisfactory to the 
people of the city, the council has seen fit to retain him, a fact 
which speaks well for his efiiciency and popularity. He is a 
member of the Odd Fellows' fraternity, K.of P., Royal Arcanum, 
and belongs to both the National Association of Fire Engineers, of 
which he is at present one of the vice presidents, and the State 
Firemen's Association of Indiana. He was married September 14, 
1880, to Miss Bertha Haslanger, of Plymouth, daughter of Will- 
iam and Anna Haslanger, a union blessed with the birth of two 
children: Fred H. and Gustave R. Mr. and Mrs. Kuhn are 
active members of the St. John's Evangelical church of Plymouth. 
John C. Kuhn was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, March 20, 
1842. He is the son of Frederick Kuhn, also a native of Wur- 
temberg, who came to America in 1855, settling first in Canada, 
and later, in the United States. The mother of the subject died 
in Germany, and he accompanied his father to this country in 
the year above mentioned. John C. Kuhn learned the shoe- 
maker's trade in Canada, where he worked at the same for some 
time, and afterward followed his chosen calling at La Porte, Ind., 
to which city he moved in 1862. In 1863, he enlisted in the state 
troops for the purpose of assisting in driving the guerilla Mor- 
gan out of Indiana, and in January, 1864, he entered the service 
of the United States as a menber of Company D, Thirty-second 


Indiana Infantry. He participated in the Georgia campaign un- 
der Gen. Thomas, was in the celebrated march to sea, and while 
engaged in one battle, received a severe wound in the right foot, 
w^hich compelled him to leave the active serviceof the field. He 
subsequently started to join his regiment at Chattanooga, and got 
as far as Nashville, where, on account of having been badly 
frozen by exposure, he was obliged to go to the hospital, in which 
he lay under the physician's care for eight days. From Nash- 
ville, he was sent to the general hospital at Jeffersonville, Ind., 
where he remained until discharged from the service. May 27, 
1865. On leaving the army, he returned to La Porte and re- 
sumed his trade, and was married in that city August 3, 1865, to 
Miss Frederica Berndt, who was born in Germany, January i, 
1843. Mrs. Kuhn came to the United States with her parents, in 
1854, settling in Michigan City, from which place the family 
moved to La Porte, a few years later. In September, 1S67, Mr. 
Kuhn came to Plymouth and entered the employ of John Paul, 
for whom he worked at his trade for three years, making a 
specialty of fine boots and shoes. He then purchased the tools 
of his employer, and after he had run the shop by himself for six 
months, effected a co-partnership with Jacob Weckerly, from 
which he was obliged to retire at the end of six months, on ac- 
count of sickness. He afterward returned to his trade and ran a 
business one and a half years, when he was again compelled to 
close out on account of an accident which resulted in a broken 
arm. He then went into partnership with John M. Shoemacher, 
and two years later, purchased his partner's interest, and for seven 
years thereafter, continued the business upon his own responsi- 
bility. He was eleven and one-half y&ars in all, in the shoe busi- 
nsss. He engaged in the liquor trade in 1881, and has continued 
the same with success and financial profit to the present time. 
Mr. Kuhn is a member of the fire department of Plymouth, to 
which he has belonged since 1868, and is now captain of the fire 
police, a position which he has filled with eminent satisfaction. 
He was made an Odd Fellow in 1863, belongs to the Royal Arca- 
num, and is a member of the Miles Tibbitt's post, G. A. R., of which 
he is now quarter-master. He and wife are members of the Ger- 
man Lutheran church. They have had a family of seven chil- 
dren, the following of whom are now living: Fdward E., born 
November 9, 1870; John F., born June 2, 1872; Adolph M., born 
April 14, 1877, and Mate C, born February 24, iSSi. 

Charles H. Lehr, auditor of Marshall count}', is a native of 
St. Joseph county, Ind., and the eldest of fifteen children born to 
Samuel and Malinda (Guiselman) Lehr, both natives of Ohio, 
the father born in Stark county, and the mother in New Paris. 
The subject's ancestors came originally from Germany, and were 
among the substantial pioneers of Ohio, in which state Samuel 


Lehr grew to manhood. He was a farmer by occupation, and in 
connection with agricultural pursuits, followed carpentering, 
which he learned in his younger days. Charles H. Lehr came 
to Marshall county with his parents when three years of age and 
was raised on a farm four and one-half miles east of Bremen. 
He was deprived of educational advantages until his eleventh 
year, after which he attended two or three terms in the pioneer log 
school-house, but did not make very great progress in his studies. 
He has been an intelligent observer, however, and by coming in 
contact with his fellow men in business and official capacities, 
has obtained a practical knowledge such as schools and colleges 
do not impart. He remained under the parental roof until 
seventeen years of age, at which time he began life upon his own 
responsibility as a moulder in the town of Bremen, but at the 
expiration of three months he abandoned this trade and engaged 
as fireman on a saw-mill. He afterward became head sawyer, a 
position he held during the winter season for several years, work- 
ing during the summer season at the carpenter's trade. At the 
age of nineteen he responded to the country's call for volun- 
teers, enlisting August i, 1861, in Company K, Twenty-ninth 
regiment, Indiana infantry, which formed a part of the army of 
the Cumberland. He was with his command in all of its varied 
experiences until honorably discharged, November 6, 1864, and 
during his period of service took part in a number of the blood- 
iest engagements of the war, including the battle of Shiloh, where 
his cartridge box and canteen were shot away and his clothing 
pierced by a number of bullets. After the siege of Corinth he 
marched across Mississippi and Alabama, and later on a retreat 
to Louisville, marching from Bowling Green to Louisville, he 
suffered great privations, becoming shoeless and being compelled 
to clothe his feet with rags in order to keep them from being 
lacerated by the stones upon the highway. To give a full ac- 
count of Mr. Lehr's army experience would require an elabor- 
ately filled volume, but suffice it to say, that his record while in 
the service is without a blemish, and he earned the reputation of 
a brave and gallant soldier. After his discharge, he returned to 
Bremen, and the following spring engaged in carpentering and 
building, and was also head sawyer on a large mill during a 
part of the year. In 1870 he began journeyman work at cabinet- 
making, in which he became quite skillful and which he followed 
for a period of several years. He was elected justice of the 
peace in 1872, the duties of which office he discharged for eight 
years, and in the meantime he was elected town clerk of Bremen, 
a position he filled with credit for about seven years. He was 
for several years engaged in the saw-milling business, which in 
the main was very remunerative, although he met with several 
reverses. He has been active in politics since 1S68, having served 


twelve years on the democratic central committee where his abil- 
ities won for him recognition among the leaders of his party in 
Marshall county. He was for four years deputy auditor, and in 
i8S6 was his party's nominee for auditor, to which he was elected 
by the average majority. As a public official, Mr. Lehr has been 
quite popular with the people, and under his management the 
business of the office has been conducted with efficiency and 
dispatch. He is a member of the Masonic order and the G. A. R., 
in which he has served as commander of the post. In the Ma- 
sonic fraternity he has served as master for a number of years, 
besides holding all other stations in the Blue lodge, and having 

been honored as representative member to the Grand lodge at 

[868, to Miss Ellen Carnahan, daughter of David and Sarah 

three different sessions. His marriage was solemnized May 

(Ringle) Carnahan. Mrs. Lehr was born in Armstrong county, 
Penn., and when five years of age accompanied her parents to 
Iowa, in which state her father died. The mother subsequently 
settled in Marshall county, and later moved to La Porte county 
where Mrs. Lehr was living at the time of her marriage. The 
following are the names of the children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Lehr: Cora A., Norman Edward, Hattie B., and Melinda A. 

Lebrecht Lumis, cooper, was born in the kingdom of Saxony, 
Germany, September 8, 1829, and is the son of George and 
Mary Lumis, both natives of the same country. He was reared 
and educated in Saxony and at the age of thirteen began to 
learn the cooper's trade, and after becoming proficient in the 
same, opened a shop which he conducted for about one year. 
In 1853 he came tothe United States and located at South Bend, 
where he worked as journeyman until the spring of 1855, at 
which time he came to Plymouth and established a shop, one of 
the largest of the kind in the city, and has since conducted a suc- 
cessful business. He purchased the old court house and moved 
it to its present location, and has used it as a shop until the pres- 
ent time. Mr. Lumis has been successful in a financial point of 
view, having accumulated a handsome competence, and is now 
one of the stockholders of the Plymouth Plow factory, and also 
of the electric light compan}^ He handles all kinds of cooper- 
age material, manufactures all kinds of barrels for the local and 
general trade, and his business has much more than a local rep- 
utation. He was married in Plymouth, December i, 1857, to Miss 
Carrie Ebel, a native of Prussia, who died November 30, 1880. 
Two children of this marriage are living, viz.: Mary, wife of 
Jacob Schroeder, and Carrie, wife of B. Sells. Mr. Lumis is a 
democrat in politics and a member of the Lutheran church. 

Daniel McDonald is one of the most prominent and influen- 
tial citizens of Marshall county. The name has for many years 
been identified with the press of the county, the father of Daniel 


having established the Marshall Connty Democrat in 1855, and 
the paper afterward being principally owned or edited by him- 
self or sons. Daniel McDonald bought a half-interest in the 
office from his father in August, 1875, ^"d since that time has 
been conspicuously connected with the paper as its editor. The 
Plymouth Democrat, as it has been known since i860, has always 
occupied a high rank in that hard working and progressive 
fraternity known as "the country press of Indiana." None of 
the democratic state papers have had more influence with their 
party during the troubled years since the war than the one pre- 
sided over by Daniel McDonald. But it is not simply as an 
editor that he has been conspicuous and influential among the 
democracy. He has represented it in various positions of trust 
and has been a familiar figure as delegate to its various conven- 
tions of all grades. In 1869 he was elected by his party as rep- 
resentative in the legislature from Marshall county, and served 
with ability and fidelity. In 1871, April 3, he was appointed clerk 
of Marshall county to fill out an unexpired term which expired 
on November i of the same year. He then commenced the 
term for which he had been elected, which expired November i, 
1875. He was re-elected and served for four more years. It is 
hardly necessary to add that he performed the responsible duties 
of the clerkship to the entire satisfaction of the people of the 
county and retired with the good will of all. Mr. McDonald 
ranks as an " old settler," having resided at Plymouth ever 
since the county of Marshall was organized, in 1836. In addition 
to the local honors conferred upon him, Mr. McDonald has often 
been " spoken of " for higher places, and once or twice made the 
race for state nominations from his party, but failed to meet 
with his usual success in this ambition. Mr. McDonald is about 
fifty-eight years of age and few men approach the evening of 
life with more personal friends or more general popularity with 
all classes. 

One of the successful lawyers of Marshall county is J. D. 
McLaren, who was born in Indiana county, Penn., July 18, 1835. 
He is a son of James and Mary J. (Hill) McLaren, who moved 
from their native county, Indiana, to Westmoreland county, 
Penn., where they lived until the year 1854. In that year James 
McLaren moved to the city of Saltzburg, Indiana county, for the 
purpose of educating his family, but subsequently returned to 
Westmoreland county in 1857, moving thence in 1862 to McCou- 
pon county. Ills., where his death afterward occurred. He was a 
man of intelligence, possessed rare business qualities, and for 
some years was superintendent of the Pennsylvania state rail- 
road from Johnstown to Holidaysburg. John D. McLaren was 
reared in Pennsylvania, and in early life attended the schools at 
Saltzburg, and later became a student in Washington college, 


Jefferson county, Penn., where he pursued his studies for some 
time, but owing to financial trouble was not enabled to complete 
the full course. He was for some time engaged in teaching in 
the town of Livermore, Westmoreland county, and in July, 1856, 
began the study of law in the office of H. \V. Weir, of Saltzburg, 
under whose instruction he continued until September, 1858, at 
which time he was admitted to the bar. He then effected a co-part- 
nership with his preceptor, and began the practice of his profes- 
sion in Indiana county, where he continued in the enjoyment of 
a lucrative business until the spring of 1865. In the meantime, 
July, 1863, he enlisted in a company' which was recruited in the 
town where he resided, was mustered into the service at Pitts- 
burgh, and was honorably discharged January 21, 1S64, having 
served principally on detail duty. In 1865 he went to Illinois, and 
after remaining there one year returned to Pennsylvania with the 
intention of locating at Pittsburgh, but was deterred from so do- 
ing on account of a fire which destroyed his valuable law library. 
Upon the solicitation of friends he came to Indiana in 1866, and 
located in Knox, the seat of justice of Stark county, where he 
began the practice of his profession, in which he soon won recog- 
nition among the successful lawyers of that city. In 1875 he lo- 
cated in Warsaw, Ind., for the purpose of educating his children, 
but in the spring of 1877 moved to Valparaiso, which was his 
home until the following September, at which time he came to 
Plymouth, where he has since resided and where he has a large 
and lucrative practice in the courts of Marshall and other coun- 
ties. As a practitioner his abundant resources never fail to ad- 
vance the interest of his clients, and in his discussions of law to 
the court, or of fact to the jury, he is ever practical, logical and 
lucid. He has filled the office of judge of the circuit court of 
Marshall county by appointment, and in his experience on the 
bench he exhibited a keenness of perception, a firmness of grasp 
upon legal propositions, and power of analysis which belong only 
to the natural jurist. His first wife, Anna M. Porter, daughter 
of Andrew W. and Ruth S. Porter, whom he married Novem- 
ber 5, 1S58, died in October, 1875. She was the mother of four 
children: Charles H., Birdie R., Daniel P. and John D. Mr. 
McLaren was again married February 2, 1879, to Miss Susan 
Williams, of Toledo, Ohio. 

Christian Mannual was born in Germany, February 7, 1840, 
and is the son of Daniel and Louisa (Houff) Mannual, who came 
to America in 1844, and settled in Stark county, Ohio, where the 
father died in 1850. Mrs. Mannual is still living and makes her 
home at this time with the subject of this sketch. The following 
are the names of the living children of Mr. and Mrs. Mannual: 
Daniel, Antro, Charles, Christian, William and Elizabeth. 
Christian Mannual was reared in Ohio, and owing to the death of 


his father was early in life compelled to contribute his part 
toward the support of the family, in consequence of which he 
received but a limited educational training. He became a resi- 
dent of Marshall county in 1862, and soon afterward settled upon 
his present place, where he cleared and developed a good farm 
of 140 acres, which represents his own labor and industry. He 
was married in 1S63 to Miss Elizabeth Zimmerman, daughter of 
Conrad Zimmerman, of Center township, and to their union 
have been born eleven children, viz.: Joseph I., Charles Emery, 
Barbara Louisa, wife of William Gottschalk; Daniel E., William, 
Lavina Catherine, John, Lewis, Detha, Bertha Maude, and Rosa 
Ella. Mr. Mannual was a soldier in the late war, enlisting in 
1861 in Company K, Fifty-first Ohio volunteer infantry, with 
which he served for a period of eleven months. He is a mem- 
ber of the Miles H. Tibbitt's post, G. A. R., of Plymouth, and 
independent in politics. 

John S. Martin, M. D., a native of Morris county, N. J., and 
son of Abraham and Lydia (Cumback) Martin, was born June 21, 
1836. His parents, who were both natives of the same state, 
moved to southern Indiana, in 1838, and eight years later emi- 
grated to Michigan, in which state they both died, the father on 
November 7, i860, and the mother in December, 1862. Of their 
eight children seven are now living, the doctor being the fifth in 
point of age. He was reared principally in Berrien county, 
Mich., moving there with his parents when ten j^ears of age. His 
early educational training was obtained in the public schools, and 
he subsequently became a student at Hillsdale college, and still 
later pursued his studies for some time in the state university at 
Ann Arbor. He began teaching in the public schools at the 
early age of seventeen, and as an instructor soon took high rank 
among the successful educators of that part of the state. He 
subsequently became principal of the Union school at Berrien 
count}', and also taught in Alligon and Kalamazoo counties, 
Mich., and La Porte county, Ind., having followed the profession 
with marked success until thirty-six years of age. In the mean- 
time he began the study of medicine, which he pursued while 
engaged in his professional work, and with a laudable desire to 
become proficient in that calling, he entered the medical depart- 
ment of the Michigan university, in which he completed the 
prescribed course, graduating in homeopathy in 1877. After 
graduating he began the practice of his profession at Galesburg, 
Kalamazoo county, Mich., and after remaining there about ten 
years moved to Plymouth, Ind., where he has since resided m the 
enjoyment of an extensive practice in the city and adjacent 
county. Professionally the doctor occupies a conspicuous place 
among his brethren of the healing art, and he is no less popular 
as a citizen, possessing the confidence and esteem of a large cir- 


cle of friends in Marshall county. He was married in 1868 to 
Miss Minnie C. Huff, daughter of Henry Huff, of Newton 
county, N. J., to which union three children, Katie L., Martha A., 
and William Cumback, have been born. The doctor is a mem- 
ber of the State Medical society, of Michigan, a prohibitionist in 
his political views, and a prominent member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, in which he holds the offices of steward and 
class leader. 

E. C. Martindale, a successful lawyer of Plymouth, and ex- 
prosecuting attorney, was born in Cass county, Ind., February 2, 
1850, and is the son of Isaac and Elizabeth (Cornwellj Martin- 
dale, natives respectively of North Carolina and Virginia. The 
father, a well-known minister of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
died in Fulton county, in 1S63, and the mother departed this life 
in the year 18S0. E. C. Martindale was taken by his parents, to 
Fulton county, at the age of four years, and received a good 
education in the city schools of Rochester. He began life for 
himself as a farmer, in Fulton county, and later, moved to Kan- 
sas, but on account of the death of his wife, he remained in that 
state but a short time, returning to Fulton county, where, in 1875, 
he began the study of law in the office of Enoch Sturgeon. He 
subsequently pursued his professional reading under the instruc- 
tion of Messrs. Essick & Holman, and was admitted to the bar in 
Rochester. In the fall of 18S2, he located at Argos, Marshall 
county, and the same year was elected prosecuting attorne}^ for 
the district comprising the counties of Marshall and Fulton, the 
duties of which position he discharged in a highly creditable man- 
ner, for two terms, having been re-elected in 18S4. Near the 
close of his official term he formed a law partnership with J. D. 
McLaren, in Plymouth, and the firm has since practiced quite 
successfully in that city. He is well grounded in the principles 
of legal jurisprudence, Is a clear and logical speaker, a safe and 
reliable counselor, and occupies a conspicuous place among the 
successful practitioners of the Marshall county bar. Politi- 
cally he is a democrat, and as such, has rendered his party 
valuable service in a number of campaigns. He was married 
March 21, 1872, to Miss Samantha Bridges, daughter of William 
Bridges, of Hancock county, Ind. Her death occurred Novem- 
ber 21, 1873, and on June 9, 1S79, Mr. Martindale was again mar- 
ried to Miss Ann M., daughter of Frederick Stair, of Greene 
township, a union blessed with the birth of one child, Fred C. 

Charles T. Mattingly, a retired business man and well-known 
citizen of Plymouth, was born in Corydon, Harrison county, Ind., 
October 6, 1845, and is the son of Ignatius and Rachael T. Mat- 
tingly. Ignatius Mattingly was a native of Maryland, which state 
he left at an early day, moving with his parents to Kentucky, 
where he was reared to maturity. He subsequently moved to Cory- 


don, Ind., where, for many years he was editor and proprietor of a 
newspaper. He came to Marshall county in 1856 and is now living 
at the town of Bourbon. The immediate subject of this sketch 
came to Marshall county' when eleven years of age and received 
his educational training in the public schools and in the office of 
the Marshall County Republican, of which his father was at that 
time the publisher. He also completed a commercial course at 
Oberlin, Ohio, and in 1S67 engaged in the lumber business, be- 
coming a member of the well-known firms of Oglesbee, Mat- 
tingly & Black, and later of Oglesbee & Mattingly. He continued 
actively in the lumber business until the year 1S77, at which time 
he disposed of his interests in this line in Marshall county, but 
he now owns a large and controlling interest in the Indiana Lum- 
ber company of Nashville, Tenn. From 1SS5 to 1S89 he was en- 
gaged in the mercantile business, in Plymouth, which like his 
previous enterprise was conducted with financial profit and suc- 
cess. He was a soldier in the late war in Company E, One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-eighth Indiana Volunteers, in which he served 
until the expiration of his term of enlistment, having held the 
office of orderly sergeant. For the past several years Mr. Mat- 
tingly has given his attention to his real estate interests, being 
the owner of five valuable farms in this county, besides owning 
good property in Plymouth, Chicago and other cities. He pos- 
sesses rare financial ability and is justly entitled to mention as 
one of the thrifty and enterprising citizens of Marshall county. 
He is prominent in the Masonic order, belonging to Kilwinning 
lodge, No. 149, Plymouth chapter. No. 49, and Plymouth com- 
mandery, K. T., No. 26. He is also a member of the Miles Tib- 
bitt's post, G. A. R. Politically he belongs to the republican party. 
Miss Evalin L. Pain became his wife in 1866, and to their union 
has been born one son, Ralph Mattingly, who resides at home. 
Mr. and Mrs. Mattingly are attendants of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. 

Prominent among the old and honored citizens of Plymouth, 
is Sigmond Mayer, member of the well-known grocery firm of 
Nussbaum & Mayer, is a native of Germany, born in Bibra, Saxe 
Meiningen, July 3, 1836. His parents M. A. and Minnie (Schayer) 
Mayer, were also natives of Germany, the father born in 1802, 
and the mother one year later. They lived and died in their 
native country, their deaths occurring in the years 1863 and 1849, 
respectively. Our subject was educated in the schools of his na- 
tive country and afterward took a course in a commercial college 
at Cincinnati, Ohio. He came to this country in 1854, when 
eighteen years of age, and was for some time employed as clerk 
in a business house in New Orleans, going thence to Lawrence- 
burg, Ind., and still later to Cincinnati, making that city his head- 
quarters while engaged in retailing jewelry throughout Indiana 


and the southern states. He was thus engaged in 1861, when the 
war of the rebellion broke out, in which 3'ear he secured the ap- 
pointment of sutler to the twentj'-third Kentucky regiment. 
Subsequently he was made purveyor of Gen. Osterhaus' division 
at Vicksburgh, in which capacity he continued until March, 1864, 
when he severed his connection with the army and came to 
Plymouth and formed a partnership with L. Nussbaum in the 
grocery, wool, hide and fur business, and the firm thus constituted 
still continues. This is one of the oldest business houses in Ply- 
mouth, and has been reasonably successful. Mr. Mayer was natur- 
alized as a citizen of the United States, in October, i860, and the 
following November cast his first presidential vote for Stephen A. 
Douglas, since which time he has been a supporter of the demo- 
cratic party. During his residence in Plymouth, he has been 
quite active in local politics, having filled various positions of 
trust and responsibility. He was elected town treasurer and 
clerk of the corporation before the town obtained a city charter, 
filling both offices jointly during the years 1867-68 and 1869. For 
twelve years in succession, under the city charter, he represented 
the Second ward in the common council, in the deliberations of 
which body he took an active part. In June, 1886, he was chosen 
a member of the board of school trustees for a term of three 
years, was re-appointed in 1889, and is still a member of that body. 
His official life has been remarkably free from criticism and as a 
private citizen he has always enjoyed the confidence and esteem 
of the people of his adopted city. Mr. Mayer was married in 
1858, to Hannah Shane, of Cincinnati, a native of SaxeWeimer, 
Germany, and to their union have been born the following child- 
ren: Minnie, wife of Nathan Kramer, of Minnesota; Rosalie, 
wife of N. J. Speyer, of New York city; Milton, assistant man- 
ager of the Nelson Morris Slaughter and Canning Co., Union Stock 
Yards, Chicago; Bertha, wife of Simon Rosenhaut, of Spokane 
Falls, Wash.; Solomon, who resides at the same place; Fanny, 
Julia, Adolph and Edwin. Mr. Mayer is a prominent member 
of the Masonic order, belonging to the lodge at Plymouth. 

Rev. Louis Aloysius Moench, pastor of the^ St. Michael's 
Catholic congregation of Plymouth, and also the Catholic church 
at Bourbon, is a native of Germany, born in Freudenberg, 
Baden, January 25th, 1S53. His early educational training was 
obtained in the schools of his native country, which he attended 
until his fourteenth year, when, in 1S67, he came to the United 
States, landing at New York city, moving from thence to Avilja, 
Noble county, Ind., where he made his home for one year with 
Rev. Father Duehmig, pastor of the Catholic church at that 
place. In 1869 he went to Milwaukee, Wis., and entered the St. 

Francis seminary, where he completed his preparatory studies 
;hood, and in June, 1876, was ordained priest and in- 

for the priesthood, 

Pastor of St.Michael's Church 


Stalled as assistant pastor at Avilla, Ind., In connection with 
which charge he also ministered to several small congregations 
in the northern part of the state. He was subsequently trans- 
ferred to Fort Wayne, where for eight months he was assistant 
at the Cathedral at that place, and in 1S79, took charge of the 
congregation at Lebanon, Boone county, of which he continued 
as pastor until his return to Fort Wayne, in 18S1. He officiated 
as assistant pastor of St. Mary's church for one year and one 
month, and in February, 1S83, was transferred to Plymouth and 
has since had charge of the congregations at this place and 
Bourbon. Father Moench has become endeared to his people, 
and enjoys great personal popularity in Plymouth among all 
classes irrespective of church or creed. His life has been fraught 
with good works and in his sacred calling he has induced many 
to abandon the ways of sin for the better way of holiness and 

Courtland L. Morris, who for sixteen years has been closely 
identified with the lumber manufacturing interests of Marshall 
county, and who is the present proprietor of one of the largest 
saw-mills of northern Indiana, is a native of Ohio, born in the* 
county of Huron, June 21, 1S44. His parents were William and 
Angelina (Sweatland) Morris, the former a native of Danbury, 
Conn., and the latter of Wilksbarre, Penn. They were among 
the early settlers of Huron, Ohio, where the father followed 
farming, and where his death occurred about the year 1850. His 
wife preceded him to the grave, dying in 1846. The subject of 
this sketch was reared in his native county until sixteen years of 
age, at which time he went to Monmouth, 111., where for some 
years he "found employment as a farm laborer. In 1862, while at 
Monmouth, he enlisted in the army, joining Company C, of the 
Eighty-third Illinois volunteer infantry, with which he served as 
a private for three years, during the last two of which he did 
duty as a mounted scout with the army of the Cumberland. 
During his period of service he never lost a day from duty, and 
was neither captured nor wounded, although having participated 
in a number of bloody engagements. He was mustered out at 
Nashville, Tenn., after which he went to Chicago, where on 
July 5, 1865, he received his discharge, and drew the residue of 
his pay. On leaving the army he returned to Illinois, and became 
a student in the Monmouth academy, in which he pursued his 
studies for one year, and then encered upon a commercial course 
in the Commercial college, at Oberlin, Ohio, which, with teleg- 
raphy, he completed in 1868. In that year he entered the service 
of the P., Ft. W. & C. R. R. Co., as telegraph operator, at 
Bourbon, Marshall county, Ind., where he took charge of the 
night office. He servec as night operator for about two and a 
half years, and was then made operator and station agent at 


Inwood, in which capacity he continued until April, 1874. He 
severed his connection with the company in that year, and effected 
a co-partnership in the lumber business with George Shafer, Mr. 
Morris purchasing the interest of Charles Croup, and the firm 
thus formed became known by the name of Shafer & Morris. 
They manufactured and dealt in lumber at Inwood Station, 
and in the fall of 1S86, formed a branch of the business at Ply- 
mouth, to which city they afterward moved the main office, and 
also erected a large mill. In connection with the lumber busi- 
ness, they dealt quite extensively, while at Inwood, in buggies, 
carts, etc., and continued the same branch of business at Ply- 
mouth, where they handled large numbers of vehicles. On 
February 17, 1890, the partnership of Shafer & Morris, was by 
mutual consent dissolved, and the business divided, Mr. Shafer 
remaining in charge at Inwood, and Mr. Morris assuming con- 
trol of the mill and office at Plymouth. The mill of which he is 
proprietor is the largest in the county, being 48x86 feet in size, 
and supplied with the latest improved machinery, the capacity 
being over 15,000 feet of lumber per day. In addition to the 
■manufacture of lumber, a large business is carried on in felloes, 
chair stock, etc., large quantities of which are shipped to the 
leading cities in different parts of the country. Mr. Morris also 
handles all kinds of native lumber, buying and selling for the 
local and general markets, handling during the year about 1,000 
cars upon the different railroads. He has a large wood-yard 
where he handles vast quantities of wood for the local fuel mar- 
ket, and also deals extensively in wagons, buggies and carts, in 
which he leads the trade in Plymouth. In 1S89 he entered into a 
business partnership with Charles E. Croup, under the name of 
Croup & Morris, and erected a large saw-mill at Marmont, at 
Lake Maxinkuckee, which is now in successful operation, manu- 
facturing large quantities of lumber. Mr. Morris ranks among 
the successful business men of Marshall county, and is justly 
esteemed one of the representative citizens of Plymouth. He 
was married May i6th, 1868, to Mary E. Nickerson, of Huron 
county, Ohio, who has borne him eight children, five living, viz.: 
Nellie A., Hattie A., Courtland D., Lloyd H. and Lyrel G. Mr. 
Morris is prominent in local affairs, a republican in politics and 
belongs to the Royal Arcanum, and the Miles Tibbitt post. No. 260, 
G. A. R.. of Plymouth. 

John Nifong, an enterprising farmer of Center township, is a 
native of Pennsylvania, born in Schuylkill county, that state, 
January 11, 1822. His parents were George and Magdalene 
(Jacoby) Nifong, who came from Schuylkill county to Marshall 
county, about the year 1852, and settled in Center township, 
upon the farm now occupied by Daniel Jacoby, which Mr. 
Nifong cleared and improved. Mr. and Mrs. Nifong were mem- 


bers of the German Reform church, and their deaths occurred in 
1874 and 1875, respectively. Of their ten children but three are 
living, viz.: the subject of this biography; Mary, wife of William 
Kenley, and Martha, formerly Mrs. Greene, now Mrs. York. 
John Nifong moved from his native county and state when quite 
young, to Ohio, and after residing in Franklin and Delaware 
counties, that state, where he obtained an education in the coun- 
try schools, came to Marshall county, in 1S49, and purchased his 
present farm, in Center township, upon which he has since re- 
sided. He was married in 1845, to Miss Lorendo Watson, of 
Delaware county, Ohio, a union blessed with the birth of three 
children, whose names are as follows: Martha, wife of Gotleib 
Weiser; James and Joel W. Mr. Nifong takes an active interest 
in the affairs of the township, is a warm friend of the public 
schools, and belongs to the Mt. Olivet congregation, Methodist 
Protestant church, in which he holds the positions of trustee and 
class leader. His political views are in accord with the demo- 
cratic party, but he has never been an office seeker. 

One of the well-known lumbermen of northern Indiana and 
a leading business man of Plymouth, is Mr. N. H. Oglesbee, who 
was born in Green county, Ohio, July 10, 1S26. He is a son of 
Jacob and Edith (Woolman) Oglesbee, natives repectively of Vir- 
ginia and New Jersey. Mr. Oglesbee's ancestors, on both sides, 
were among the early pioneers of Ohio, and maternally, he is a 
descendant of John Woolman, the eminent Quaker of Eng- 
land, a conspicuous figure in the early history of the Friends' 
church. Jacob and Edith Oglesbee were married in Ohio, and 
resided in that state until 1S54, when they came to La Porte 
county, Ind., which was their home until their removal to Mar- 
shall county, four years later. The father followed farming dur- 
ing the greater part of his life, and died in Plymouth in 1S67. 
His widow survived him four years, dying in 1871. They reared 
a family of seven children, six of whom are now living, three 
sons and three daughters, one son being deceased. The imme- 
diate subject of this biography was reared on a farm until his 
twent3'-third year, received a good education in the common 
schools, and in 1849 abandoned agricultural pursuits and began 
working at the carpenter trade in La Porte county, Ind. After 
following carpentering and building until 1856, he removed to 
Plymouth and engaged in the mercantile business in partnership 
with Thomas Price, of La Porte, and the firm thus formed con- 
tinued about eight months, when Mr. Oglesbee purchased his 
partner's interest and became sole proprietor. He sold goods 
with encouraging success for three or four years, and during that 
time suffered severe losses by fire, his store having been twice 
completely destroyed. He early took an active interest in po- 
litical affairs, and in 1858 was the republican nominee for the 


office of county treasurer, to which he was elected over a large 
•democratic majority. He was re-elected in i860, and his official 
record was one of the best the county has ever known. In 1863 
he was appointed captain commissary of subsistence, in which 
capacit}' he served during the rest of the war, establishing sup- 
ply depots throughout the south. He was with Sherman in his 
celebrated march to the sea, and for merited conduct while in 
the field, was breveted major at the close of the war. On sever- 
ing his connection with the army, he returned to Marshall 
•county and engaged in the lumber business at Plymouth, which 
he carried on until 1866, at which time he went to Chicago, 
where he was similarly engaged until 1871. Since that time he 
has dealt extensively in lumber in this county, and is now a 
member and director of the Indiana Lumber company, head- 
quarters at Nashville, Tenn., and also operates a large mill at 
Simpson, 111., which does a very extensive business. He deals 
largely in lumber in Plymouth, buying and selling for the local 
and general trade, and is one of the substantial business men of 
the city. Mr. Oglesbee was married in 1S47 to Mary A. Walm, 
of Ohio, who died in 1853, leaving one child, since deceased. His 
second marriage was solemnized in 1857 with Lj^dia Doolittle, of 
Plymouth, whose death occurred in 1870. She was the mother 
■of three children living. Mr. Oglesbee belongs to the Masonic 

F. M. Orr, business manager of H. G. Thayer & Co., grain 
dealers, was born in York county, Penn., April loth, 1837. His 
parents, George W. and Hannah (Bennett) Orr moved to 
Rochester, Fulton county, Ind., in 1840, and settled about six 
miles south of that city and engaged in farming. George W. 
Orr was a forgeman in his early days but after coming to Indiana 
gave his entire attention to agricultural pursuits, dying in 1888. 
Mrs. Orr's death occurred in 1885. To Mr. and Mrs. Orr were 
born the following children: The subject of this sketch, Mrs. 
Lucretia Miller, Charles, Mrs. Emma Ault, J. N. and Adisetta. 
F. M. Orr was reared on the home farm in Fultoi'f'county, at- 
tended the township schools at intervals during his youth, and 
lived with his parents until 1865, in December of which year he 
tecame a resident of Plymouth. For a number of years he has 
been connected with H. G. Thayer & Co., and as already stated 
is now the general manager of their large warehouse at Plymouth. 
December 14, 1865, he married Julia A. Dunlap, daughter of 
James Dunlap, a native of Pennsylvania, but an early settler of 
Fulton county, Ind. Mr. Orr is one of the intelligent citizens of 
Plymouth and has the unbounded confidence of his employers. 
He is a member of no political organization, casting his vote for 
the man rather than party. 

John W. Parks was born in Marshall count}-, Ind., May 25 


1852, where he lived with his parents about one mile north of 
Bourbon, in the first frame dwelling erected between Plymouth 
and Leesburg. He is the son of the Hon. James O. Parks, of 
whom a few words should be said as a prelude to this biography. 
James O. Parks was born in Bourbon county, Ky., March 20, 1813. 
In 1827 the family with whom he belonged emigrated to Rush 
county, Ind., and after residing there a few years, in 1835 again 
moved, and this time to Marshall county, and were the first white 
settlers in Bourbon township, naming the postoffice, the town and 
the township after the county they came from in Kentucky. Mr. 
James O. Parks during fift3'-five years in Marshall county has 
filled many important positions of trust, and enjoyed the full con- 
fidence of the citizens of the county. On the 3rd day of Octo- 
ber, 1836, he married Miss Susan Dinwiddie, a lady full of love- 
liness and amiable qualities, and in labor and hardships of life 
proved a worthy helpmate. John W. Parks, the subject of this 
sketch, has been a resident of Marshall county from his birth, 
when a boy moving with his parents from the farm north of 
Bourbon into town, where he resided until moving to Plymouth 
in 1876. Mr. Parks obtained that education which he could pro- 
cure in the public schools of Bourbon, until 1870, when he was 
appointed deputy postmaster at Bourbon, and serving in that 
capacity for about three years; during the term H. D. Weaver, 
postmaster, resigned, and Harman Baylor being appointed. Dur- 
ing the deputyship under the last named postmaster, the whole 
management of the office was conducted by the deputy, Mr. Bay- 
lor pursuing other business. At this time the German Baptists 
of northern Indiana had established what was known as "Salem 
college," and Mr. Parks being possessed of a strong desire to 
know more, resigned his position in the postoffice and entered 
Salem college, which he attended for two years, subsequently en- 
tering the law department of the University of Michigan, where 
he, in March, 1875, graduated, receiving the degree of bachelor 
of law. Soon after the completion of his legal course he was 
admitted to practice law at the Marshall county bar, and was 
subsequently admitted to practice in the supreme court of the 
state. Soon after his commencing to practice law he was united 
in marriage with Miss Sallie H. Mozingo, of Tipton county, Ind., 
and later in 1876 moved to Plymouth, where he has since con- 
tinued to make his home. Since Mr. Parks was admitted to the 
bar, he has actively engaged in the practice of his profession, 
building up a reputation as an advocate and counselor which places 
him in the front rank of the lawyers of Indiana. Mr. Parks is 
identified as a prominent republican, and one of the leaders of 
his party in this community. He is not an office-seeker, and has 
never been a candidate or held any political office. In 1884 his 
republican friends desired to give him the judicial nomination of 


his party, which he for personal reasons decHned to accept, but 
over his positive protest he was given a complimentary vote 
which was extremely flattering, it only being two short of a nom- 
ination. Mr. Parks is a devout member of the Plymouth Pres- 
byterian church, with which he united in 1878. He served as a 
member of the building committee, and to his efforts the congre- 
gation owe much for the magnificent church building which the 
society now enjoys. Mr. Parks has for several years served as a 
popular superintendent of the Presbyterian Sunday-school, the 
school being the largest in the county. 

William Pomeroy, a leading farmer of Center township, son of 
Grove O. and Margaret (.Smith) Pomeroj', was born in St. Joseph 
count}', Ind., July 26, 1S34. His parents, natives respectively of 
Massachusetts and New York, were married at Vincennes, Ind., 
in 1832, settled in St. Joseph county in 1S35 and the same year, 
came to Marshall county and located in Center township. Grove 
Pomeroy, the subject's grandfather, was the first permanent set- 
tler on the present site of Plymouth. The father of William, a 
farmer by occupation, and a leading citizen in the community in 
which he resided, died April 14, i86q. His widow still survives. 
They reared a family, four members of which are still living: 
Grove B.; the subject of this sketch; Smith, and Clarissa, wife of 
Miles Van Vactor. William Pomeroy was brought to Marshall 
county by his parents, when about two months old, and was 
reared in Center township, in the schools of which he received a 
fair English education. He assistsd his father in developing a 
farm, and subsequently engaged in farming for himself, owning 
at this time one of the best cultivated places in Center township. 
He was married in 1863 to Miss Sarah Ann Van Vactor, daughter 
David Van Vactor, who has borne him five children, viz.: Miles, 
Minnie Bell, Hattie May, Lulu Jane and Grace E. Mr. Pome- 
roy is a republican in politics and a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. 

G. R.Reynolds, M. D., a well-known physician and surgeon of 
Plymouth, was born in La Porte county, Ind., March 11, 1841, 
and is the only son of John and Keturah (Mncent) Reynolds, 
who were both natives of New York, and whose deaths occurred 
in Indiana, in the 3'ears 1869 and 1859, respectively, the father 
dying in INIarshall county and the mother in La Porte county. 
Dr. Reynolds grew to manhood in La Porte county, and he re- 
ceived his literarj^ education in the common schools, a Metho- 
dist college at Valparaiso, and the high school at Plymouth. He 
began reading medicine in La Porte, Ind., and subsequently 
graduated from the medical department of the University 
of Michigan, receiving his diploma March 27, 1867. After 
completing his professional education he began the practice 
of the same in Plymouth, in which city and Marshall county, 


he has since done a very extensive and successful business. He 
possesses many of the elements of a successful practitioner, and 
in his professional experience has a reputation much more than 
local. He is a member of the county and state medical socie- 
ties, and as a member of the city school board has been a potent 
factor in promoting the educational interests of Plymouth. He 
was the first health officer of the county, and for three years has 
been secretar}' of the county board of health. He was formerly 
employed as a surgeon by the different railroad companies run- 
ning through Plymouth, and while in this capacity was called 
upon to perform many exceedingly difficult operations. Politi- 
cally, the doctor is a democrat, and fraternally a prominent 
member of the Masonic order, belonging to Blue lodge, chapter, 
and commandery. He served as postmaster of Plymouth, from 
1885 until 1S89, and discharged the duties of that position with 
satisfa'ction to all concerned. The doctor was married to Miss 
Martha Higday, daughter of W. S. Higday, of La Porte, Ind., 
and five children have been born to them, viz.: Bertha K., Maud N., 
Carl D., George F. and Estella. 

David Alexander Ross, who has been a resident of Marshall 
county since September, 1863, is a native of Rush county, Ind., 
his birth dating from September 11, 1835. His father, Alexander 
Ross, came from his native country, Ireland, a number of years 
ago, and settled in Kentucky, in which state he married Mary 
Ross, by whom he had ten children: Jennie, Ann, Abie, Hettie, 
Sally, Angeline, America, Catherine, James Henderson and David 
Alexander. The mother died in 1843, and the father subse- 
quently married Emma Williams, who had two children, Lovina, 
of Rush county, and James, whose residence is not known. The 
family came to Marshall county in 1850, and purchased the farm 
owned by the subject of this sketch, where the father remained 
on the farm about one year, and returned to Rush county, where 
he remained until his death in 1868. His ^yidow still survives. 
The early years of our subject were passed in Rush county, and 
he has always been a farmer by occupation. As already stated 
he came to Marshall county in 1S63, and purchased the home farm, 
upon which he has since resided, and which is one of the well 
cultivated places of Center township. His first wife, whom he 
married in Rush county in 1854, was Miss Martha Machlen, 
daughter of John Machlen. She died July 29, 1872, and of her 
children the following are living: Amanda, Ross, Jonana Jose- 
phine, wife of William Stranderman; Armilda, wife of John 
Kenley, and William Elmer, of Spokane Falls, W^ash. Mr. 
Ross's second marriage was solemnized in 1872 with Airs. W^ilhel- 
mina (Weissert) Ross, who has borne him two children, viz.: 
Caroline and Pearl. Mr. Ross is a member of the Methodist 
Protestant church, and belongs to the Mt. Olive congregation, 


in which society he holds the office of steward, likewise that of 

Michael Ryan, deputy auditor of Marshall county, and one 
Plymouth's popular young citizens, was born in the city of La 
Porte, Ind., February 23rd, 1857, and is the son of David and 
Mary (Ryan) Ryan, both parents natives of Ireland. The 
father came to America in 1854 and located in the town of La 
Porte, and from there moved to Plymouth in 1858. His wife 
whom he married in La Porte, came to the United States in 
1855. They were the parents of thre^ children, two living, viz.: 
Michael and Mary, wife of Michael McGary of Plymouth. Mr. 
Ryan died April iSth, 1S85, in his sixty-first year. His widow 
still survives, making her home in Plymouth. They were both 
active members of the Catholic church, and assisted in the or- 
ganization of St. Michael's congregation in this city. Michael 
Ryan was educated in the public schools of Plymouth, and the 
parochial schools of the same place, and at the age of fourteen 
became clerk in the dry goods and clothing store of R. William- 
son, in whose employ he continued for a period of nine years. 
He then engaged with M. Laur & Son, in the same line of 
trade, with whom he remained as salesman for six years. 
March 14, 1887, he was appointed deputy auditor of Marshall 
county, under C H. Lehr, the duties of which position he has 
discharged in a very creditable manner until the present time. 
Mr. Ryan has been very active in church work, striving with 
laudable energy and enterprise to build up the congregation and 
place it upon a substantial financial basis. February i8th, i8go, 
he read a very carefully prepared and elaborate address upon 
the history of the congregation at this place, the major portion 
of which is reproduced in this volume. 

George Schafer, manufacturer and dealer in lumber, is a na- 
tive of Stark county, Ohio, and son of John and Rosanna 
Schafer, who came from Germany a number of j'ears ago, and 
settled in the above county and state as early as the year 1816. 
John Schafer was a mechanic, and for a number of years fol- 
lowed the wagon-maker's trade in Stark county, Ohio, where his 
death subsequently occurred. His wife also died in Stark 
county. Their children living, are: Love, Mrs. Catherine 
Spidel, Mrs. Rosanna Carter, Mrs. Eliza Klein, Mary, and George, 
whose name introduces this sketch. George Schafer was reared 
in Stark county, Ohio, in the schools of which he received his 
education, and in early life became quite proficient as a carpen- 
ter and builder. In 1852 he went to California, where he re- 
mained until 1857, returning to Indiana in the latter year and 
settling at Valparaiso, where, in i860, he was united in marriage 
to Miss Paulina Miller, daughter of Charles Miller, of Porter 
county. He afterward moved to Colorado, thence to St. Joseph 


Mo., and later to Nebraska, where he engaged in stock-raising. 
He came to Marshall county in 1866, and engaged in the manu- 
facture of lumber at Inwood in partnership with Mr. Croup, and 
the firm thus formed continued about eleven years. At the end 
of that time Mr. Morris, of Plymouth, became a partner, and the 
firm lasted until February, 1890. Mr. Schafer has been success- 
ful in his various enterprises, and in addition to the lumber 
trade, deals quite extensively in wagons and agricultural imple- 
ments. Politically, he is a democrat, and in religion, a Luth- 
eran. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Schafer are five in number, 
viz.: Charles, traveling salesman, resident of Logansport; 
George, William, Lewis and Jennie. 

Hiram U. Shafer, a native of Stark county, Ohio, and son of 
John and Sarah Shafer, was born March 20, 1844. John and 
Sarah Shafer, whose maiden name was Secrest, were both na- 
tives of the above county and state, where they resided until 
1845, when they moved to Marshall county, Ind., and cleared a 
farm in Green township. In 1852, Mr. Shafer moved to Fulton 
county, where he also cleared a farm upon which he lived until 
1866, at which time he returned to Marshall county and became a 
resident of Green township. He moved to his present farm in 
Center township in 1S82, and is now retired from active life. He 
has been a prominent citizen of the county, is a democrat in poli- 
tics, and has filled several official positionsamong which was that 
of justice of the peace. In addition to farming he was for some 
time engaged in the saw-milling business, and for several years 
operated a threshing machine in different parts of this and other 
counties. Mr. and Mrs. Shafer had a family of eight children, 
six sons and two daughters, viz.: Israel, Hiram, Philetus, Martin, 
William, Leonard, Cynthia, and Alwilda, now Mrs. Charles 
Myers. The immediate subject of this mention was reared to 
manhood in Fulton county, received his education in the com- 
mon schools and has followed agricultural pursuits and the car- 
penter's trade. He settled on his present farm in Center town- 
ship in 1875, since which time he has cleared the greater part of 
the same and added to his original purchase until he now owns 
335 acres in the honie place, besides 315 acres elsewhere, making 
an aggregate of 650 acres. He is one of the largest landholders 
in the county and also ranks as one of the most successful farm- 
ers. He was married in 1870 to Miss Lucy E. Taber, daughter 
of Samuel Taber, of Center township, to which marriage one 
child was born. This child died in infancy, and Mrs. Shafer de- 
parted this life in 1877. 

Few men of Marshall county are so widely and favorably 
known as Thomas Shakes, a leading furniture dealer of Plymouth, 
and at present, the efficient trustee of Center township. Mr. 
Shakes is a native of Marshall county, being born in Greene 


township, February lo, 1850, the son of John and Eliza Shakes. 
The father was a native of Scotland, but came to the United 
States in early life, locating in Marshall county, Ind., where he 
purchased land from the government in Greene township, hav- 
ing been one of the pioneers of that section. His wife, whose 
maiden name was Eliza World, was born in South Carolina, but 
came with her parents to Indiana at an early day, and spent sev- 
eral years in La Porte county, where the family originally lo- 
cated. They subsequently moved to Greene township, Marshall 
county, where Mr. and Mrs. Shakes were married, and where his 
death occurred in the year 1S56, and hers in 1872 in Walnut Sta- 
tion. They had a family of three children, two sons and one 
daughter, the latter deceased. The sons are the subject of this 
mention, C. W. Shakes being a prominent business man of Bourbon, 
this county. Thomas Shakes was reared on the home farm in 
Greene township, received his elementary education in the country 
schools, and subsequently became a student of the Valparaiso 
normal school, in which he completed the teachers' course, grad- 
uating in 1878. He taught school at intervals during his attend- 
ance at this institution, and after completing his education, 
followed the teacher's profession in Marshall county until about 
the year 1879, during which time he earned the reputation of 
being an enthusiastic and successful educator. His abilities as a 
school man were duly recognized in 1881, by his appointment as 
superintendent of the public schools of Marshall county, to which 
position he was twice re-elected without opposition. He brought 
to the office a mind well fortified with professional experience, 
and his superior executive abilitv made his three terms of si.x 
years signally successful in placing the schools of the county on 
a higher plane than they before occupied. Previous to his elec- 
tion as superintendent he held the position of deputy recorder of 
Marshall county, to which he was appointed in 1879, and the du- 
ties of which he discharged in an eminently' successful manner 
until 1881. In the spring of 1888 he was elected trustee of Cen- 
ter township, and re-elected in i8go, bj^ a majority of 415, the 
largest ever given any candidate in the township, and of 
which office he is the present incumbent. It is safe to say that 
Marshall count}' has never had a more devoted friend of 
the public schools than Mr. Shakes, and although now practi- 
cally retired from educational work, he does not lose sight of the 
schools with which he was so long identified, and which he looks 
upon as the best safeguards of society and the country. Upon 
retiring from the superintendency he engaged in the furniture 
and undertaking business in Plymouth, and is now conducting 
one of the leading establishments of the kind in the city. It 
might be well to state that his first business experience* was in 
the mercantile trade at the village of Walnut, where he began 


selling goods in 1871, and where he continued until compelled 
to close his establishment on account of the memorable panic of 
1873. October 18, 1882, Mr. Shakes was united in marriage 
to Sarah L. Vogel, of Monterey, Pulaski county, daughter of 
Diebold Vogel, a native of the French province of Alsace. To 
this union have been born the following children: Mary, Olga, 
Rudolph, Vogel, and Eva Zenith. Politically Mr. Shakes is an 
earnest supporter of the democratic party, and fraternally a mem- 
ber of the Masonic, Royal Arcanum and Knights of Pj^thias 

Daniel C. Shively, a prosperous business man of Marshall 
county, and proprietor of the Inwood flouring mill, was born in 
Stark county, Ohio, April 3, 1S42. His parents, Jacob B. and 
Anna (Bortz) Shively, were natives of the same county and state, 
and early settlers of Marshall county, moving here in 1846, and 
settling in German township where the father engaged in farm- 
ing. He afterward moved near the Stark county boundary, 
west of Plymouth, where he still resides. He is a prominent mem- 
ber of the Baptist church in which he has held the position of 
bishop for thirty-eight years, and is now an elder of a local con- 
gregation in Stark county. Of the children born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Shively, the following are living: The subject of this men 
tion; Manuel, who resides on the old homestead in German town- 
ship, and Caroline, wife of Joseph Honnewalt, of Butler county, 
Ohio. Daniel C. Shively has been a resident of Marshall county 
since his fourth year, during which long period of residence he 
has gained the friendship and good will of a large number of 
people with whom he has had business relations. After remain- 
ing with his parents sixteen years, he began the manufacture of 
lumber in Bourbon township, subsequently engaging in agricul- 
tural pursuits, and since 1888, has been proprietor of the Inwood 
flouring mill, which he has greatly improved and supplied with 
machinery for the manufacture of flour by the roller process. He 
is doing a large and lucrative business, for the local and general 
trade, and the product of his mill has become widely and favor- 
ably known on account of its superior quality. He was first mar- 
ried in 1863, to Miss Hannah Burkholter, daughter of John Burk- 
holter, of Elkhart county, Ind. She died in 1879, leaving five 
children whose names are as follows: Oliver, who assists his 
father in the mill; John, of Elkhart county; Jacob, who resides in 
the county of Stark; Katie, at home, and Ulrich, who lives in 
Elkhart county. Mr. Shively's second wife, Mary Stuntz, daugh- 
ter of John Stuntz, of German township, whom he married in 
1885, has three children: Frank, Emma and Mary. In addition 
to his milling business, Mr. Shively is proprietor of a feed store 
at Plynlouth, which has a large patronage. He is a member of 
the German Baptist church in which he holds the office of dea- 


con, and in politics adheres to no party creed, preferring to be 
known as an independent. 

John M. Shoemaker, for thirty-four years an enterprising 
business man of Plymouth, and senior member of the firm of 
Shoemaker & Son, dealers in fancy groceries, confections and 
tobacco, and proprietors of the leading restaurant of the city, is 
a native of Germany, and dates his birth from the 15th day of 
October, 1830. He early learned the jeweler's trade in his native 
country, and when a young man entered the German army, with 
which he served for a period of three years. In 1S54 he came to 
the United States, and located at Detroit, Mich., where he fol- 
lowed his trade for six months, going thence to Chicago, where 
he was similarly employed for a limited period. His next stop- 
ping place was La Porte, Ind., where, in 1855, he married Lena 
Hausman, who was born in Germany in 1835, and came to 
America early in the fifties. From La Porte Mr. Shoemaker 
went to Michigan City, and in 1856 he located in Plymouth, 
where for a number of years he carried on a very successful 
jewelry business. About the year 1866 he purchased a mill and 
began the manufacture of flour in Plymouth, and was thus en- 
gaged for about ten years, when he sold out and began dealing 
in boots and shoes, which branch of business he continued until 
within a comparatively recent date. He subsequently took back 
his mill property, and after closing out the boot and shoe busi- 
ness, continued the manufacture of flour until 18S1, w^hen he 
again disposed of the mill and engaged in his present business 
with his son. Fred M. Shoemaker. Mr. Shoemaker has been 
prominently identified with the business interests of Plymouth, 
and has always manifested a lively interest in municipal affairs, 
having served at different times as member of the common 
council. Politically he is a democrat, fraternally a member of 
the Odd Fellows order, and in religion, a Catholic. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Shoemaker have been born two children: John B. 
(deceased) , was born in Michigan City, in 1S56, died in Plymouth, 
March 2, 1888, leaving a wife and two children; Fred M., was 
born in Phmiouth, November 6, 1859, educated in the city schools, 
and on completing his education, entered his father's business 
house, in which he served in the capacity of clerk until engaging 
with August Wolf in the clothing trade some time later. He 
continued the clothing business until 1881, at which time he en- 
tered into partnership with his father, and the firm thus formed 
still continues. He was married November 6, 1887, to Tena 
Shultz, of Michigan City, who has borne him one child, a daugh- 
ter, Laura. 

John W. Siders was born in Highland county, Ohio, March 31, 
1839, and is a son of Henry and Nancy (Kidd) Siders. His 
father was born in Maryland, and when a child his parents es- 


tablished their homes in Virginia, in which state he was reared. 
The mother was born and reared in Virginia, and her father was 
of revolutionary famt. The marriage of Henry and Nancy 
(Kidd) Siders was consummated in Ohio, and gave issue to five 
children, two sons and three daughters, of which only ov.r sub- 
ject now survives. His father was a farmer by occupation, and 
died at the age of fifty-eight years, his death occurring in Illi- 
nois in 1S60. His widow who removed to Illinois in 1856, now 
survives, and resides with her son. The subject of our sketch 
received a very limited education in the country schools up to 
the age of twelve years, since when he attended school for but 
forty days. He has gained a liberal education through the ave- 
nues of books, papers, and a wide experience. His father died 
when the son was but twenty-one years of age, and he began the 
struggle of life by assuming the position of the head of the 
family. He had taught school from the age of eighteen, teaching 
eleven winter terms and farming in summer. In the fall of 1875 
he was elected county treasurer of McDonough county. III., and 
served two years, or one term. In February, 1878, he purchased an 
interest in the Ply month Republican, and thereafter he has resided 
in Plymouth, and been identified with the publication of the 
Republican. He is a practical and able newspaper man, and a 
reputable citizen. He is and ever has been a staunch republi- 
can in politics. September 16, 1889, he was commissioned post- 
master in Plymouth, and is the present postmaster. June 19, 
1888, he was united in marriage with Miss Ella J. Hume, bo^rn 
in McDonough county. 111. Mr. Siders and wife are members of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. His life has been active and 
full of perseverance. He is entitled to much credit, as an editor, 
citizen and official. 

John Soice, a retired business man and ex-treasurer of Mar- 
shall county, is a native of Germany, born in Hillsbach, Baden 
(now Prussia), November 7, 1830. His parents were Frederick 
William and Regina (Brinkman) Soice, both natives of Germany, 
where they raised a family of three children, namely: Bernhard, 
a farmer of Minnesota; John, whose name introduces this sketch, 
and Elizabeth, wife of Charles Tascher. In the j^ear 1839, the 
Soice family came to the United States, landing in New York 
city, after a voyage of fifty-nine days on the ocean. From New 
York city they traveled by railroad to Buffalo, N. Y., thence by 
boat over lake Erie to Cleveland, Ohio, thence by the Ohio 
canal to Zoar, Tuscarawas county, Ohio, then by wagon to Car- 
roll county, Ohio, where the father began working at his trade 
of dyer, which he soon abandoned, and engaged in agricultural 
pursuits. About two and a half years later, he moved to Stark 
county, Ohio, where he also followed farming, until his death, 
which occurred February, 1844. His widow, who afterward re- 


married, came to Marshall county in 1849 with her oldest son, 
and resided here until August, 1871, at which time she moved to 
Mishawaka, St. Joseph county, where she died in October of the 
same year. The youthful days of our subject were spent in Stark 
and Carroll counties, Ohio, and at the age of fifteen, he began 
working for himself as a farm laborer, for one Richard Elson, 
in whose employ he continued two years. When seventeen years 
old, he began to learn the harness maker's trade, at which he 
served an apprenticeship, and on becoming proficient in the same, 
he came to Marshall count}', Ind., 1850, and located at Plymouth. 
Being unable to find work at his trade immediately, he was em- 
ployed for some time on the construction of a brick jail, but later, 
engaged with Joseph Evans in the harness making trade, with 
whom, and others, he worked until the fall of 1852, at which time, 
he opened a shop of his own at the town of Bremen. He did a 
successful business there for a number of years, and while a resi- 
dent of the town, was very active in promoting its material in- 
terests. In 1S60 he made a visit to Pike's Peak, Col., and after 
spending eight months in the gold fields with indifferent success, 
he returned to Bremen, which continued to be his home until his 
removal to Plymouth, in 1871. He was elected justice of the 
peace in 1856, a position he held for three terms, and in 1870, 
was the democratic nominee for the office of county treasurer, 
to which he was elected the following year. He held the po- 
sition of treasurer two consecutive terms, and while in the office, 
assisted in organizing the First National bank at Plymouth, of 
which he subsequently became cashier. He filled the office of 
cashier until 1878, when he disposed of his bank stock, and re- 
tired from the concern. In the spring of 1876 he purchased a 
farm of 300 acres in West and Center townships, to which he has 
since given the greater part of his attention. In 1875, he pur- 
chased his present brick residence on South Michigan street, 
where he has since resided, having practically retired from busi- 
ness life. Mr. Soice was married in Bremen in 1853, to Margaret 
Hartzog, who was born in Switzerland in 1832, and came to this 
country with her parents when but six months of age. Thirteen 
children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Soice, of whom the fol- 
lowing survive: Oliver G., present treasurer of Marshall county, 
and one of the leading young citizens of Plymouth; Emma A., 
wife of John Bell; Elizabeth E., wife of Edward S. Hogarth; 
Edward H., Clara A., Flora P., Milton E., Walter M., Rosa E., 
and Charles L. Mr. Soice is a notable example of what energy 
and determination can accomplish in the face of opposing cir- 
cumstances. As already stated, he began life for himself when 
but fifteen years of age, with but a limited education, and no capi- 
tal except a well formed determination to succeed. He learned 
his trade unaided, and since that time, has been compelled to rely 


entirely upon his own exertions. His sterling worth and char- 
acter for honesty and integrity, led the people to elect him to the 
most responsible position in the gift of the county, and they had 
no cause to regret their choice, for he discharged the duties of 
the office with credit to himself and a satisfaction to all con- 
cerned. Broad and liberal in his views, enterprising and progres- 
sive, he has been ready at all times to assist all worthy enter- 
prises having for their object the advancement of the interests 
of the' county. He is one of the representative citizens of 

Oliver G. Soice, treasurer of Marshall county, and one of the 
prominent young citizens of Plymouth, was born in the town of 
Bremen, this county, July 12th, 1855, and is the oldest living child 
of John Soice, whose sketch appears elsewhere. The early life 
of Mr. Soice was spent in his native town, and he received his 
education in the public schools, subsequently attending the Hills- 
dale college at Michigan, in which he completed the commercial 
course. He came to Plymouth in 1S71, at which time his father 
assumed the duties of the treasurer's office. On quitting school 
Mr. Soice became deputy county treasurer under A. L. Thomp- 
son, since which time he has been continuously in the office as 
deputy of Mr. Thomson, Frederick Tescher and John K. Law- 
rence, and as county treasurer to which he was elected on the 
democratic ticket in 1886. Mr. Soice received a majority of 393 
votes, which was a larger majority than that received by any 
other candidate on the county ticket that year, and at his re- 
election in 18S8 he received a majority of 748, the largest ever 
given any candidate for the office of treasurer. This fact dem- 
onstrated the great personal popularit}' of Mr. Soice throughout 
the county, and was also an emphatic endorsement of his admin- 
istration of the office. Mr. Soice stands high in Masonry, in 
which he has taken a number of degrees, including that of 
Knight Templar, and is also a member of the Royal Arcanum and 
Knights of Pythias. In 1884 he engaged in business in Plymouth 
in partnership with E. S. Hogarth, a well-known firm which deals 
extensively in groceries. Mr. Soice was married in Decem- 
ber, 1878, to Olive M., daughter of John D. Armstrong, of 
Plymouth. They have three children, viz.: Gertrude C., 
Claude W. and Harry J. 

C. H. Swindell, dealer in butter, eggs and poultry, was born 
in Whitley county, Ind., February 28, 1S62, the son of Charles 
and Sarah (Caldwell) Swindell, both parents natives of the state 
of Delaware. The father, who was a member of Company F, 
One Hundredth Indiana volunteers in the late war, was killed 
by a running train in Tennessee while in the service. He reared 
a family of five children, the following of whom are living: 
Emma; Joseph, who is a partner of the subject in business; May 


and C. H. The mother and children moved to Plymouth in i88r, 
and she died in January of the following year. C. H. Swindell 
was reared in his native county, attended the schools of North 
Manchester, and began his business life as a dealer of produce 
in that city in partnership with his brother. They carried on a 
successful trade in North Manchester until their removal to 
Plymouth in 1881, since which time their trade has largely in- 
creased, they being the most extensive dealers in their line in 
Marshall county. Mr. Swindell is a member of the Masonic 
order, in which he has taken a number of degrees, including 
that of Sir Knight, and in politics is a supporter of the repub- 
lican party. He was married in 1889 to Miss Erdine Showecker, 
daughter of Mrs. Louisa Showecker, of Plymouth. 

Benjamin Switzer, a native of Columbiana county, Ohio, was 
born October 28, 1827, and is a son of Jacob and Catherine 
(Mummert) Switzer. The parents were both natives of the 
southern part of Pennsylvania, and died in Columbiana county, 
Ohio. Their living children are the following: Isaac, Tobias, 
Levi, Benjamin; Susan, wife of Charles Holloway, of i\Iichi- 
gan: Eliza, wife of James Crook, of Ohio; Ann, wife of Mr. 
Groves, of Trumble county, Ohio, and Sophia, who is unmarried. 
The subject of this sketch was reared and educated in Ohio, and 
early learned the carpenter's trade, and afterward engaged in 
the lumber business. He was married in Stark county, Ohio, 
October 13, 1851, to Miss Lydia Ann Blackford, daughter of 
Joseph and Mildred (Walker) Blackford. Mrs. Switzer's par- 
ents were natives of Ohio, and her grandfather, James Walker, 
was a gallant soldier in the war for American independence. 
After his marriage, Mr. Switzer resided for some time in Colum- 
biana county, and afterward moved to Jay county, Ind., where he 
followed carpentering for several years. He became a resident 
of Marshall county in 1861, locating at Bourbon, where he fol- 
lowed his trade for some time, and then engaged in the saw-mill 
business in which venture he was quite successful. He subse- 
quently moved to Kosciusco county, and later, in 1884, returned 
to Marshall county, and located in Center township, upon his 
present farm. Mr. Switzer is a substantial farmer and one of 
the progresive citizens of Center. Mr. and Mrs. Switzer have five 
children: Leonda P., a mechanic, of Lincoln, Neb.; Le Roy G., 
of Portland, Ore.; Laura (deceased), twin sister of Le Roy; Cal- 
vin L., Emily A. and Alice Adelia, last two of whom are living 
at home. 

Henry G. Thayer, a grain dealer and prominent citizen of 
Plymouth, was born in the town of Euclid, Onondaga Co., N. Y., 
April 20, 1834. His parents, Rev. George H. and Hannah 
(Griffin) Thayer, were natives of that state. The father was 
born in 1807, and was a life-long minister of the gospel, accord- 


ing to the faith of the Methodist Episcopal church. Henry G. 
Thayer, his son, had few educational advantages. The family re- 
moved to Indiana in 1845, and settled in Peru, Miami count}', where 
he attended for three years, a school taught by his father. The 
family then went to Marshall county, and here during the win- 
ters of 1849 and 1S50, he engaged in teaching. The careful 
training he had received from his father, and his general knowl- 
edge, eminently fitted him for the profession of teaching. In 
1850 he became a clerk for H. B. Pershing, with whom he re- 
mained about six months, and subsequently, for a period of near 
five years, he remained in the employ of Messrs. Westervelt & 
Hewitt, as salesman, book-keeper and trusted clerk. In 1857 he 
graduated with honors from the Iron City commercial college, 
at Pittsburgh, Penn., and in the same year returned to Plymouth, 
Ind., and became book-keeper in the dry goods store of Cleve- 
land & Hewett. A few months later he was appointed deputy 
sheriff of Marshall county. Not long thereafter he gave up this 
office and embarked in the grain business at Plymouth, where he 
built and operated the first grain warehouse, giving the first grain 
market for Marshall county. About this time Mr. Thayer be- 
came interested at intervals with the grocery and dry goods pur- 
suits, only for a short time. Subsequently he became associated 
with N. H. Oglesbee, in the general lumber trade, which trade 
he suspended in 1868, by selling his interest. Thereafter he 
turned his whole attention to the continuation of the grain trade. 
This he has continued even unto now, each year increasing the 
magnitude of the trade and until his business has reached enor- 
mous proportions. Mr. Thayer is a remarkably successful 
and practical business man, and perhaps takes the front 
rank as a financier. He has amassed an ample fortune by 
untiring energy and industry, together with unswerving integrity. 
He was first a whig in politics, but in 1854 became an earnest 
supporter of the republican party, of whose principles he has 
since continued an ardent advocate. He held several positions 
of honor and trust. In 1872 he was a defeated candidate, by 
forty votes, for the state legislature as representative, and two 
years later received the support of his own county (Marshall) for 
nomination as candidate for congress, but refused to allow his 
name to be used as a candidate in the convention. Subsequently 
his party in convention, unanimously nominated him as presiden- 
tial elector for the Thirteenth congressional district, which posi- 
tion he accepted. During the civil war, although not liable to 
military duty, he placed a substitute in the field, and assisted the 
Union cause in various ways. He is a member of the order of 
Odd Fellows, and has attained to the post of past grand. Mr. 
Thayer has long been identified with the Masonic fraternity of 
the city, state and nation. He received the York Rite degree in 
14— B. 


1857. He held the high offices in the Blue lodge, the chapter and 
commandery. He held the position of grand commander of 
Knights Templar of Indiana. He became grand patron of the 
grand chapter of Indiana, also grand marshal of the general 
grand chapter of the United .States. In 1S77, at Boston, he was 
created sovereign grand inspector-general of the thirtj'-third de- 
gree, and honorary member of the supreme grand council of the 
ancient accepted Scottish Rite, for the northern Masonic jurisdic- 
tion of the United States. In 1878, he was initiated a member of 
the provincial grand lodge of the United States, of the royal 
order of Scotland. July 9, 1856, Mr. Thayer was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Mary E. VanValkenburgh, of Plymouth, daughter 
of fames F. and Angelica VanValkenburgh. Mrs. Thayer is a 
lady of high Christian character, whose affectionate and devout 
qualities have no doubt largely aided her husband in achieving 
his success in life. Unto her marriage with Mr. Thayer have 
been born six children, namely: Harry, Edgar (deceased), 
George Henry, James Wesley, Alice Lavantia (deceased), Mary 
Angelica and Horace (deceased). Mr. and Mrs. Thayer are 
zealous members of the Episcopal church, and they and family 
enjoy a high social standing. 

x\rthur L. Thomson was born in Jefferson county, N. Y., 
March 21, 1S34. From his fifteenth year until he was twenty- 
one years of age, he was employed as shipping clerk by a firm in 
Ogdensburg, N. Y. At the end of that, term until iS6i, he was 
clerk on the steamers Niagara and British Empire, on Lake 
Ontario and the St. Lawrence river, and in 1862 clerked on a 
steam tug at New York city. In 1863 he was lumber inspector 
at Chicago, 111. In 1864 he came to Plymouth, Marshall county, 
Ind., and for two years assisted George H. Benson in the lumber 
trade, and in 1866 began work for H. G. Thayer in the grain 
business, and continued for five years, when he accepted the ap- 
pointment of deputy treasurer of Marshall county, under John 
Soice. At the end of eight years he became Mr. Soice's suc- 
cessor in office, and served for two terms. In 1879 he became 
senior member of the firm of Thomson & Brink, brick planing 
mill. In 1880 he bought his partner's interest in the concern, and 
has since then managed the business alone. In 1876 and 1878, 
Mr. Thomson was chairman of the democratic county central 
committee. He has served as clerk of both the town and city 
of Plymouth. From 1869 to 1881, he was vestryman of St. 
Thomas' Episcopal church of Plj'mouth, and, during the last 
year of that time, he was also junior warden, and was relieved 
from the duties of these offices by refusing to be re-elected. In 
1877 he was elected director of the First National Bank of Mar- 
shall county. He was also city councilman from the F"irst ward. 
He was married, March i, 1869, to Miss Eunice Bell, of Plymouth, 


who died in May, 1871. He was again married, January 25, 1875, 
to Miss Julia E. Patterson, of this city. This second union has 
been blessed with three children. Mr. Thomson is a man of 
good business tact, fine executive ability, is very successful in 
business, is quite a politician, and is greatly admired by his 

William D. Thompson, whose brief biography is herewith pre- 
sented, was born in Fayette county, Ind., March 4, 1827, and 
traces his ancestry back through several generations to his great 
grandfather, James Thompson, who came to this country and 
settled in that part of the District of Columbia taken off the 
state of Maryland, where William Thompson, his grandfather 
was born in 1776. In 1798, was married to Miss Nancy Lewis, 
and moved to Bracken county, Ky., about 1800. He and his 
father were Baptist ministers, but after moving to Fayette 
county, Ind., in 1S16, he severed his connection with the Baptist 
church, and became identified with the Disciples, of which denom- 
ination he was also a minister until his death. He assisted in 
the organization of a number of congregations in Fayette and 
other counties, and also preached in Marshall county, after set- 
tling there in 1836. On coming to this county he purchased a 
large tract of land near Maxinkuckee lake, on which himself and 
children settled. He reared a family of four sons and four daugh- 
ters, two of whom are now living, viz.: Mary, wife of Elias Dick- 
son, of Union township, and William E., of Lincoln, Neb. Lewis 
Thompson, the father of the subject of this sketch, was born De- 
cember 20, 1804, in Bracken county, Ky., and was by occupation 
a farmer, in politics, a democrat, and a member of the Christian or 
Disciples church, and was married to Phebe Dickson, February 27, 
1825. Of their children the following grew to maturity: 
William D., Alexander C, Nancy J. and Julia A. William D. 
Thompson came to Marshall county at the age of nine years, 
since which time he has resided continuously in the same county. 
February 14, 1850, he was married to Miss Amanda Logan, 
daughter of Thomas Logan, of the same county. The union has 
resulted in the birth of four children: Phebe C, Laura E., Al- 
bertus C. and Olive M. He held the office of justice of the peace 
in Union township, Marshall county, for four years ending in 
1858, and held the ofiice of township trustee, in Center township, 
same county, from April, 1882, to 1SS6, and in politics has always 
been a democrat, and is an elder in the Christian church of Ply- 
mouth, Ind. 

Jacob Wade, a well-known merchant of Plymouth, member 
of the firm of Haag & Wade, proprietors of a grocery, provis- 
ions, hardware, tinware, cutlery and crockery house, was born in 
Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, June 6, 1S40. After leaving school, 
he learned the trade of shoemaking in his native country, which 


he followed there until 1864, at which time, in company with a 
brother, Andreas Wade, he came to the United States, coming 
direct to Plymouth, where his half-brother and half-sister were 
then living. On arriving here, Mr. Wade at once began shoe- 
making, which he continued at intervals until 1870, when he was 
compelled to abandon the trade on account of impaired health. 
The same year he entered the store of Nussbaum & Mayer as 
clerk, in which capacity he continued thirteen years, severing his 
connection with the firm in 1883 to engage in business for him- 
self. He effected a co-partnership with Joseph Haag in the gen- 
eral grocery trade, to which he has since added the departments 
above enumerated, and the firm is now in the enjoyment of a 
large and lucrative patronage. Mr. Wade was married in Ply- 
mouth in 1S67 to Elizabeth Stein, who was born in Germany in 
1831 and died in this city in 1887, leaving three children, viz.: 
Katie, Andrew and Zeno. Mr. Wade married his present wife, 
Mrs. Frances Johnson, of Plymouth, on the 28th day of Novem- 
ber, 1889. Mr. Wade has been a member of the Catholic church 
since 1864, and is at this time chorister of the St. Michael 

Richard Williamson was born in county Cork, Ireland, Octo- 
ber 28, 1815, son of James and Ann (Flynn) Williamson, who 
came to America in 1840 and settled in York state. Mr. Will- 
iamson was reared and educated in his native country, and in 
early life entered upon an apprenticeship to learn the mercantile 
business, at which he served until 1S44. He came to the United 
States in that year and located in Evansville, Ind., where for six 
years he was engaged as a clerk in a dry goods house. He next 
went to Fairfield, 111., where he established a business of his own, 
which he conducted with fair success for several years, subse- 
quently disposing of his stock and engaging as clerk in New 
York, in which city and Philadelphia he was employed for two 
years. In 1859 he came to Plymouth, Ind., and established a 
dry goods business, which he continued until 18S1, meeting with 
good success during that period. During the last few years Mr. 
Williamson has not been actively engaged in business, having 
practically retired from the mercantile life, and is now giving his 
attention to his farm. He was married in 1854 to Miss Jennie B. 
Fillson, daughter of Robert Fillson, of Columbiana count)-, Ohio, 
but a native of Cumberland county, Penn. Mrs. Williamson was 
born in Westmoreland county, Penn., and is the mother of one 
child, a daughter, Mary, wife of Charles De May, of Chicago. 
Mr. Williamson's political views are in harmony with the prin- 
ciples of the democratic party, and the Catholic church holds his 
religious creed. 

Prominent among the well-known citizens of Marshall county, 
is John N. Wilson, the present efficient sheriff, who was born in 


Shelby county, Ind., November 7th, 1847. His parents, Walter 
and Elizabeth (Worthington) Wilson were both natives of 
Kentucky, from which state they moved to Indiana at an early 
da3^ settling in Shelby county, about the year 1S38. Subsequently 
in 1852 they removed to La Porte county, and after a residence 
there of some years, located in St. Joseph county, at the village 
of New Carlisle, where Mrs. Wilson's death occurred in 1876. 
Mr. Wilson departed this life at the residence of his daughter in 
La Porte county, March, 1879. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson reared a 
family of nine children, five of whom, all boys, still survive. 
John N. Wilson was reared principally in La Porte county, in the 
schools of which he received a good English education. In 
August, 1876, he began farming for himself in Center township, 
Marshall county, four miles south of Plymouth, upon land which 
he had pr'feviously purchased. In May, 1S86, he was nominated 
by the democratic party for the office of sheriff of Marshall 
county, to which position he was triumphantl}^ elected the fol- 
lowing fall. Such was the ability with which he managed the 
office that he was renominated without opposition, and again 
elected in 1888, being the present incumbent. Mr. Wilson enjoys 
great personal popularity throughout the county, and as a pub- 
lic official, has endeavored to serve the people rather than party. 
He is a prominent member of the Masonic fraternity, belonging 
to Plymouth lodge and chapter, also to commandery. No. 26, 
K. T. He was married September 12th, 1867, to Sarah E. Con- 
nor, of La Porte county, who has borne him five children, two 
sons and three daughters, one of whom, a daughter, is deceased. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wilson are members of the Christian church at 

Dr. James H. Wilson, physician and surgeon, is a native of 
Indiana, born in Shelby county, February 5th, 1838, son of Wal- 
ter and Elizabeth (Worthington) Wilson. He was reared in 
Shelby county until fourteen years of age, at which time he ac- 
companied his parents to the northern part of La Porte county, 
where he grew to manhood. He received his literary education 
at New Carlisle, St. Joseph county, an institution under the 
auspices of the Methodist Episcopal church, and later took a 
business course at Bryant & Stratton commercial college at 
Chicago. Having decided to make the medical profession a life 
work, he began the study of the same at New Carlisle in the of- 
fice of Dr. J. Davis, and afterward entered the medical depart- 
ment of the Michigan university at Ann Arbor, from which in- 
stitution he graduated in the class of 1873. He began the prac- 
tice of his profession at Argos in 1871 before completing his 
medical course in the university, and continued in that town un- 
til his removal to Plymouth, in August, 1878. Since locating in 
the county seat the doctor's well known professional ability has 


won him a large and lucrative practice in the city and surround- 
ing countr}^ and he now enjoys the distinction of being the lead- 
ing physician and surgeon of the county. While giving attention 
to the general practice, he makes a specialty of surgery in which 
he excels, being frequently called upon to perform difficult op- 
erations requiring great skill, by parties living at remote dis- 
tances from his usual field of practice. He is a member of the 
Marshall county medical society, and was the first secretary of 
the same, in which position he served for several years. He has 
also served as president of this organization, which at this time 
is an auxiliary of the state medical society and the American 
medical association. He is also a member of the national asso- 
ciation of railway surgeons, and of the tri-state surgical society of 
the Lake Erie & Western railroad, in the organization of which 
he was a prime mover and charter member and of wh'fch he has 
since served as secretary. The doctor is a democrat in politics, 
and has served as mayor of Plj^mouth, and also as member of the 
town school board of Argos, and is now secretary of the Mar- 
shall county board of health. He has served as surgeon for the 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad, and Lake Erie & 
Western railroad for two years, and has given eminent satisfac- 
tion in those official capacities. He was married in 1S71 to Miss 
Lizzie A. Hay, daughter of David Hay of New Carlisle, Ind. 

Charles H. Woodbury was born in the town of Bethel, W^ind- 
sor county, Vermont, October 11, 1S31, and is the son of Calvin 
and Amanda (Cushing) Woodbury, both natives of the same 
state. In 1833, the family moved to Delaware county, Ohio, and 
from there, in 1848, to Marshall county, Ind., settling in West 
township, where the father died in 1851. He was a man of in- 
telligence, a whig in his political belief, and in religion a Unitar- 
ian. His widow survived him thirty-five years, departing this life 
in 1886. They had five children who grew to. maturity, all dead 
but the subject of this mention. Their names are as follows: 
Mariah, wife of Newton R. Packard; Mary; Ellen, wife oiA.C. Cap- 
ron, and Henry. Charles H. Woodbury was reared principally 
in Ohio, and his educational training was limited to the branches 
taught in the countrj' schools of that period. In 1859 he went to 
California, and until 1865 was engaged in farming and mining in 
that state, and the latter year returned to Indiana, locating in 
Marshall county. He made the trip west by the overland route 
and returned by water. He was married in 1868 to Miss Ma- 
tilda Vinall, daughter of Dr. Vinall, of Plymouth, and two j-ears 
later settled upon his present farm in Center township, where he 
has since successfully pursued the agriculturist's vocation. Po- 
litically, Mr. Woodbury is an earnest supporter of the democratic 
party, and fraternally, belongs to Plj'mouth lodge and chapter, 
F. & A. M. He is not a member of any church, but his wife and 


family are members of the Episcopal church. Mr. and Mrs. 
Woodbury have seven children, viz.: Maggie, Alice, John, Ger- 
trude, Oscar, Bessie and Harry. 

William Zehner, the subject of this sketch, though of German 
descent, is of American parentage, his great grandfather, Adam 
Zehner, having come to this country from near Swoltzwalt, Ger- 
many, in the year 1746, at the age of twenty years, working three 
years for his passage to America. Settled in Schuylkill county, 
Penn. Served in the war of the revolution. Died in the year 
1809, at the age of eighty-three years. His grandfather, David 
Zehner, was a captain in the war of 181 2, and bore a distinguished 
reputation; after the close of the war he engaged in the milling 
business in Schuylkill county, Penn. He died in 1831. His 
father, Solomon, was a miller, as were also all of his brothers, 
seven in number. Six of his sons being millers, the seventh be- 
ing a merchant. In 1842 Mr. Zehner moved his family from 
Columbia county, Penn., to Wayne county, Ind., and in 1851 
moved to Marshall county, settling in the woods four and a half 
miles southeast of Argos, where they lived two weeks under an 
elm tree while they built a rude log cabin which still remains to 
this day, having stood the storms of near forty years, the timber 
being cut in the month of August, and still remains apparently 
sound. At that early period the woods were alive with all kinds 
of game, deer and wolves being very plentiful, while the Indians, 
who were quite numerous, were about the only neighbors of 
which our pioneer family could boast. After a short sojourn at 
this place, the Zehners bought the Wolf Creek mill, which re- 
mained in their possession for a number of years. In August, 
1852, William Zehner's father died, and one year later, William 
and David Zehner, both being now of age, began the milling 
business upon their own responsibility. William soon purchased 
his brother's interest and ran the mill alone about eight years. In 
1861 he erected the mill at Sligo, which he operated until 1886, 
when he moved to Plymouth and began the manufacture of flour in 
that city, which he still carries on. Mr. Zehner's recollections of 
early life in the county are very vivid and his experience during 
the pioneer period is very interesting. During his mill expe- 
rience at Wolf Creek, he operated the only mill in Marshall 
county, and he describes his business as having been very exten- 
sive for the time, having been compelled to run the machinery 
day and night in order to supply the great demand for flour. He 
kept no books, all the pay being taken out in toll. In fact, all 
kinds of business at that time was carried on by barter, the only 
money in use being a little Union Plank Road currency of ques- 
tionable value, and a few State bank notes which were about on 
par with gold. "About the worst money I ever saw," says Mr. 
Zehner, " was that issued by independent banks. You could not 


tell one day whether it would be worth anything the next day or 
not." At this time Mr. Zehner Is proprietor of the largest flour- 
ing mill in Marshall county, which, with the latest improved ma- 
chinery put in in 1SS7 by the Nordyke & Marmon company, of 
Indianapolis, manufactures 100 barrels per day. The product of 
this mill has an extensive sale and is noted for its superior qual- 
ity. Mr. Zehner was married in 1858 to Margaret L. Grossman, 
of Lancaster county, Penn., daughter of Jacob Grossman. They 
have seven living children: Sylvester V., Cyrus W., Mrs. Mary 
Hosier, Mrs. Salome Long, Salena, Ellen and Jessie, the last 
three of whom still reside under the parental roof. Mr. Zehner 
has served four terms as township trustee, and formerly took an 
active part in politics, voting the democratic ticket. He and 
wife are both members of the Reformed church. Mr. Zehner's 
mother, Salome Zehner, was descended from German ancestry, her 
grandfather, John Michael Hoppas, having been a gallant soldier 
in the war for American independence. Born January 12, 1753, 
and died July 30, 1833. From Hanover, Whittenberg on the 
Rhine, her father, Michael Hoppas, was born March 21, 1781, and 
died April 21, 1S57. He served in the war of 1812. 





HE village of Argos is located in the southern part of 
Marshall county, four and one-half miles from the 
Fulton county line. It is not a hew town, though its 
greatest development has occurred during the last eight 
years. In 1880 the census gave a population of 622, 
while the recent census records 1,105 — ^^ increase of 
80 per cent. (The popular estimate was 1,500, but the 
average reader knows how such things are.) With an 
increase of 80 per cent, in population the Argosonian challenges 
any and all towns in the county for comparison of figures. He 
is even willing to give odds of from 30 to 50 per cent. The 
business of the town has grown to a much greater degree, as 
will perhaps be indicated further on. As a stopping place, if not 
as a trading point, it is contemporaneous in age with the Michigan 
road — that primitive thoroughfare from the Ohio river to Lake 
Michigan. The treaty of the Tippecanoe river was held in 1832, 
at which the lands, of which Marshall county forms a part, were 
procured from the Pottawatomies. Very soon after Sidney 
Williams located here and contracted to cut out the Michigan 
road from Rochester to South Bend. He first lived in the primi- 
tive log cabin, but very soon erected a double hewed-log which 
was to serve as a "tavern" — the name by which the first hotels 
were known. He also had a small store, stocked with such goods 
as his employes would want for themselves and family. (Whisky 
was an essential commodity in those pioneer daj's, and, indeed, 
for many years after.) As soon as the road was passable a stage 
line was established, and the tavern of Sidney Williams was a 
stage station, and the stopping place of travelers, home seekers 
and speculators. An old timer tells us that "around the huge 
fire-piace there often sat, and smoked and joked the most social, 
honest and unselfish men the world has ever produced; that 


everything then was real and substantial, while now society is a 
sham, and the greatest good is self." 

We think we understand the feelings and prejudices of the 
small remnant of that little army of venturesome pioneers, yet 
we often wonder if they do not express more truth than fiction. 
A postothce with a weekly mail was established and named Sid- 
ney, in honor of mine host; and afterward the village of but a 
few houses was known by the same name. The lands north, 
east, and south of Sidney were principally taken up by actual 
settlers, while some of the land on the west was bought by spec- 
ulators, and was therefore in the rear in the march of improve- 
ment. This township — originally a part of Green and Tippecanoe 
— when organized was named Walnut, because of the quantity 
and magnificent growth of that timber. The land being heavily 
timbered required much labor in clearing, therefore its develop- 
ment under the then existing circumstances was slow. A liveli- 
hood was all there was to work for; markets for the products of 
farm and forest were yet to be created. The primitive mer- 
chants in the towns remote from canals and other water-ways did 
a barter business almost exclusively. The farmers of this lo- 
cality, they were all small in that day, brought their eggs, butter, 
maple sugar, wool, fur, hides and ginseng, and bartered them for 
" store goods " (not for a kind extravagant in quality) while the 
merchant, with no home market, was compelled to wagon these 
products to Lake Michigan or to the canal at Logansport, from 
which points they also wagoned their goods. When the farmer 
had a surplus of wheat or pork he hauled it to Logansport or 
Michigan City, and as prices were extremely low he was com- 
pelled to board himself and team and lodged on the margin of 
the highway — not on the margin of his profits. That class of 
wagoners is not now known, and the feed-box attached to the 
rear end of the wagon box is now seldom seen in this part of the 
country. The younger portion of our people — those on the 
proximal side of the middle age line — have but a crude idea of 
the life and labors of the early settlers of this country; and as 
the early experiences cannot be repeated, the youth of to-day, 
and those who succeed them, will draw very imperfect mental 
pictures of pioneer life from the pages of history, to but briefly 
describe and discuss the conditions of early times; the scarcity 
of money and the uncertainty of the monetary system; the ne- 
cessity of making the home a manufactory; the wool-cards, spin- 
ning-wheel and loom, being possessions absolutely demanded; 
the wife and mother carding the wool, then spinning it, then 
weaving it into cloth, and finally cutting and making the wear- 
ing apparel of the family; taking the flax from the field, rotting 
it, breaking it, skutching it, hackling it, spinning it on a small 
wheel run by foot power, weaving it, and then manufacturing the 


finished product into sheets, pillowslips, towels, shirts, etc. (With 
the mercury at ninety-eight degrees in the shade. We actually 
shiver when we recall to memory the sensation we experienced 
when a boy on plunging into bed between two of these linen 
sheets on a cold winter's night! Ugh!) The raising and manufac- 
turing of almost everything necessary in the home, and the diffi- 
cult}' of procuring such things as the farm and home could not 
produce; the genius and economy, the labors and sacrifices, 
would fill a volume. But it is not our province to discuss these 
questions. We have made this brief allusion because it applies, 
in full force, to the early settlers of Argos and vicinity. The 
young lady who reads these few paragraphs may ask herself how 
she would enjoy the labors and responsibilities which devolved 
upon the wife and mother of that period. The young men did 
not spend their money for lemonade and ice cream. 

For twenty years there seemed to be but little of Sidne3^ ex- 
cept the tavern, though the dense and heavy forests surround- 
ing were being converted into farms. Sidney Williams, soon 
after completing his work of cutting out the Michigan road, sold 
his farm and tavern stand to Clark Bliven. We are informed 
that Williams, who was a man of extraordinary strength and 
energy, traveled about a great deal and engaged in man}' differ- 
ent enterprises. In a trip across the American plains he was at- 
tacked with inflammation of the eyes, and as competent physicians 
then were " few and far between," the disease finally resulted in 
the destruction of vision. He then settled down in Illinois, where 
he resided until the time of his death, a few years ago. He was 
an old man. About twelve years ago he visited Argos, and re- 
mained several days. The writer enjoyed a long conversation 
with him, but a feeling of sadness took possession of us when we 
looked into his sightless eyes and realized that he could not 
know and understand the great changes that had been wrought 
during his absence of forty years. His old Argos home was pur- 
chased by Marquis L. Smith, in 1845. Por many years he con- 
tinued the hotel business, but advancing years and comparative 
independence caused him to close the doors as a public inn. He 
still lives upon the old site, however, but the hewed-log tavern 
was long since replaced by a handsome and commodious resi- 
dence, and it is safe to say that the venerable owner and his esti- 
mable wife will end their days at this place, where they can 
dream of a pleasant and prosperous past. Mr. Smith is now 
one of our oldest citizens, and no one is held in higher esteem 
by the general public, or has a greater number of special friends. 
The town of Fremont, adjoining Sidney on the east, was laid out 
by Joseph Rhodes, in perhaps, 1S56. Sometime before this the 
Sidney postoffice, through political manipulation, known in that 
day as well as this, was moved four miles south. An effort was 


at once made for the establishment of an office at Sidnej', which 
was successful, and as there was already- a Sidney postoffice, 
'Schuyler Colfax, the member of congress from this district, was 
requested to give the new office a name. He gave it the name 
of Argos, his mind doubtless reverting to ancient Greek history. 
Thereafter the village was known by the same name, and a few 
years later the town of Fremont, virtually an addition, was 
legally absorbed by Argos. The only objection to the name is 
that many strangers spell it as they would the fabled animal of 
an hundred eyes. A little thought, we think, would indicate the 
correct orthography, but an occasional mistake does not detract 
from the importance of the town. In the Industrial Review \x\. 
searching after the mercantile history of the towm, we find that 
about 1S57, John A. Rhoads, an early settler, called to his eternal 
home about three years ago, opened up a small grocery in Fre- 
mont, and we also learn that the first beer sold in the village was 
by him. His capital was small and his business soon perished. 

Hague & Bros, established a general store, by which we mean 
a store where anything can be purchased from a coffee mill for 
the house to a curry comb for the stable, about 1S59. They were 
here about two years, and if living, their whereabouts are un- 
known. They were succeeded by Martin Bucker & Son, who 
continued the business a short time. Martin Bucker passed 
away August, 1889, at almost eighty years of age, and although 
he had been financially unsuccessful in the battle of life, he was 
blessed by a host of true friends; and his funeral, conducted by 
Argos lodge, F. & A. M., of which he had been the tyler for nearly 
twenty years, was a very large one. The son now resides in 
Mentone, Ind. The Buckers were succeeded by Rice & Bro. 
The out-break of the rebellion aroused the patriotism of the 
younger of the brothers, Welcome, and he raised a company for 
the forty-eighth regiment (infantry) , by which he of course became 
captain. He was a brave and efficient officer, doing good service, 
and surviving comrades, of whom there are several in and about 
Argos, swear by him in all matters of grave and serious import. 
The business was conducted by the senior brother, Martin A., who 
is now and has been for many years, the editor of the Masonic 
Advocate, published at Indianapolis. Capt. Welcome Rice, on his 
return from the army, was employed as conductor on one of the 
oldest lines of railroad in this part of the state, a short line ex- 
tending from Plymouth to La Porte. In 186S. the line was ex- 
tended southward to Peru, there connecting with the old Indian- 
apolis & Peru road, the oldest road, we think, in the state. The 
two roads combined (in a business sense at least) , but Capt. Rice 
was retained in the service. In a short time the two lines be- 
came one and the road was extended northward from La Porte 
to Michigan City. It is regarded as the best north and south 


line in the state, and in all the mutations of management, Capt. 
Rice has been continuously in service, seldom getting a vacation, 
and by reason of his carefulness and caution, he is known all 
along the line as " Old Reliable." We cannot follow their suc- 
cessors, as the enlargement of business was an actual solution of 
lineal continuity, nor do we think it necessary so to do. 

Among the other early business men was James M. Wick- 
izer, who opened a general store in iS6o, and continued in busi- 
ness off and on, principally on, for about twenty years. A man 
named Dennison opened up a small drug store in 1865; Jonathan 
Pickerl and Wesley Spencer started a boot and shoe store in 
1S66, and a grocery in 1S67. A steam flouring mill was built and 
put in operation by Robert Railsback, in 1S63. In 1866, a small 
hardware store was started by Nathaniel Chapman and son, 
Henry, to which groceries were afterward added. The demand 
for liquid refreshments was not ignored, and two saloons were 
running during the '6o's, one by George Emmons and the 
other by George Brockus. Blacksmiths and wagon repair 
shops were of course the first mechanical establishments, 
and G. F. Waag, a German, established a business of no mean 
proportions, a fine carriage shop — good enough for a town of 
10,000 inhabitants — was established in 1S66, by three brothers 
named Van Nest, sons of the once celebrated carriage manufac- 
turers, of Tiffin, Ohio. One was a wood workman, one an iron- 
smith, and the third a painter — all first-class workmen. They 
did well for a time, and would have continued to prosper had 
they agreed; but their disagreements were so serious as to finally 
end in bankruptcy. Of the above James M. Wickizer is living 
on a beautiful farm adjoining the village on the east. He has 
had his full share of sorrows, having buried two wives, and has 
been sorely afilicted physically, being compelled to walk on 
crutches. He takes life quite philosophically, however, and has a 
snug competence, as a result of his toil and rigid economy. 
Dennison is living somewhere in the northern part of the state, 
but we can learn nothing of his business or condition. Jonathan 
Pickerl is still in business, being the proprietor of a dry goods 
and grocery store. Though in poor health a great portion of the 
time the years have dealt gently with him, so far as looks are 
concerned, and he makes a "full hand" in the store. He has 
been successful. Wesley Spencer passed away several years ago 
from the effects of disease contracted in the Union service. 
Robert Railsback has been in business here almost continuously 
from the first, and is now the proprietor of a clothing and boot 
and shoe house. Time has dealt gently with him also, and he 
seems as active as ever. He has been quite successful during 
the past few years. Nathaniel Chapman has passed the three 
score and ten line, but is as active and strong as a man of thirty. 


He is a typical New Yorker, therefore loves to talk and to enter- 
tain his friends. His hospitality (to those he likes) is absolutely 
boundless. He lives in a beautiful home on a small farm adjoin- 
ing the corporation. His son, Henry, has for many years resided 
at Newark, N. J. George Emmons moved to Wisconsin. George 
Brockus died many years ago, having reached a good age. G. F. 
Waag removed to Chicago a few years since, where he continues 
the same business, and, we are told, has been prosperous. Two 
of the Van Nest brothers died at or near Tiffin, Ohio, and the 
other, we presume, is continuing his father's business at Tiffin, 
the father having died several years since. 

We think we have said enough concerning the early business 
men of Argos, as the work of following each one in and out 
during the development of the past quarter of a century would 
be an almost endless one. There are doubtless many who will feel 
aggrieved because their names, or the names of some of their 
progenitors, are not mentioned in these pages, but we assure 
them no slight is intended — time and space positively forbid. 
The first adult settlers of this locality have rested from their 
labors, though many of their children are still with us and seem 
to enjoy relating their experience of life in the log cabin, with 
the attendant labor and deprivation, and all that a life in the 
wilderness implied. They love to dwell on the sociability and 
neighborly feeling of those primitive days, and we are sometimes 
envious of their joy of memory. 

Railroads. — But we must now speak of more recent years and 
the agencies most prominent in the development of the county. 
Physical strength and courage, the axe, maul and wedge, farm- 
ing implements, etc., were the first essential agents, but after 
a time other agencies must be secured that would be still more 
potent in the work of material development. The first boom 
given the village was in 1865, when there seemed to be a fair 
prospect of the "Pewee" line (as the railroad from Plymouth to 
La Porte was familiarly known) being extended from Plymouth 
to Peru. Considerable grading was done, and many ties distrib- 
uted along the line, but the work suddenly ceased. A man named 
Knoxson, of New York (long since dead) , was at the head of the 
company (perhaps the sole member), but, though he was an ex- 
cellent business man, and commanded at one time considerable 
capital, habits of dissipation rendered him unreliable. The brief 
boom, however, appreciated property and added to the popula- 
tion and business of the town. In the fall of 1S67 the railroad 
enterprise was revived. Knoxson at this time being unable to 
build the road, was anxious to dispose of it, and a company con- 
sisting of Rogers, Courter and Herrick agreed to build and stock 
the road if the citizens along the line contributed what they re- 
garded as the necessary assistance. (This was before the time 


of voting a tax, in aid of railroad construction.) It is unneces- 
sary to state that, in the anxiety for a railroad, the required aid 
was forthcoming. The work progressed without interruption, 
and in the fall of iS68 the cars were run as far south as Argos. 
When the construction train reached the northern boundary of 
the town the scream of the engine set the people wild, and a half 
dozen jolly fellows took the lead in making arrangements to treat 
the entire company of workmen, which was done in fine style. 
A few months later the road was completed to Peru, and to say 
that the Argosites 'were happy is putting it mildly. A petition 
was sent to the postoffice department praying for the abandon- 
ment of the old postal service from Logansport to Plymouth 
(tri-weekly) , and the establishment of a daily mail via the rail- 
road. The prayer was answered at once and the citizens of 
Argos and vicinity assumed metropolitan airs. Many new build- 
ings were erected, business flourished and every Argosite had a 
tear of sympathy and a word of commiseration for the people 
of a town that could not boast of a railroad. Merrill Williams & 
Son erected an elevator at once, and Argos became a grain mar- 
ket, though before this the flouring mill, with an extensive trade 
in both Marshall and Fulton counties, consumed considerable 
grain. But now there was a market for every bushel, and 
at as good prices as when it had to be hauled several miles 
in wagons. We had railroad transportation for the surplus 
products of all kinds, and, though the rate was exorbitant, 
the improvement upon the primitive system made both the 
farmer and merchant happy. The village advanced by healthy 
and permanent additions, to a population of 622 in 1880; but, 
while one railroad, which charged a passenger rate of 5 cents 
per mile and an equally extortionate freight rate, was a grand 
convenience and an incalculable improvement over the old re- 
gime, merchants and business men generally, as well as farmers, 
of the surrounding country felt the necessity of railroad compe- 
tition in order to successfully compete with some of the surround- 
ing towns. In iSSi the prospect of an east and west trunk line 
suddenly dawned upon us. There had been railroad talk for 
some time, but as — in the east, at least — much time was usually 
consumed before real work began, we gave little heed to the talk. 
Soon, however, the evidence was conclusive that the road would 
be built at once, and that, unless we bestirred ourselves, the line 
would be established about four and one-half miles south of 
Argos. Then the latent energy of our people was developed 
into wondrous activity. A meeting of citizens was called — 
every one being painfully earnest in his words and promises — 
and a competent committee was sent to Chicago at once to con- 
fer with the proper officials and secure a preliminary survey. 
In three days the surveyors were here — all expenses paid by the 


Argosonians — and a simple inspection of the route convinced 
them that the road could be built much cheaper by the way of 
Argos, as well as of the fact that the line would pass through a 
much more desirable country. Railroad meetings were held 
every few evenings, excitement ran high, the required aid was 
promptly subscribed, the dirt soon began to fly and Argos was 
happy in the assurance of the Nickel Plate road. The town 
boomed in earnest. New enterprises were projected and ex- 
isting ones were stimulated and enlarged, property values appre- 
ciated and since the completion of the road — eight years ago — 
Argos has been regarded as one of the best trading points in 
northern Indiana. Since then the population has increased 
eighty per cent. — an increase equaled by few towns in the state 
outside the gas belt. We now have, by reason of competition, 
reasonable freight rates, and farmers find in Argos as good a 
market for their products and can buy goods as low as in any 
town in the state. The railroads give employment here to quite 
a company of men. Argos is the headquarters of four sections — 
two on each road — and many are employed at this work. At 
the stations, coaling dock and in various capacities the companies 
employ many more, and thus every month these two " soulless " 
corporations leave a snug sum of money in Argos which goes into 
the hands of butchers, grocers and other dealers. Argos has two 
wagon and carriage manufactories — one of which is quite ex- 
tensive — and the Argos wagon has a first-class reputation in 
this and adjoining counties. These shops, together with our 
flouring, planing and saw-mills, give employment to another 
small army of skilled and unskilled men, so that it may be 
truly said that Argos furnishes steady employment to as 
many men as almost any town of the same population. 
Then during the spring, summer and fall months, there is almost 
constant building and repairing going on, giving employment to 
carpenters, masons, plasterers and common laborers. We have 
no large manufacturing establishments, but, talk as we may, it is 
the country around and the patronage of the farming commun- 
ity that give stability and permanency to a town. The better the 
farming lands and the greater the extent of territory com- 
manded, the better will be the town. Many of the employes of 
manufactories are men who have to be constantly watched by 
business men in order to avoid losses, and often the closest vigi- 
lance is not sufficient to protect the butcher, grocer and board- 
ing house keeper. These employes, as a rule, are transient. 
They are liable to be discharged, or they tire of one location and 
want a change, or, finally, their employers may suddenly collapse, 
and therefore the business men who carry them from pay daj' to 
pay da^' are constantly exposed to financial loss. Not so with the 
farming community. They are permanent citizens, and backed 


by lands, produce and stock of various kinds. They are also 
backed, usually, by a stock of integrity. Argos is located in one 
of the finest agricultural districts in the state. It would be diffi- 
cult to find anywhere in the world a richer soil, one so well 
adapted to the most necessary and valuable productions, and 
one so little damaged by wet or drought. A total failure in any of 
the leading crops is never anticipated. In the last twenty-five 
years there has been one corn failure, and only one. This was 
in 1869 — known as the wet season. It rained almost continu- 
ously during the corn working season, yet those who, regardless 
of health or comfort, plowed through mud and water, raised 
good corn. The production, however, was not sufficient to sup- 
ply the home demand. Where is there a section of country with 
a better record? The yield in corn or Avheat is not of course 
uniform, but it is seldom indeed that the crop of these two im- 
portant cereals is not good. As a result our farmers are in good 
financial condition. Their farms are in first class shape; they 
are provided with the latest improved agricultural implements; 
they have good houses and barns, and a majority of them have 
a respectable surplus to carry them through such adverse condi- 
tions as might arise. Argos commands the trade of a territory 
from twelve to fifteen miles square, a territory much larger than 
that commanded b}' any other town in the count3^ and this is a 
sufficient explanation of her growth and business prosper- 
ity. In this territory there is little waste land, in the way 
of marshes and ponds. What marshes did exist have been 
reclaimed, and the whole territory may be regarded as one 
grand, productive field. New lines of railroad frequently 
damage a town instead of improving it, and increasing 
its business. New trading points spring up and thus the 
territory is divided. This has been the case with some of 
our sister towns, and a pall has been spread over their former 
business energy and activity. Argos was an exception in the 
case of the " Nickel Plate " line. Instead of a division of terri- 
tory more was added, an importance was given the town (as 
well as advantages) , and every business enterprise leaped into 
wondrous activity. We were fortunately situated. Now that 
we have an east and west trunk line, and aline from Lake Michi- 
igan to the capital, we are not troubling ourselves about new 
railroads. Unless a road would bring something more than a 
line of transportation it is probable that a majoifty of our people 
would oppose its construction. A railroad may be a rock that 
will split a town in twain, especially when there are already 
enough to get the advantages of competition. A word more 
concerning the territory commanded by Argos. No finer agri- 
cultural lands can be found within the limits of our government, 
and this year, while the wheat crop in this and many other states 


is far below the average, in this locality the yield is a full aver- 
age. The land north, south, and east of Argos, or the greater 
portion of it, is known as walnut land — the best there is. Much 
of this now valuable timber was reduced to ashes by the early 
settlers, as there was then, of course, no market for it. The 
quantity and immense growth of this wood suggested the name 
given the township. The stranger who is given a carriage ride 
through this locality never fails to remark, " what a beautiful 
country." As gold is purified by fire so bj^ the same agency 
towns and cities are often improved. Argos, unfortunately, was 
not visited by a necessary conflagration until January, 1SS7, when 
a row of unsightly buildings on the west side of South Michigan 
street, comprising eleven business rooms, went up in smoke. The 
roofs were covered by about fifteen inches of snow, therefore the 
fire progressed so slowly that nearly all the goods were safely 
removed. The principal part of the goods being saved renters 
lost but little, while those who owned their rooms lost nothing, 
the naked lots being worth more the morning after the fire than 
on the evening before. The town trustees at once passed an or- 
dinance prohibiting the erection of wooden buildings within cer- 
tain prescribed limits, and this act was an inspiration to the 
owners of the lots. Building soon began, and last fall the opera 
block closed the last gap in the burnt district. Now a handsome 
and substantial row of brick buildings occupies the site of the 
primitive fire traps, and now the citizen is not ashamed to pilot 
the stranger through the buildings that were borne to us on the 
wings of fire. 

C/mnkcs. — Argos, like other towns, has her churches. The 
Methodist, Adventists and Christians, have substantial edifices in 
which to worship, the Christian church is a brick structure. These 
denominations seem to be harmonious and prosperous, even in 
the judgment of an agnostic. There are very manj- members of 
other denominations, but they are content, for the present, at 
least, to worship with those who have tabernacles. The morals 
of the town will compare favorably with other towns of equal 
size. We have some toughs, we have not the conscience to deny 
it, yet, when any disorder occurs, we note that the leading spirits 
come from without the town. 

Secret Societies. — First in order, because the oldest in the his- 
tory of secret benevolent organizations which still have an ex- 
istence, is the Masonic. The lodge was instituted about twenty- 
one years ago, and its members have been extremel}- careful 
about receiving applicants — good material only, being accepted. 
As a consequence, the lofty character of Masonry has been main- 
tained, and its present membership numbering about forty, in- 
cludes the most prominent men of the town and vicinity. 
Another fact must not be omitted — Argos lodge. No. 399, 


F. & A. M., is regarded as having some of the best, most correct, 
most impressive workmen to be found anywhere in the state. 
This is a reputation of which the members have a reason to 
feel proud. 

The Argos lodge, of I. O. O. F., is perhaps twenty-three years 
old. For some reason, unknown to the writer, many of the older 
members have " droppedout,"buttheirplacesare usually supplied 
by new ones, and the lodge seems to be harmonious and pros- 
perous. The membership numbers about thirty-five. 

A lodge of K. P's was organized here, but little more than a 
year ago, but they have been decidedly prosperous, having now 
a membership of about forty-six, from which they have organ- 
ized a drill corps of twenty. A post of the G. A. R. was organ- 
ized here several years since, and at one time, eighty or more old 
soldiers were enrolled, but we are told that the organization now 
numbers only about forty-five — a considerable number having 
been "dropped " for non-payment of dues. When something oc- 
curs to excite new interest, it is probable that the old veterans 
will return. It would seem that the G. A. R. is no exception to 
organizations, generally, notwithstanding the fact that they stood 
elbow to elbow on the field of slaughter, more or less jealousy 
sometimes destroys that harmony and unity which should exist 
among old comrades. 

A camp of Sons of Veterans was organized in January, 18S9, 
and now numbers twenty-seven members. As the character and 
purposes of these orders are known to the general reader, we 
content ourselves at this time with this brief statement of facts 
and figures. 

Sc/wo/s. — We are proud of the Argos schools, from the high 
school department of which are annually sent out as bright 
young scholars as from any school of equal grade in the state. 
Unfortunately the capacity of our school building is insufficient. 
There are but five apartments where there should be at least 
seven. The first and second primary rooms are so densely 
crowded as to render them decidedly uncomfortable to both 
teachers and pupils. Nearly 190 are enrolled in these two_ rooms, 
and, though they are provided with the best of teachers, it is im- 
possible for them, work as hard as they may, to do perfect work. 
More school room must be provided, and this is the subject that 
is now being agitated. Unfortunately it cannot now be done by 
taxation, as we have been taxed so much for unnecessary things 
that a sufficient levy would exceed the limit prescribed by law. 
We think the present school-house, which is a brick structure, 
can be enlarged by an addition at small cost; but, as it is the old 
" union" style of building, no addition can harmonize its propor- 
tions or enhance its architectural beauty. But it would accommo- 
date the children, and this is the first object in view. 


Having briefly referred to our churches and schools we will 
now turn our attention to the business enterprises of the town. 
We will only notice particularly those branches of business 
requiring considerable capital, as we have not the time to par- 
ticularize the many kinds of trade and business which, though 
equally important, require but little means. We have already 
spoken of our wagon and carriage shops, and shall not refer to 
them again. The Argos flouring mill (full roller) is regarded 
as one of the best in the whole country, being patronized by 
farmers living much nearer other mills. We have not inquired 
into the amount of business annually done, but it is usually evi- 
dence of some repair going on if the smoke is not issuing from 
the smoke stack. Argos has quite an extensive lumber yard, at 
which can be bought all kinds of lumber and materials of wood 
used in building, while a first-class saw-mill near by is kept run- 
ning almost constantly in converting the native woods into 

The following is a list of our business houses: Five dry goods, 
one ready made clothing and furnishing goods, two hardwares, 
equal to any in northern Indiana, four groceries and provisions, 
two of which run delivery wagons, five other places where gro- 
ceries are sold, one harness and boots and shoes, five other places 
where boots and shoes are sold, two drug stores, one jewelry, 
splendid stock and excellent workmanship, one furniture and 
undertaking, three restaurants, two meat markets, three millin- 
eries, half dozen dress making, two tailoring, etc., three saloons 
and billiard halls, two liveries, and, that our financial affairs may 
be conducted on modern principles, one good, substantial bank, 
organized under the laws of the state, with a capital of $50,000. 
Barbers, blacksmiths, shoemakers, etc., have not been listed, but 
■we trust none will take offense at the omission. Of the estab- 
lishments enumerated, five do an annual business of $25,000 each, 
while the other houses do each a business of from $2,000 to 
$15,000. In the above we do'not include dressmaking and simi- 
lar establishments. The freight reports of the railroads of a 
town (where there are no waterways) indicate, in a great meas- 
ure, the volume of its business, therefore we submit the follow- 
ing tables showing the business for last year: 

Originating at and forwarded from Ar- 
gos — principally wheat and lumber. . . . 7,985,500 lbs. 

Received at Argos and used and consumed 

by the people of this locality 2,69_^,500 lbs. 

Received from N. Y. C. & St. L., for trans- 
fer 7,305,000 lbs. 


N. Y. C. & ST. L. 

Sent from Argos: 

Flour 275,000 lbs. 

Mill feed 130,000 lbs. 

Hay 200,000 lbs. 

Cattle 1 ,500,000 lbs. 

Hogs 480,000 lbs. 

Sheep 210,000 lbs. 

Lumber 144,000 lbs. 

Forest products 312,000 lbs. 

Lime and cement 40,000 lbs. 

Salt So,ooo lbs. 

Merchandise 15,000 lbs. 

Oils. (The Standard Oil Co. has a deposi- 
tory here.) 1 20,000 lbs. 

Hides 32,000 lbs. 

Manufactured articles 36,000 lbs.. 

Received at Argos: 

Not classified (used and consumed by our 
people) 45,368,556 lbs- 
Received for transfer: 

Packing house products 483,000 lbs. 

Sheep 357.000 lbs. 

Hogs 432,000 lbs. 

Lumber 550,000 lbs. 

Lime and cement 336,000 lbs. 

Manufactured articles 18,000 lbs. 

Liquors 8,450 lbs. 

Miscellaneous 24,000 lbs. 

The following tables will show the business done here by the 
two express companies last year: 


Sent out: 

Money $4,656 

Freight 28,752 lbs. 


Money $20,000 

Freight 25,608 lbs. 


Sent out: 

Money $3,295 

Freight 47,7oo lbs. 


Money $i,304 

Freight : . 29,712 lbs. 


We regard the above as a respectable exhibit, but we must 
remember that much that is consumed in country towns is not 
brought in railroad cars, but in wagons, or driven in, by the peo- 
ple of the surrounding country. Here the greater part of our 
subsistence is the product of our own locality, as flour, beef, pork, 
corn meal, potatoes (Irish and sweet), beans and most vegeta- 
bles, chickens, eggs, butter, and many kinds of fruit, etc., etc., 
and this fact must be borne in mind in making comparative esti- 
mates of the business of different localities. 

We have three hotels, one of which — the Argos house — has 
been open for several years, and under the proprietorship of the 
genial Al Ford it is a haven of rest and refreshment for the weary 
traveler. The " Nickel Plate" eating house, which feeds all the 
trains running east and west, is a busy place, both day and night. 

As a town of the importance of Argos must have some means 
of conveying to the public and to our neighbors the general news, 
aud matters of business and local interest, we have a newspaper — 
the Argos Reflector — edited and published by J. H. Watson, Esq. 
And we desire to say right here that we have the neatest, clean- 
est, best edited newspaper published in the state. Nothing of a 
low or scandalous character is ever seen in its columns. That 
which the public should know is published, while that which 
would debase instead of elevate the thought of the reader is 
barred from its columns. We wish we could say as much of all 
the newspapers published in our sister towns. 

We must not forget to speak of our planing-mill, or " factory," 
as it is called. It is provided with machinery to make the rough 
lumber ready for the carpenter's use — sawing, planing, match- 
ing, etc., etc. The proprietor informs us that, in addition to the 
general work, arrangements have been made for the special 
manufacture of ladders, door and window frames, barn blinds, 
brackets of all kinds, and all sorts of turned work. A good busi- 
ness is anticipated. 

The elevator on the L. E. & W. road was owned and oper- 
ated for several years by H. G. Thayer, of Plymouth, but re- 
cently it fell into the hands of William Alleman and John Cavender, 
who are operating it now. But Argos was too good a point for 
the purchase of grain to be abandoned, and therefore H. G. 
Thayer & Son established headquarters for the buying and 
handling of grain on the "Nickel Plate" road. The farmers re- 
gard this competition as favorable to them, and expect to receive, 
as they surely will, the very highest market price for their grain. 
The result will be an extension of grain territory commanded by 
Argos. We are just informed that Thayer & Son will build an 
elevator on the L. E. & W. road, close to the old one, and 
that work in that direction has already begun. We have satis- 
fied ourselves that this is correct. (Since writing the above 


H. G. Thayer & Son have purchased their old elevator of Alle- 
man & Cavender, and will use the building just erected for the 
storage of corn, oats, clover seed, etc. Another company, headed 
by Slayton & Hess, is buying on the '" Nickel Plate," and the 
competition is strong and active. Wheat is coming in rapidly, 
and from points outside the former lines of trade. The buyers 
and helpers at both points are kept busy until late at night, and 
the aggregate amount of grain received will far exceed that of 
any previous year.) 

Having thus briefly referred to and described the principal 
business interests of the town, we will now speak a word of the 
professions. There are three resident clergy, two males and one 
female, and an indefinite number of visiting ones. Those resid- 
ing here are in intellectual ability and earnestness of work, fully 
up to the average of country towns, even towns larger than 
Argos. The purity of their lives and intentions cannot be 

There are five practicing physicians here, some of whom have 
more than a local reputation. Whatever form of disease may 
attack our people, whatever accident may occur, whatever surgi- 
cal operation is demanded, there is no necessity of calling foreign 
aid. It would not be wise to particularise, we will leave that 
matter with the public. Since the introduction of driven wells, 
and since the lower lands have been thoroughly drained, this has 
been an exceptionally healthy locality, yet those doctors succeed 
.in making a comfortable living, and two or three of them com- 
mand a considerable amount of money or its equivalent. 

As this is not the county capital it is not to be presumed that 
we have any prominent Blackstonian in our midst, and we will 
not speak of that " innumerable throng " that professes a knowl- 
edge of law. 

As most people enjoy a pleasant entertainment, in a pleasant, 
comfortable place, we must allude to our opera hall, which was 
completed last fall. It is strongly built, neatly finished, with a 
large and commodious stage, and has a seating capacity of be- 
tween five and six hundred. It is the very thing " we long have 
sought." Several first class troupes visited us during the winter 
and they were handsomely patronized. 

In conclusion we desire to speak of the character of the peo- 
ple who inhabit this locality. Although a majority of the eastern 
states, and some of the foreign countries, are represented here, 
yet they have been here long enough to equalize their customs 
and differences and affairs as people born of one state. We do 
not mean that we are all alike, we are glad that we are not; but 
that there is not that broad and decided distinctiveness which 
renders a general sociability and fraternization impossible. We 
are a social and hospitable people (with some exceptions, of 


course, as every communitj' is cursed by a greater or less number 
of cold, selfish, illiberal men and women, who are a law, and court, 
too, unto themselves), and among the farmers many of the hos- 
pitable customs of the early Kentucky and Virginia settlers are 
still maintained. Argos never does anything by fractions. We 
have often surprised our friends from larger towns by the way 
we could provide for and entertain large crowds, and Argos can 
always have a large crowd if the occasion demands; while there 
is a pleasant unity existing there is of course classification, so- 
cially and otherwise, as there always has been and always will be 
throughout the world, and which is essential to real enjoyment. 
The idler seeks the society of idlers and the cultivated lady or 
gentleman is not at home with the illiterate and unrefined. 

In point of general intelligence we rank second to no com- 
munity, and we can boast of a few particularly brilliant and pro- 
found thinkers. There is no work to be done that we can 
not furnish competent men or women to perform it. We are a 
reading people, and there are few homes that are not well sup- 
plied with books, newspapers and magazines. And here we 
will observe, parenthetically, that, while the president has not 
yet appointed a postmaster for us, the ofiice is closely hugging 
the ragged edge; and if there were not several small offices near 
by, this would have been a presidential office ere this. 

We are a public spirited people. Scores of our citizens stand 
ready at all times to contribute of their means for any object that 
will benefit the public. 

We are a prosperous people, but we deem it unnecessary to 
produce any proof at this point, as we have already said enough 
to convince the reader. 

We are a happy people. This chapter will convince the reader 
that we could not be otherwise than happy, if happiness is to be 
attained in this world. 

No person would be content in any place on this planet, if not 
in this locality, where to simply tickle the soil means a laughing 
harvest; where a proper observance of hygienic law is all that is 
necessary to secure health and strength — a locality free from 
dreaded epidemics and death-dealing miasmata — where pros- 
perity is assured unless prevented by indolence, or a disregard of 
reasonable economy; where truth, honesty, justice and charity 
prevail; where the general intelligence is above the average, and 
a social and peaceful spirit is possessed by all; where there are 
church privileges for the religiously disposed, and superior schools 
for the education and cultivation of the youth; where there are 
"brave men and fair women," the former admired by the latter, 
and the latter idolized by the former; where, in short, there is 
everything essential to the birth, sustenance, development (physi- 
cally, intellectually, morally and socially) and happiness (almost 


absolute) of the finest specimens of the gams homo. Indeed, it 
is questionable if such an one could be happy if transported to a 
sphere of continual sunshine, where all luxuries and pleasures 
would be furnished "without money and without price"; where 
from the shoulder blades would spread broad pinions by which, 
without tiresome exertion, the inter-planetary ether could be rap- 
idly traversed, and the mind given unobstructed opportunity to 
study the beauties, the harmonies and the mysteries of the uni- 
verse. And here time and space compel us to reluctantly mark 
a period. 

Robert H. Baty, a farmer and stock-raiser of Walnut town- 
ship, was born In Fayette county, Ind., June 30, 1836, and Is a son 
of Robert H. and Rebecca (Ross) Baty. The father was born in 
Preston county, Va., August g, 1790, and died in Fayette 
county, Ind., October 6, 1S70. He was a son of Robert and Eliza- 
beth Baty, both born in Virginia, of German descent. In their 
marriage they were blessed by the birth of the following off- 
spring: John, James, Robert H., William, Stephen, Elizabeth and 
Rebecca. Robert H. was born and reared on a farm, and 
throughout life followed farming for an occupation. Upon reach- 
ing manhood he left the parental home in Virginia, and subse- 
quently located in Ohio, in which state he married. He wedded 
Rebecca Ross, who was born in 1795, dying in Indiana in 1842. 
She was a daughter of Christopher and Elizabeth Ross, of Ger- 
man descent. Unto the marriage of Robert H. and Rebecca 
Baty, there were born fourteen children, of whom the following 
lived to maturity: William, Anna, Stephen, Rebecca, James 
Elizabeth, Elmlra, Mary and Robert H. The marriage of the 
parents was consummated In about 1812, and soon afterward 
they came to Indiana and located in Fayette county, where both 
continued till death called them above. They were faithful mem- 
bers of the United Brethren church, and were respected and 
loved by many friends and a grateful offspring. The father was 
a soldier In the war of 181 2, and in politics was either a whig or 
a republican. Robert H. was born and reared on a farm, and to 
farming he devoted his industrious and progressive life. April 20, 
1858, he was united in marriage with Mary V. Banks, daughter of 
Thomas and Jane Banks, early settlers of Delaware county, later 
of Marshall county. She was born in Delaware county, Ind., 
February 3, 1836. Soon after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Baty 
settled down in life in Fayette county, then removed to Delaware 
county in 1861, and in 1865 settled in Walnut township, this 
county, locating on a farm in section 2,;^, where they have con- 
tinued their residence. They are members of the Disciples 
church, and are among the leading families. In politics Mr. 
Baty is a staunch republican. 

Leonard Bock, a merchant miller at Argos, Ind., was born in 


Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, November ii, 1S35, and is a son of 
John and Elizabeth (FlathJBock. These parents were born and 
reared in Hesse-Darmstadt, German}', and their marriage re- 
sulted in the birth of the following children: Frederick, Adam, 
Leonard, George and Jacob. Leonard Bock was born and reared 
in the town of Oberkincig, where he was given a fair German educa- 
tion. Between the age of fourteen and fifteen years, he was placed 
out to learn the trade of a baker, which he followed for about three 
years, in the meantime learning milling. To free himself from 
the military law of Germany, he emigrated to America in the 
year 1853, and in June of the same year, he landed at New York 
city, and at once proceeded to Buffalo, N. Y. Here he remained 
for about five years, in the meantime learning carriage trimming, 
which he followed for several years thereafter. After making 
several removals and working for a season in Mississippi, he lo- 
cated at South Bend, Ind., where he remained till 1868, in which 
year he removed to and located in Argos, Ind., where he has 
since remained, engaged in milling. In 1S82, he became sole 
proprietor of the Argos mills, which he is now operating. At 
Bremen, Ind., in 1862, he was united in marriage with Elizabeth 
Hensel, daughter of Adam Hensel, a native of Rhine Bavaria, 
Germany. Mrs. Bock was born in Marshall county, Ind., her 
father being an early settler of the county. Unto the above mar- 
riage, have been born the following children: John A., Charles, 
Frederick and Erdine. Since 1887, Mr. Bock has been a mem- 
ber of the Christian church at Argos. He is a member of the 
Argos lodge. No. 399, F. &. A. M. He has held the position of 
a school officer in Argos, and is one of the present school board. 
He is an ardent friend to church and education, and is a progres- 
sive and worthy member of society. 

Samuel Bodey, the subject of this sketch, was born in Cham- 
paign county, Ohio, April 10, 1838. He is a son of Adam and 
Mary ( Brubaker) Bodey. The father was born in Rockingham 
county, Va., in 1808, and died in Champaign county, Ohio, in 
18S5. The father was a Virginian by birth, and a son of one of 
the Hessian soldiers of the American revolution, hence Adam 
Bodey was of German descent. He was a farmer by occupation, 
and upon reaching manhood left his native state, and emigrated 
to Ohio in an earl}' day, where he married Mary Brubaker, who 
was born in Champaign county, of that state, in 1814, and who 
died in 1878. The marriage resulted in the birth of the follow- 
ing offspring: Hannah, deceased; Daniel, deceased; Rebecca, 
Samuel, Henry, Mary A., Isaac, deceased, and Ellen. The 
father and mother, in early life, were members of the German 
Lutheran church, but died members of the Universalist church. 
Samuel Bodey was reared on a farm, and given a fair English 
education in the country schools. He remained at home till 



past twenty-one years of age, working with his father on the 
farm, and December 27, i860, was united in marriage with Emma 
Esken, daughter of Philip and EHzabeth Esken, both natives 
of Germany, emigrating in an early day to Pennsylvania, later 
to Ohio, and still later to Marshall county, Ind., where both died. 
Mrs. Bodey was born in Berlin, Summerset county, Penn., Octo- 
ber I, 1843. Unto the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Bodey have 
been born these children: Henry A., Clinton P., Mary E.; 
Emma A., deceased; Harvey C. and Ethel F"ay. Mr. Bodey 
remained on a farm in Ohio until 1S63, in which year he came to 
Marshall county and located in Walnut township, where he has 
since resided. Since then his principal occupation has been 
farming, but he has also followed saw-milling and merchandising 
a portion of the time. He was engaged in general merchandis- 
ing in Walnut for about eight years, from 1868 to 1878, losing 
some time from the trade in the meantime. He is one of the 
progressive citizens of the county, and a self-made and prosper- 
ous man. In politics he is a staunch democrat. Though he is 
not a member of any church, he believes church to be for the 
best, and he lives a moral and upright life, and is regarded as a 
good and worthy citizen. 

Lewis Bennet Boggs, one of the young and enterprising 
farmers of Walnut township, was born in Marshall county, Ind., 
April 29, 1854, and is a son of Lewis and Sarah (Devolt) Boggs. 
Our subject was reared and educated on a farm, and has fol- 
lowed farming quite successfully all his life. He remained with 
his parents till twenty-one years of age. On October 18, 1877, he 
was married to Zeldajane Hite, daughter of Robert Hite. Mrs. 
Boggs was born in Iowa, January 15, 1859, and by her marriage 
with Mr. Boggs, has become the mother of these children: 
Mirta, Elton, Vernon and Minta Z. Mr. and Mrs. Boggs are 
members of the Advent church, at Argos, and in politics he is a 
staunch democrat. Mr. Boggs, though a very young man, is one 
of the representative men in his honored calling, that of farm- 
ing. He owns and cultivates an excellent farm in the northern 
portion of Walnut township, in which township he owns lands 
aggregating 220 acres. He is a live and energetic man, keeping 
pace with all the modern methods and improvements in farming. 

David Boyce was born in Ohio, October 31, 1846, and is a son 
of George W. and Mary Ann (Kerney) Boyce. The father was 
born in West Virginia, and died in Marshall county, Ind., March 24, 
1885, aged sixty-eight years, three months and six days. He was 
of Irish descent, and February 5, 1843, was married in Richland 
county, Ohio, to Mary Ann Kerney, who was born in West Vir- 
ginia, in 1816. The marriage resulted in the birth of the follow- 
ing offspring: Jerusha A., deceased; Lovina, David, Asher V., 
James, deceased; John, deceased; Elias; Sarah, deceased; Marion 


and Elmina J. In 1848, George W. Boyce removed his family to 
Indiana and located on section 20, of Walnut township, Marshall 
county, having been one of the early settlers of this part of the 
country. He located in the wilderness, and though his life was 
more or less spent in farming, his principal occupation was saw- 
milling. He was industrious and frugal, and amassed consider- 
able wealth during life. His widow still survives and resides in 
Argos. David Boyce was reared a farmer and the pursuit of 
agriculture and saw-milling has been his principal business. He 
worked with his father till past twenty-three years of age, and 
August 5, 1869, married Ethalinda Pearce, daughter of Aaron K. 
and Margaret A. (Harsh) Pearce. The father was a native of 
Richland county, Ohio, born in 1821, and dying in his native 
county in 1858. He was a son of Simon Pearce, who was born 
in 1795. The wife of Simon Pearce was Sarah Kinney, whom he 
married in 1819, and by whom he had the following children: 
Aaron K., Simon S., Lewis G., Theodore D., Orlando M., Maria L., 
Clarintha, Oran A., Rucinna L., Cyrenus C, Clarinda E., Mari- 
etta C., and VVinfield W. Aaron Pearce, in 1846, wedded Mar- 
garet Harsh, born in Lancaster county, Penn., in 1824. The 
marriage resulted in the birth of these children: Livona, Harriet, 
Ethalinda, Cerillda, Louisa, Theodore P., and Aaron K. Etha- 
linda was born in Richland county, Ohio, August 27, 1850, and 
came to Indiana with her parents in 1858, and her marriage with 
our subject has resulted in the birth of the following children: 
Rose Lee, Benjamin F., Margaret V., John W., George H., 
Ara M., Boyd L., Orda J., and Lillie M. 

H. C. Brewer, who was born in Clark county, Ind., April 4, 
1851, is a son of Henry and Sarah E. (Bowell) Brewer. Henry 
Brewer was born in Clark county, Ind., February 7, 1814, and 
died in this county June 13, 1869. He was a blacksmith by trade, 
which he followed in early life, but for many years was engaged 
in farming. In his native county, in 1837, October 19, he was 
united in marriage with Amanda P. Smith, whose death occurred 
September 4, 1838. May 9, 1850, he married for a second wife 
Mrs. Sarah E. White {nee Bowell), who had been previously 
married October 8, 1846, to John C. White, who died October 17, 
1848. She was born in Clark county, Ind., December 18, 1827. 
By her marriage with Henry Brewer she became the mother of 
the following children: Harrison C, Catherine J., Flora A. and 
Flavins L., all of whom are deceased but the first, who is the 
subject of this sketch. The parents came to Marshall county in 
the fall of 1863, and settled in the northern portion of Walnut 
township, where the father died. Subsequently the mother was 
wedded by Barney A. Idson, with whom she now resides in Ful- 
ton county, this state. Harrison C. Brewer was reared and edu- 
cated on a farm, and began for himself at the age of twenty 



years, by taking up the pursuit of agriculture, which he has 
since carried on. October 23, 1870, he married Emily L., daugh- 
ter of Hiram VanVactor, a pioneer of Marshall county, where 
Mrs. Brewer was born, March 28, 1854. Unto the marriage 
have been born: Marion L., Frances Elmer, and Henry H. 
Brewer. Mr. Brewer is a representative farmer and citizen, and 
is a member of the Argos lodge. No. 399, F. & A. M. 

Charles Brown, one of the pioneer settlers of Marshall 
county, was born near Augusta, York state, in 1805, and was a 
son of Sylvanus and Sarah (Spaldwin) Brown, unto whom were 
born three children, namely: Matilda, Charles and Harry. The 
parents were of New England birth and English descent, and of 
Quaker faith. In an early day the parents settled in York state, 
where Charles was united in marriage January 29, 1829, to Lucy 
Conner, who was born near Dublin, Ireland, in 1808, the daugh- 
ter of James and Susannah (Naylor) Conner. Lucy emigrated 
with her parents to America in 181 1, settling in York state. 
Unto the marriage of Charles and Lucy Brown were born the 
following offspring: Lucetta, Melissa, James, Jane, Matilda, 
Sallie, Sylvanus, Kaziah, Charles and Lucy. The father was a 
farmer by occupation, and farmed in New York till 1834, when 
he removed to Ohio, which state he left in 1837, coming to Mar- 
shall county and locating on section eight of Walnut township, 
where he died in 1872. He was among the hardy and well-re- 
spected pioneers of the county, and held several positions of 
honor and trust in the community. He was an ardent abolition- 
ist, whig and republican. In early days he was a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, later of the Latter-day Saints, but 
■died a member of the Advent church. His widow still survives, 
and now resides in Argos, and is in religious faith of the Latter- 
day Saints. 

Joseph Bryan was born in Mahoning county, Ohio, May 17, 
1833, and is a son of William and Mary (Bishop) Bryan. The 
father was born in New Jersey, February 27, 1799, and died i"n 
Mahoning county, Ohio, August 28, 1865. The mother was born 
in New Jersey, December 16, 1793, and died in Marshall county, 
Ind., February 13, 1886. The father was a son of Haron and 
Charity (Haines) Bryan, the former being a native of Ireland, 
but emigrated to America in an early day. Unto Haron and 
Charity Bryan were born the following children: Joseph, James, 
William, Haron, Rebecca, Ann and Martha. William was born 
and reared in New Jersey, and in 1823 was united in marriage 
with Mary Bishop, daughter of Eber and Susannah Bishop, to 
which marriage were born three sons and two daughters, namely: 
Jonathan, Robert, Eber, Mary and Hannah Ann. LInto the 
marriage of William and Mary Bryan were born six children, 
namely: Elizabeth, Sarah, James, Susannah, Joseph and Han- 


nah. In the spring of 1829, the parents removed from New Jer- 
sey, by way of wagon to Mahoning county, Ohio, where they 
settled on a farm, the father's death subsequently following. 
Both parents were reared in the Quaker faith to which they re- 
mained true till death. Their son Joseph, the immediate sub- 
ject of this sketch, was reared and educated on a farm, and has 
devoted his life to the honorable and independent calling of ag- 
riculture. In his native county, October 28, 1S55, he was united 
in marriage with Beulah M. Meridith, daughter of William and 
Sarah (Catron) Meridith, both natives of Chester count3%- Penn., 
and of English and Dutch descent, respectively. They became 
the parents of the following children, viz.: Margaret, Simon, 
Elizabeth, William, David, John, Sarah and Beulah. The par- 
ents settled in Ohio in 1833. Beulah, now Mrs. Bryan, was born 
in Chester county, Penn., January 23, 1831, and by her marriage 
with Mr. Bryan has become the mother of the following child- 
ren: William, Josephine, Mary M., Margaret S., Emma J. and 
Sylvester P. After their marriage up to 1S66 Mr. and Mrs. 
Bryan continued in Ohio, and then removed to Indiana, and lo- 
cated in Walnut township, where they have since resided. Both 
are members of the Christian church of Argos, and are among 
the most respectable families of their community'. Mr. Bryan 
began the struggle of life a poor man, but through industry, per- 
severance and frugality has succeeded in accumulating a com- 
fortable competence, and is at this time one of the leading farm- 
ers and representative citizens of Walnut township. 

Nathaniel Chapman was born in Plymouth, Chenango county, 
N. v., November 25, 1817, and is a son of James and Amy (Shel- 
don) Chapman, both parents born in Providence county, R. I. 
The father was a son of Nathaniel Chapman, a native of Rhode 
Island, and of Scotch origin. The mother was a daughter of 
Pardon Sheldon, also a native of Rhode Island, and of English 
origin. Pardon Sheldon was a staff officer under Gen. George 
Washington. Unto the marriage of James and Amy Chapman 
were born the following children: Libbie, Charles, James, Amy, 
Simon S., Sabrah, Thomas R., Esther, Pardon S., Phcebe, Na- 
thaniel, Angeline, Silas H. and Jeremiah S., three of whom were 
born in Rhode Island and the others in York state. The father's 
death occurred at Plymouth, N. Y., in 1835, at the age of sixty 
years, and the mother died at Smyrna, N. Y., in 1857, at the age 
of seventy-six years. They were both Quakers, in which faith 
they lived and died. Nathaniel Chapman remained under the 
parental roof until he was almost eighteen 3'ears old, at which 
time he began the struggle of life for himself, his first work 
being done on a farm at $8 per month; but he soon quit farm 
work and subsequently learned the trade of harness and saddle- 
making. March 10, 1839, he was united in marriage with Miss 


Lois Potter, a foster child of David Jennings, her parents dying 
when she was very young. She was born in Chenango county, 
N. Y., December 12, 1815, and bore the following children: 
Henry C, Sarah A., Theodore F., Charles D., and Lucy J. In 
1843 Mr. Chapman permanently located on a farm in York state, 
and he continued farming till 1865. In this year he came to In- 
diana and settled at Argos, and four years later went to Illinois, 
where he remained till 1875, at which time he returned to Indi- 
ana, and for the followmg seven years resided on a farm in Ful- 
ton county. While residing in Illinois he was engaged in the mill- 
ing business, and in the meantime he invested some capital in 
Argos, Ind., in a drug store, which his son Charles D., operated. 
In 1881 Mr. Chapman left Fulton county and located in Argos, 
and one year later purchased lands near the village and built 
him a convenient home, where he has since resided. Mr. and 
Mrs. Chapman are members of the Methodist Episcopal church 
at Argos, and enjoy a high social standing. He is a self-made 
man, having begun life for himself a poor youth, and through 
life he has been industrious and progressive, and is now a pros- 
perous and well respected citizen. 

W. D. Corey, a native of Marshall county, Ind., was born 
February 21, 1839, and is a son of Barney and Barbara A. 
(Douglass) Corey. The father was born in Rhode Island, June 4, 
1809, and died in Marshall county, Ind., in 1866. He was a son 
of an Irish emigrant who came to America in an early day. 
Barney Corey, after reaching manhood, left his native state and 
went to New York, where, September 22, 1834, he wedded Bar- 
bara A. Douglass, who was born in New York, October 19, 1810. 
By her marriage she became the mother of the following chil- 
dren: Sarah A., William D., Barney J., Susan A. (deceased), 
and Melvin L. In about 1836, by way of a one-horse wagon, 
Barney Corey, his wife and first born child, emigrated from New 
York to Indiana, and settled in the woods of what is now Green 
township, Marshall county. Here the father remained till called 
away by death. The mother, after the father's death, was wedded 
by Hiram Durphy, and with her second husband returned to 
New York, where she died in 1878. Her remains were brought 
back to Indiana and now lie buried by the side of her first hus- 
band, in Green township, near the early place of settlement. 
Barney Corey was a cabinet-maker by trade and a farmer by 
occupation. He was a hardy pioneer, and over thirty years of 
his active and useful life was spent in this county. He began 
life a poor man, and through industry and perseverance, grew 
prosperous. He was a practical and successful farmer, and at 
the time of his death, had amassed considerable wealth. He 
was a zealous Baptist, and was the leading founder of what is 
known as the Jordan Baptist church of Green township, which 


Still maintains an existence. His mother, who at about the 
founding of this church, joined his famil}' circle, was the first 
white person baptized by immersion in Marshall county. Will- 
iam D. Corey was born and raised on a farm, and remained 
under the parental roof till past the age of twenty-one years. 
May 20, i860, he wedded Miss Cynthia A. Alleman, and began 
farming for himself, which he carried on for a number of 
years. His wife was born in Holmes county, Ohio, Novem- 
ber 28, 1839, and is a daughter of Christian Alleman, an early 
settler of Marshall county. To the above marriage have been 
born the following children: Milroy A., William D., Mollie A., 
and Iva D. In February of 1865, Mr. Corey became a private 
in Company F, of the Eighty-seventh Indiana volunteer infantry, 
and at the close of war was discharged from Company F, Forty- 
second Indiana veterans. He is a member of the G. A. R. 
Lafayette Gordon post, 132, of Argos, and I. O. O. F., Argos 
lodge. No. 263, of Argos; also Argos lodge. No. 399, F. & A. M. 
He and wife are members of the Baptist church and are among 
the leading families of Argos. F"rom 1866 to 1873 they resided 
in Caldwell county. Mo., where Mr. Corej^ continued farming. 
From 1873 to 1878, they resided on a portion of the old home- 
stead in Green township. Since 1S78 they have resided in Argos, 
Mr. Corey being engaged in merchandising. He is now engaged 
in the undertaking and furniture business, and is one of the 
live and active business men .of Argos. 

William Cox, the subject of this sketch, was born in Knox 
county, Tenn., May 22, 1808, and is a son of Peter and Margaret 
(Marshall) Cox. The father was a native of Georgia, and the 
son of an early settler of that state, who was of Pennsylvania 
birth and English lineage. Mr. Cox's mother was a native of 
North Carolina, of which state her father was also a native, 
emigrating thence to east Tennessee in an early day. The mar- 
riage of Peter Cox and Margaret Marshall was consummated in 
Knox county, Tenn., and resulted in the birth of four chil- 
dren, namely: Elizabeth, William, Zimri (deceased), and Re- 
becca Ann (deceased). As early as 181 5 Peter Cox and his family 
removed from east Tennessee to Indiana and settled in Wayne 
county, where the pioneer's wife died, and subsequently Mr. Cox 
removed to Hamilton county, where his death afterward occurred. 
William Cox remained under the parental roof till he was twenty- 
five years of age, at which time, September 12, 1833, he was 
united in marriage with Margaret F'ox, daughter of William 
Fox, a native of North Carolina, and an early settler of Indiana. 
Margaret Fox was born near Germantown, Ohio, February 25, 
1814, and her marriage with our subject resulted in the birth of 
the following children: Fernando, Elizabeth, Mahala. Esther, 
Adaline, Margaret A. and Sarah. Soon after his marriage Mr. 


Cox settled on a farm in Wayne county, where he remained till 
in 1S60, in March of which year he moved to Marshall county, 
and located in Walnut township, where he has since resided. 
His life has been devoted to farming, in which he has met with 
marked success. He has never aspired to public position, but 
has lived the life of a retired citizen and independent farmer. 
His wife lived many long years his faithful companion, and was 
called to her reward November iS, 1SS7. Mr. Cox resides on a 
beautiful and well-improved farm near Argos, and is surrounded 
by many comforts and a host of friends. Both he and his wife 
were reared in the Quaker faith. Though he has never con- 
nected himself with an}' religious organization, he has always been 
friendly to churches, and to education. His life has been charac- 
terized by industry, sobriety, integrity and perseverance, quali- 
ties that have won the respect of a wide acquaintance. 

Fernando' Cox, a progressive farmer of Walnut township, 
was born in Wayne county, Ind., September 5, 1834, and is a son 
of William Cox, whose biography is given above. He was 
reared on a farm and given a limited education in the early dis- 
trict schools, and remained at home with his father until past 
thirty years of age. August g, 1S62, he enlisted as a private in 
Company D, Seventy-third Indiana volunteer infantry, and was 
discharged at Nashville, Tenn., July i, 1865. Among some en- 
gagements in which he participated were the battles of Stone 
River, Athens, Decatur and others; being in all the actions and 
movements of his company, except Strait's Raid, during which 
time he was sick and in the general field hospital, under tent. 
After his discharge he returned to this county, where he has 
since remained. December 2, 1S67, he was united in marriage 
with Helen Ward, a native of Indiana, who died October 17, 
1S75. The issue of this marriage was four children, namely: 
William E., Adam (deceased) , Arthur and Henry C. Novem- 
ber 2, 1882, Mr. Cox married for a second wife, Elizabeth 
Louthan, daughter of James and Nancy Louthan, natives of Ohio 
and Pennsylvania, respectively. Mrs. Cox was born in Beaver 
county, Penn., September 5, 1854, and has borne her husband the 
following children, viz.: Bradford, Schuyler and Charles. Im- 
mediately after his first marriage Mr. Cox settled on his present 
homestead, in section 6, of Walnut township, where he has since 
continued. He owns and cultivates a well improved farm of one 
hundred acres, and is one of the most successful farmers of the 
county. He is a member of the G. A. R., Lafayette Gordon post. 
No. 132, of Argos, and in politics is a staunch republican. 

John Crow, a young and enterprising farmer of Walnut town- 
ship, was born in this county July 23, 1853, the son of Isaac and 
Elizabeth (Pickerl) Crow. The father was born in Washington 
county, Ind., April 22, 1S22, and was a son of John and Cather- 
16— B. 


ine (Blazer) Crow; the father, a native of Virginia, and of Eng- 
lish and German parentage, while the mother was born in 
Pennsj'lvania, of Dutch descent. Unto John and Catherine 
Crow were born William, Sarah, Elizabeth, Nancy, Isaac, John, 
and Lewis Crow. Soon after their marriage they removed to 
Kentucky, where their first two children were born, and then 
they removed to Indiana and located in Washington county, 
subsequently locating in Jackson county, where Catherine died 
in 1842, aged tifty-three years. In the same year John came to 
Marshall county, where he remained until called away by death 
in 1862, at the advanced age of eighty-three years. Me was a 
soldier in the war of 181 2, and was in the battle of Tippecanoe, 
Of his children the following came to Marshall county: Sarah, 
Nancy, Lewis and Isaac. Sarah and Isaac are deceased. Isaac 
came to the county as early as i8;,q, at the age of seventeen, in 
company with a Mr. Tuttle, a pioneer of the county,-who brought 
to the county a drove of sheep which Isaac helped to drive. Eor 
several years he worked mainly at clearing land, and it can safely 
be said that he cleared more Marshall county land than any 
other man. He cleared acres after acres of land of its dense 
forest growth, and finally purchased and cleared himself a home- 
stead in Walnut township, upon which he lived till his death oc- 
curred, September q, 1874. He was an industrious, honest man, 
a good citizen, a kind father and a faithful friend. January 8, 
1852, he was united in marriage with Elizabeth Fickerl, daugh- 
ter of Chasteen I'ickerl, an early pioneer of the county. Mrs. 
Crow was born in Holmes county, Ohio. May q, 1832, and was 
the mother of the following children: John, Amanda, Chasteen, 
Charlie, Asbury, Luella, \\'. T. Sherman, Eva M. and Sarah. 
The mother, and four children, namely: John, Chasteen, W. T. 
Sherman and Sarah, still survive, and, own the old homestead. 
John, the oldest of the children, is operating the home farm, and 
is one of the representative farmers and stock-raisers of the 
county. He is a progressive citizen and in politics a staunch 

Richard Curtis, a prominent farmer of Walnut township, was 
born in Butler county. Ohiii, July 6, 1844, and is a son of George and 
Elener (Carter) Curtis. The father was born in Scotland in 
1772, and died in Miami county, Ind., in 185J;. The mother was 
born in Ohio, in 1804, and died in Marshall county, Ind., in 1883. 
Their marriage was consummated in Ohio, where they resided 
till 1849, when they located in Miami county, this state. To 
their marriage was born: George, Susannah, Maria and Sophia 
(twins), Andrew, Richard, Nancy, Jane, James, Rebecca and 
Wilson Curtis. George Curtis was" a taiJor by trade, and a 
farmer by occupation. After his death his widow and her chil- 
dren remained in Miami county till in 1865, when they removed 


to Marshall county, where the mother's death occurred many 
years afterward. The oldest son was the only one of the children 
that did not come to the county. Richard Curtis was reared and 
educated on a farm, and has followed agricultural pursuits with 
good success all his life. March i, 1869, he was united in mar- 
riage with Mrs. Jane Robey {ncc Davis), daughter of John Davis, 
a pioneer settler of Marshall county. She was born in Henry 
county. Inch, December 2, 1839, and by her first marriage was the 
mother of two children, namely: Laura \i. and Addie C. Robey. 
The marriage with Mr. Curtis has been blessed by the birth of 
the following children: Charles li., Clarry L., Harvey J. and 
Luther J. Mr. Curtis is a member of the German Baptist church, 
and Mrs. Curtis belongs to the Progressive branch of the same 
denomination. The parents have taken much interest in the 
education of the children, of which Charles H. is a teacher in 
the public schools of the county. 

James M. Davis, a representative of a leading family of Wal- 
nut township, is the subject of the following sketch: Jacob Davis, 
his paternal grandfather, was born Pennsylvania, and was a son 
of a German emigrant who came to the United States at a very 
early daj' and settled in that state. Jacob wedded Rhoda Har- 
nett and became the father of the following offspring: Isaac, 
Abner, Jacob, James, John, Ella, Mahala, Mary, Belinda, Maria 
and Annie. The parents in an early day settled in Belmont 
county, Ohio, and subsequently became residents of Henry 
county, Ind., where the mother died. Later the father located 
in Howard county, where his death occurred. This early pioneer 
was a soldier of the war of 181 2, and served under General Har- 
rison. He was present and witnessed Col. Dick Johnson shoot 
the Indian chief Tecumseh, who was shot in the left breast as he 
arose from behind a thistle patch, dressed in a crude leather suit 
from which the dust flew when struck by the bullet. John Davis, 
our subject's father, was born in Belmont county, Ohio, and died 
in Marshall county, Ind., November 30, 1869, aged sixty-one years 
two months and fifteen days. With his parents he came to In- 
diana, and located in Henry county, where he was united in 
marriage with Mary Atkinson, who was born in Belmont county, 
Ohio, dying in Marshal! county P^ebruary 9, 1882, aged sixty-one 
years four months and fourteen days. The above marriage 
resulted in the birth of the following children: Jane, Daniel B., 
James M., Rhoda E., John J., Charles, George W., Hannah M., 
Hulda, Olive O., Rose A. and Elias. P>om their marriage up to 
1846 the parents resided in Plenry county, Ind. From 1846 up 
to 1862 they resided in Howard county. In November of 1862 
they located in Walnut township, of this county, and here con- 
tinued till called away by death. The father was a farmer by 
occupation, and well-respected citizen. James M. Davis, the 


■direct subject of this sketch, was born in Henry county, Ind., 
November i, 1842, and was reared and educated on a farm. 
Upon reaching his majority he began life for himself, with a 
capital of $1,000. For over seven years he was engaged in buy- 
ing and selling of cattle, but he has for some time been engaged 
in farming and moving of houses, moving annually about fifty 
houses. October 8, 1866, he was united in marriage with Martha 
E. Dawson, who was born in Fayette county, Ind., May 12th, 1848. 
Unto the above marriage there have been born four children, 
namely-: Elnora F., Mary M.,Cora B. and James D. Mr. Davis 
enlisted April 5, 1865, in Company A, Fifty-third Indiana volun- 
teer infantry, and was discharged September 3, 1865. Mr. Davis 
is a member of the Christian Temperance Union and in politics 
-a democrat. 

Moses Dawson was born in Marshall county, Ind., June 29, 
1846, and is a son of William Dawson, who was born in Tennessee, 
April 26, 1801, and who died in Argos, Ind., December 30, 1887. 
His father, Benjamin Dawson, had the following children: John, 
William, Benjamin, Jesse, Jane, Thomas, Joseph and Charles. 
William Dawson moved from ItIs native state to Kentucky with 
his parents in an early day, and there grew to manhood. He 
came to Indiana, and drifting to Vigo county, was there married 
in 1832, to Sarah Greer, which union resulted in the birth of the 
following children: John, Delilah, William, Elizabeth, George, 
Moses and Frances. In 1836, the parents and four children left 
Vigo county, and came to Marshall county, settling in Walnut 
township, in a locality that was hardly more than a wilderness. 
Farming was the father's occupation. He was a good citizen, and 
died a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. He was at 
the time of his death, the oldest citizen of Walnut township, and 
was universally respected by all. Moses Dawson, the subject of 
this sketch, was born and reared on a farm, and farming has 
been his occupation. He remained with his parents till past 
seventeen years of age and then attempted to enlist in the United 
States army, but he was rejected on account of being too young. 
He then followed boating on the Wabash and Erie canal for 
twelve years, and when the canal trade ceased, he returned to 
Marshall county, where he has since followed farming. He was 
-.married November n, 1877, to Miss Judith Fox, who was born 
in Wayne county, Ind., July 31, 1852. Mr. Dawson and wife are 
members of the Christian church, and are highly respected. He 
is a member of the Argos lodge. No. 212, and in politics is a 
staunch republican. 

Eli W. Deemer was born in Hancock county, Ohio, August 10, 
1836, and is a son of Peter and Lydia (Johnson) Deemer. The 
father was born in Westmoreland county, Penn., in 1802, the son 
of Joseph and Rachel (Miller) Deemer. Joseph Deemer was 


born in Pennsylvania, of German descent, and was the father of 
four sons, namely: Jonas, John, Andrew and Peter, and several 
daughters. The parents both died in Pennsylvania. Peter 
Deemer was a cooper by trade and a farmer by occupation. In 
Hancock county, Ohio, in 1S32, he was united in marriage with 
Lydia Johnson, daughter of Isaac and Christina (Miller) John- 
son, both natives of Pennsylvania, she of English and the other 
of German descent. Lydia Johnson was born in Scioto county, 
Ohio, in 1813, and her marriage with Peter Deemer resulted in 
the birth of the following offspring: John A., Eli W., Eliza A., 
James F. and George W. The parents removed from Ohio to 
Marion county, Ind., in 1840, thence to Marshall county in 1851,. 
and to Iowa in 1870. In 1883 they moved to Michigan, where 
the father died in 18S9. The mother resides with our subject at 
present, and is in her seventy-eighth year. Eli VV. Deemer, the 
immediate subject of this sketch, was reared and educated on a 
farm. He came to Marshall county with his parents in 1851, and 
remained with them till past twenty-one years .of age. He did 
much work with his father in chopping and clearing the timber 
from the land they prepared for their cultivation. Mr. Deemer 
has spent his entire life in farming and saw-milling. He was 
married in 1859, wedding Sallie Brown, daughter of Charles and 
Lucy (Connor) Brown. The father was born in New York, of 
English descent, while the mother was born in Ireland. Unto 
the parents were born: Lucetta, Malissa, James, Jane, Matilda, 
Sallie, Keziah, Charles C, Sylvanus and Lucy. Sallie, who is 
now Mrs. Deemer, was born March 20, 1841, in Walnut township, 
this county, to which county her parents came in an early day. 
Unto Mr. and Mrs. Deemer's marriage there have been born the 
following children: James A., Ora M., John L., Charlie B., Jes- 
sie C, Emma L., Carry M. and Lucy Pearl. Soon after his mar- 
riage Mr. Deemer located and farmed for a short time in Bour- 
bon township, and for eight years subsequent followed saw-milling 
in Tippecanoe township. In 1867 he located in Whitley county, 
Ind., where he followed farming and saw-milling for another 
period of eight years, and in 1875 returned to Marshall county, 
where he has since resided. He located on the Brown home- 
stead in Walnut township, the birthplace of Mrs. Deemer, and 
remained here until the fall of 188S, when he located in Argos, 
where he now resides. In October, 18S9, Mr. Deemer opened a 
meat market in Argos, and besides operating this he is still farm- 
ing and stock-raising. He is a representative business man and 
farmer, a staunch republican and a well respected citizen. 

S. S. Fish, a teacher by profession, and farmer by occupation, 
one of the young and progressive citizens of Walnut township, 
was born in Jay county, Ind., July 31, 1849, the son of Samuel 
and Nancy (Gillam) Fish. The father was born in New Jersey, 


in 1799, and died in Marshall county, in 1871. He was a son of 
George Fish, and when young, came to Indiana, and about 1820, 
married and located in Fayette count3^ later removed to Frank- 
lin county, thence to Vigo, thence to Jay, and in 1853, to Marshall 
county. Later in 1856, a removal was made to Missouri; and in 
i860, the final location was made in this county. Unto the mar- 
riage of Samuel and Nancy Fish, were born the following child- 
ren: Eliza J., Jonathan J., Benjaman F., George, Mary, Eliza- 
beth, John M., Samuel R., Thomas W., Silas S. and William L. 
The father was a farmer by occupation, and a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, while the mother was a member of 
the Christian church. Silas S. Fish, the immediate subject of 
this sketch, was reared on a farm, and received a liberal educa- 
tion in the common schools. At the age of twenty years, he be- 
gan teaching in the public schools, and has since been identified 
with educational work, either as teacher or township trustee, 
serving as trustee of Walnut township from 1884 to 1886. He 
is one of the most practical and successful teachers of the county. 
In 1873 he was united in marriage with Jemima M. Wimmer, 
daughter of William Wimmer, early settler of Henry county, this 
state, in which county Mrs. Fish was born. May 11, 1852. The 
children that have been born unto this marriage are Claud D., 
Maud A., Grace E. and Metta F. Mr. Fish is a member of the 
Argos lodge, No. 212, K. of P., and also of the Improved 
Order of Red Men, of Walnut, Shawnee Tribe, No. 19. He 
is a self-educated and self-made man, progressive and enterpris- 
ing, and in politics is a staunch democrat. 

W. H. J. Flagg was born in Miami county, Ind., January 28 
1842. He is a son of Alwin and Mila (Flagg) Flagg. The 
father was born in New York, August 11, 1799, and died in Mar- 
shall county, Ind., in May of 1S53. Mila Flagg was born in New 
York, May 13, 1805, and died in this county in 1855. The parents 
were married in New York in October of 1838, and their mar- 
riage resulted in the birth of four children, namely: Lauraette 
(deceased), William H. J., Lauraette and Alphonso. The family 
settled in Marshall county, Ind., in 1848, locating in Union town- 
ship, in the woods near Lake Maxinkuckee, where both parents 
afterward died. In the early forties they had settled in Miami 
county, removing from their native state. In their deaths they 
left three orphan children, of whom our subject was the oldest. 
He assumed the duty of looking after and rearing the other 
children, and held the old homestead till 187 1, when it was sold 
at an advantage. Our subject enlisted as a private, February 11, 
1865, in Company I, One-hundred and Fifty-first Indiana volun- 
teer infantry, and September 19, 1865, was discharged, by reason 
of the close of war. He then returned to Marshall county, and 
June 17, 1871, was united in marriage with Julia A. Flagg, a na- 


tive of Ohio, born October 14, 1849. Unto the marriage there 
have been born three children, namely: George E. (deceased), 
Charles E. and Omer E. Mr. Flagg is a carpenter by trade, and 
followed the trade up to 1SS4; in this year he built an eating 
house at the Nickel Plate depot in Argos; this eating house he 
operated till 1SS8. In March of 1888, he became proprietor of 
the Argos house, which he ran two years. He is now engaged in 
the lumber business at Argos. He is a member of the G. A. R., 
Lafayette Gordon post. No. 132, and of the I. O. O. P., Argus 
lodge. No. 263, and in politics he is an ardent republican. 

Asa Forsythe, a farmer and prominent citizen of Walnut 
township, was born in Shelby county, Ind., May 10, 1844, and is 
a son of Enoch and Anna (Snyder) Forsythe. The parents were 
born and married in Shelby county, and their union was blessed 
with the birth of the following children: Jackson, William, 
Parthina, Asa, Lucinda and Parsilla. Asa Forsythe was born, 
reared and educated on a farm, and upon reaching manhood be- 

gan the struggle of life as a farmer. In 1S69, he wedded Sarah 
Meachling, a native of Fulton county, Ind., born January 25, 1851. 
This marriage has resulted in the birth of five children, namely: 

Anna, George, Newton, Ollie and Grace. Mr. Forsythe has re- 
sided in Marshall county since 1868, and though he began the 
struggle of life a poor man, he has grown prosperous, and now 
owns over 200 acres of good land. He is an industrious and 
practical farmer and a well respected citizen. 

William C. Gordon was born in Walnut township, this 
county. May 30, 1848, and is a son of John M. Gordon. The 
father was born in Butler county, Ohio, December 16, 1813, the 
son of Robert and Ellen (McGary) Gordon. Robert Gordon 
was born in Pennsylvania, of Scotch descent, and was a school 
teacher by profession. Ellen, his wife, was born in Kentucky, 
and was a daughter of John and Fannie McGary, natives of Ire- 
land. Robert and Ellen were married in Butler county, Ohio, 
and unto their marriage were born the following children: 
Sandford, William M., John M., Fannie, Jane, Sarah, Asa, El- 
len and Isaac. In later years the parents resided with their son 
John M., in Marshall county, where they died. John M. Gordon 
when a young man went to St. Joseph county, Ind., and there, 
in 1835, was married to Barsheba Roe, a daughter of Charles 
and Barsheba (Watson) Roe, the former born on Long Island 
of English descent, and the latter born in Virginia of Scotch 
and Dutch descent. The daughter was born in Wayne county, 
Ind., June 3, 1817. Her marriage with John M. Gordon resulted 
in the birth of the following offspring: Lorinda, Louisa, Lu- 
cinda, William C, Melissa E. and Alfaretta. John M. Gordon 
came with his parents to Wayne county in about 1S28, and soon 
after his marriage in St. Joseph county he settled down in life 


in Michigan territory, later removed to Wayne county, then in 
1S42 settled in Marshall county, where he has since resided. He 
has followed farming for an occupation, and is now among the 
oldest and best respected citizens of the county. He and wife 
are members of the Christian church, and enjoy the esteem and 
confidence of all who know them. Their son William C, was 
reared on the farm and given a fair common school education. 
Upon reaching the age of twenty-one years he began the strug- 
gle of life for himself as a farmer. December 27, 1869, he was 
united in marriage with Eliza J. Spencer, who was born in 
Wayne county, Ohio, May 15, 1853. The above union has been 
blessed by the birth of the following offspring: Lillie M., de- 
ceased, John N., Myrta O., Lowie, Netta B., Elery B. and 
Charles C. Mrs. Gordon is a daughter of Nathan and Mary 
(Foltz) Spencer, both natives of Pennsylvania, and of Dutch de- 
scent. They settled in Marshall county in 1S57. Soon after 
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon's marriage they settled on forty acres of 
land in Walnut township, where Mr. Gordon built a log hut and 
began the earnest struggle of life. He has been an industrious 
and successful farmer, and has grown from a poor man to a pros- 
perous station of life. He owns 13S acres of well-improved 
land, and is one of the foremost farmers of Walnut township. 
His wife is a zealous member of the Baptist church, and Mr. 
Gordon is a member of the Argos lodge. No. 212, K. of P., and 
in politics he is an ardent and leading democrat. He has very 
creditably filled the office of assessor of his township for two 
terms, and in 1888 he was elected trustee in a closely divided 
township, politically against him, by a majority of one vote. He 
served one term as trustee, and in the spring of 1890 was re- 
elected b}^ a majority of twenty-eight votes. As an official Mr. 
Gordon is a cautious and judicious man, and zealously watches 
and performs the duties before him. He is a friend to his fellow 
citizens, and is an honest, upright man. 

John C. Gordon was born in Seneca county, Ohio, June 24, 
1844. His father, George W. Gordon, was a native of Hancock 
county, Ohio, born in the year 1S14, and was a son of James Gor- 
don, a native of Virginia, descended from Scotch ancestry. In 
an early day this Virginian became a settler of Ohio, dying in 
his eighty-third year at Fremont, that state. George W. Gor- 
don was reared on a farm, and was united in marriage with Han- 
nah Guisbert, a native of Seneca county, Ohio, who was born in 
181 5. This marriage was blessed by the birth of the following 
offspring: Anna, La Fayette, Margaret, Jane, John C, Daniel, 
Mary E., Temperance, Cynthia, Martha and Rebecca. In the fall 
of 1852 the family removed to St. Joseph county, Ind., in 
which county the mother died in 1854. In 1856 the father and 
children removed to Marshall county, and here the father, after 


a second marriage and after several years of active business life, 
viras called away by death in 1SS8. John C. Gordon, the imme- 
diate subject of this sketch, was reared on the farm and educated 
in the common schools. He remained under the parental roof 
until the age of eighteen, at which time he began life for himself. 
March 4, 1862, he enlisted in Compan}' C, Twenty-first Indiana 
regiment. After serving in the McClellan army of the Potomac 
until December of the same year he was discharged at Fortress 
Monroe, Va., by reason of disability. After his discharge he 
returned to Indiana, and since 1871 he has carried on the grain 
trade at Argos. Since 1876 he has operated the Thayer elevator 
at this point; and as a business man, Mr. Gordon ranks among 
the foremost in the town. May 6, 1872, he wedded Miss Mil- 
lie J., daughter of Rev. R. H. Sanders. She was born in Lake 
county, Ind., April 25, 185 1. To the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. 
Gordon have been born the following children: Zena W. (de- 
ceased), Mary D., Grace L. and Harry S. Mr. Gordon has been 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal church since 1870, and in 
politics he is a staunch republican. He is a member of the 
G. A. R., LaFayette Gordon post, No. 132; also a member of 
the Argos lodge, No 399, F. & A. M.; the Plymouth chapter, 
No. 49, R. A. M., and the Plymouth commandery, No. 26, K. T. 
Samuel W. Gould, M. D., a resident physician of Argos, Ind., 
is a native of York township. Union county, Ohio, born June 11, 
1839. His parents, Daniel and Adeline (Wilkins) Gould, were 
natives of New York, from which state they emigrated to Ohio 
in 1835. They made their first settlement in Union county, Ohio, 
and then in Logan county, Ohio. They continued to reside in 
Ohio till about 1865, when they removed to Indiana, after living 
in Bourbon two years, settling at Argos, Marshall county, in 1S67, 
and there continued to reside till in advanced ages, when death 
called them from earth, ending two long, useful and faithful lives, 
both dying in iSSS. Both parents were past eighty years of age. 
Three sons were their children: Albert I., John H. and Samuel W. 
The former two became prominent lawyers, while the last, who 
is the subject of this biography, grew to manhood in his native 
state. At the early age of three years he was taught his first 
lessons in the acquisition of an education. He was placed in a 
private school, and for a period of ten years was given careful 
and excellent instruction in the rudiments of an English educa- 
tion. At the age of fourteen years he had gained a fair educa- 
tion, such as enabled him in successfully teaching a winter term 
of three months in the country schools. At this period the father 
was in straightened circumstances and was unable to kid his son 
in the completion of an education. Still the determined youth 
resolved to accomplish this object alone, and although it was a 
difficult obstacle to surmount, he, through perseverance, frugality 


and self-denial, accomplished his purpose, and at the age of 
sixteen years had finished an academical education, and imme- 
diately began the study of medicine in Ohio, under James S. 
Robb, M. D., as his preceptor. In 1858, at the age of nineteen, 
he graduated from the Medical college of Ohio, at Cincinnati, 
and in the same year located in Allen county and began his pro- 
fession as a practitioner. Mr. Gould continued to practice in 
Allen county till 1865, when he removed to Indiana, subsequently 
locating at Argos, where he has since gained a wide and extended 
practice. Being desirous of supplementing his professional abil- 
ity he accordingly entered the Rush Medical college of Chicago 
in 1869, where he graduated, and then returned to Argos and 
resumed his practice. Doctor Gould is considered one of the 
best read physicians of the state, and is a member of the State 
Medical society, and of the Marshall County Medical society 
and American, and is a regular and able contributor to leading 
medical journals, and is a terse and ready writer, possessed of 
good descriptive powers, and a rare faculty for holding and ad- 
vocating decided opinions. Moreover, he is possessed of 
marked eloquence and oratorical power, and in both conver- 
sation and from the rostrum he is entertaining, instructive and 
persuasive. Although born of ardent Presbyterian parents, and 
reared under the strict discipline of that church, he has become 
skeptical to that church faith, and is now a liberal agnostic; and 
his creed is, be just and do good; and freely concedes to others 
the right to enjoy and exercise their religious convictions. It 
was in January, of i860, that Miss Callie Shafer, of Lima, Ohio, 
became his wife. She gave birth to two and buried two children, 
and in June, of 1864, her death occurred. In December, of 1867, 
Mr. Gould married for a second wife. Miss Sarah A. Smith, of 
St. Joseph, Mich., a lady of culture and attainments. The birth 
of one child, a son, Daniel W., has blessed the marriage. Mrs. 
Gould is an active member of the E. church. Mr. Gould is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity and is a K. T. In politics he 
is an aggressive republican. During the presidential campaign of 
1856 he managed the West Liberty (Ohio) Banner, in the inter- 
est of the republican party and its presidential candidate, John C. 
Fremont, and throughout his entire political career Dr. Gould 
has continued an able and active republican. He is now in his 
fifty-second year, and is of strong physique and energy, and still 
quick of perception and prompt in decision. He is undoubtedly 
one of the self-made men whose success in life has been due to 
caution, energy, frugality, integrity, and earnest endeavors. 
These qualities have established a character above reproach, and 
gained the esteem and confidence of many. As a physician he 
holds a high rank, and, by his skill as a physician, he has gained 
more than a local reputation. 


Jones Grant, the subject of this biography, wa^ born in Stark 
county, Ohio, January 29, 1843. He is a son of John Z. and 
Mary (Gaskill) Grant. The father, born in New Jersey, Novem- 
ber 24, 1813, was a son of Stacey and Hannah Grant, both 
natives of New Jersey, and of Scotch descent. Stacey and 
Hannah Grant were the parents of the following offspring: 
John Z., Stacey, William, Josiah, Aaron, Elizabeth and Mary. 
In an early day they settled in Stark county, Ohio, where they 
resided till called away in death. John Z. Grant was reared on 
a farm, and his life occupation was agriculture. His marriage 
was consummated in Stark county, Ohio, with Mary Gaskill, who 
was born in that county, dying in Iowa, November 8, 1855, aged 
forty-one years. The marriage was blessed by the birth of the 
following children: Martha, Mahala, Mercie, Jones, Nathan, 
Hannah and Rebecca. The parents resided in Ohio till 1852, 
when they removed to Indiana, and settled in Marshall county. 
Three years later they removed to and located in Iowa, where 
they both died. The father died August 12, 1859. In early life 
both became members of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
which they abandoned in 1843, because the church recognized 
the institution of slavery, and went to the Wesleyan Methodist 
church, of which they were members till death called them above. 
Jones Grant, the immediate subject of this sketch, was reared 
and educated on a farm. He lost his father when but sixteen 
years old, and at this early age was thrown upon his own resources. 
He began the struggle of life as a farm hand, working by the 
month. In the spring of i860, he returned from Iowa to Indiana, 
and August 19, 1861, enlisted as a private in Company D, Ninth 
Indiana volunteer infantry. July 26, 1862, he was appointed 
corporal, a non-commissioned officer, of his regiment. He was 
discharged as corporal September 6, 1864, by reason of the ex- 
piration of the term of enlistment. He participated in twenty- 
three engagements, among which were the battles of Greenbrier, 
Shiloh, Corinth, Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga and siege 
of Atlanta. At Chickamauga he received a severe wound below 
i"he left knee; and lay on the battle field seven days without sur- 
gical aid and without food. After his discharge from the service 
he returned to Marshall county, where he has since remained. 
March 9, 1865, he was united in marriage with Amanda J. Perry, 
daughter of James W. and Minerva (Young) Perry, the father 
a native of Ohio, and the mother of North Carolina. Mrs. 
Grant was born in Marion county, Ind., November 21, 1845, 
and is the mother of three children, namely: Estes M., Edwin J. 
and Evert F. Mr. Grant is a prosperous farmer of Walnut 
township; is a member of the G. A. R., Miles H. Tibbets post 
No. 260, of Plymouth, and belongs to the Bourbon lodge, No. 227 
F. & A. M. He and wife are zealous members of the Methodist 



Episcopal church, of which church Mr. Grant has been an official 
member as class leader for over sixteen years. For several 
years he has been an active superintendent of the church Sabbath 

Josiah B. Grimes was born in Miami county, Ind., July 31, 
1846, and is a son of Harrison and Elizabeth (Bower) Grimes. 
The father was born in Montgomery county, Ohio, February 14, 
1823, and now resides in Miami county, Ind., where, as a pioneer, 
he settled in an early day. He is a son of Jeremiah and Barbara 
(Harshburger) Grimes, natives of Maryland and Virginia, re- 
spectively, the former of Irish, the latter of Dutch, descent. Har- 
rison Grimes was their oldest son, and early in life became an 
orphan, and was thrown upon his own resources. In the spring 
of 1844, he visited Miami county, and secured a homestead, and 
then returned to his native county, and May 4, 1845, wedded 
Elizabeth Bower, who was born in Montgomery county, Ohio, of 
Dutch descent, February 8, 1826. Unto this marriage was born 
Josiah B., Hiram, deceased; Sarah D., George T., Albert, Mar- 
tha J., William and Charles Grimes. Josiah B. was reared and 
educated on a farm, and remained with his parents till past 
twenty-four years old, and then was married, October 5, 1871, to 
Ellen'Seibert, daughter of Samuel H. and Sarah (See) Seibert, 
natives of Pennsylvania, and early settlers of Indiana. Mrs. 
Grimes was born in Miami county, Ind., November 17, 1851. 
The following children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Grimes: 
Harvey, deceased; Emma L., Clary M.and Daisy V. Since the 
spring of 1S76 Mr. and Mrs. Grimes have resided on their pres- 
ent homestead, in Walnut township, where Mr. Grimes owns a 
well improved farm consisting of 160 acres of land. He is a pro- 
gressive and successful farmer, and both he and wife are members 
of the Baptist church. 

Henry J. Hanes was born in Delaware county, Ohio, June 11, 
1842, and is a son of Huram and Betsie (Vaughn) Hanes. The 
father was born in Duchess county, N. Y., August 10, 1800, and 
died in Marshall county, Ind., July 5, 1868. He was a son of 
Sandford and Hannah (Gould) Hanes, to whom were born the 
following children: Huram, Samuel, Hiram, Lucy, Sophia and 
Rebecca. Upon Huram reaching manhood he left his native 
state and went into Pennsylvania, locating in Erie county, where 
he was married January 15, 1829, to Betsie Vaughn, a daughter 
of Charles and Elizabeth (Morgan) Vaughn, natives of Canada, 
and the father and mother of eight children, namely: Henry, 
John, Joel, Daniel, Samuel, Nancy, Dimers, Hulda and Betsie. 
JBetsie was born in Canada, June 8, 1810, and died in this county 
April 15, 1888. Unto her marriage with Huram Hanes there 
were born: Charles, Hannah, Sandford, Sallie, Henry J. and 
Phebie Hanes. The parents soon after marriage settled in Ohio, 


and in 1853 left that state and settled in Marshall county, Ind., 
where they continued until their deaths. He died a member of 
the Christian church, and she a member of the German Baptist 
church. Henry J. Hanes was reared on a farm and given a lim- 
ited education in the early country schools. Farming has been 
his life occupation; his father before him was a farmer, and a 
soldier in the war of 1S12. Henry came to this county with his 
parents, and has since remained here. December 27, 1868, he 
was united in marriage with Eliza Jackson, daughter of Samuel 
and Sarah (Mitchell) Jackson, natives of Yorkshire, England, 
the father emigrating to America in 1858, becoming a citizen of 
Marshall county, Ind., in 1S66. The mother died in England, and 
the father, his second wife and children were the emigrants. He 
was the progenitor of the following children: Anna, Eliza, Sallie, 
Dyson, Joseph, Elizabeth and Mary. Eliza was born in England, 
November 24, 1842. Eler marriage with Mr. Elanes has given 
issue to the following offspring: Lizzie, Samuel and John. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hanes are members of the German Bap|ist church, and 
belong to the representative families of Walnut township. 

Elias Hess, the subject of this sketch, was an early settler of 
Walnut township. His paternal grandfather, Moses Hess, was 
born in Germany, and became an orphan early in life. To free 
himself from the bondage and the military law of Germany, he 
emigrated to America at the age of fourteen years, working pas- 
senger on board of ship, and was landed at New York city. 
Eventually he drifted to Ohio, married and settled on a farm. 
He became the progenitor of the following offspring: Bolser, 
Moses and Daniel. Bolser, our subject's father, was born in 
Ohio, February 14, 1786, and died in Indiana December 16, 1856. 
April II, 1809, in Ohio, he was united in marriage with Sarah 
Immel, who was born February 27, 1790, dying January 14, 1858. 
Unto the above marriage were born the following children: 
John, Elias, Eve, Moses and Israel (twins), Bolser, Daniel, Emily, 
Sarah, Martha, Lydia and Jacob. As early as 1829 the parents 
settled in Elkhart county, Ind., where each died. The father 
was a soldier of the war of 1812, and was a minister of the gospel 
in the Baptist church for a number of years. Of his sons, Elias 
was born in Ohio, March 10, 1S12, and was reared and educated 
on a farm. He came to Indiana with his parents in 1829, and 
five years later (July 10, 1834), was united in marriage with Lu- 
cinda Wright, born in Ohio, January 10, 1817, of Scotch descent. 
The above marriage gave issue to the following offspring: Ezra 
(deceased), Jane (deceased), Belinda, Levi, Isaiah. Jasper, 
Sarah (deceased), Enoch, Jesse (deceased), Erastus, Susannah, 
Chancy (deceased), Lewis J. and Henry G. Of the sons three 
were soldiers in the civil war, in defense of the Union, Ezra 
losing his life at Lookout Mountain. In 1868 the father left 


Elkhart county, and located in Walnut township, Marshall county. 
He is a farmer by occupation, and now resides in Missouri. 

Isaiah Hess, a farmer and resident of Walnut township, was 
born in Elkhart county, Ind., October 30, 1842, and is a son of 
Elias and Lucinda (Wright) Hess. He was reared and educated 
on a farm, and has followed farming for an occupation. His 
home has been in Marshall county since 1S68. At the age of 
twenty-five years he started out in life for himself by settling on 
a farm. August 17, 1867, he was united in marriage with Sarah A. 
Beckner, daughter of Isaac Beckner. She was born in Elkhart 
county, and by the above marriage has become the mother of the 
following offspring: Lorena M., Loresta L. (deceased), Evaline, 
Albert F., Elias B., Lura L., Maima, and Frank P. Mr. and 
Mrs. Hess are members of the Christian church at Argos. Mr. 
Hess has a gallant record as a soldier in the Union army in the 
civil war. July ig, 1862, he enlisted as a private in Company E, 
Seventy-fourth Indiana volunteer infantry, and was discharged 
June 15, 1S65, by reason of the close of war. He participated in 
the battle of Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, and was in 
he campaign to Atlanta, Georgia. At Jonesborough he was 
wounded, and later given a furlough. Subsequently he joined 
his regiment at Goldsboro, N. C, and remained with Gen. Sher- 
man till discharged. Mr. Hess is one of the representative citi- 
zens of the county, a practical farmer, and worthy member of 
society, a staunch republican in politics and a progressive man. 

Jasper N. Hess was born in Elkhart county, Ind., August 15, 
1844, and was reared on a farm, and was given a liberal educa- 
tion in the schools of Goshen. In 1S66, he graduated from the 
Eastman National business college of Chicago, and for two years 
following was traveling salesman for the Studebaker Bros., man- 
ufacturers of wagons and carriages, at South Bend, Ind. In 1868, 
he joined his father on a farm near Argos, and four years later 
became book-keeper for a lumber company of Windfall, Ind. 
From 1874 to 1876, he was engaged in the grain and lumber trade 
at Argos. In 1876, he embarked in the hardware and furniture 
business at the same place, which he continued for four years. 
During this period he was for four years, postmaster of Argos, 
resigning the office in 1879. Since abandoning merchandising, 
he has mainly been engaged in the lumber business in Arkansas, 
Michigan and Indiana. September 15, 1874, he wedded OriellaK. 
Dickson, daughter of Bayless L. and Emma (Houghton) Dick- 
son, both natives of Indiana, the former born in 1818 and died in 
1874, the latter born in 1822. The father was a minister of the 
gospel in the Christian church. Mrs. Hess was born in this county, 
April 12, 1852, and the mother of one daughter namely, Lu Emma. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hess are members of the Christian church. He is 
a member of the Argos lodge, No. 399, F. & A. M., and in politics 



a staunch republican. He is one of the progressive citizens of 
Argos, and enjoys the esteem of a host of friends. In 1886, he 
made an unsuccessful race as the republican candidate for county 
auditor of Marshall, being beaten by a majority of 180 votes, 
while two years before, Blaine was beaten in the county by a 
majority of 761. This gives evidence of the high position in the 
esteem and respect of his fellow citizens that Mr. Hess occupies. 

Erastus Hess, a resident of Argos, Ind., was born in Elkhart 
county, January 17, 1855. He was reared on a farm, and Jan- 
uary 19, 1876, was united in marriage with Naomi Scott, daughter 
of Archibald and Mary Elizabeth (Moore) Scott, early settlers 
of Marshall county. Mrs. Hess was born in this county, Oc- 
tober 13, 1857; and by the above marriage, is the mother of the 
following children: John M., Jasper O., Ella C. and Lizzie L. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hess are members of the Christian church, and are 
highly respected. Mr. Hess began the struggle of life for him- 
self as a farmer, which he followed but for a short time, and then 
engaged in lumbering to which he has since given his attention. 
He is one of the firm, styled Hess & Van Vactor, operators of the 
Argos planing and lumbering mill; and though Mr. Hess is a 
young man he has had an active and prosperous life. He is a 
member of the Argos lodge, No. 399, F. & A. M., and in pol- 
itics is identified with the republican party. 

Lewis J. Hess was born in Elkhart county, Ind., December 4, 
1859. He was reared on a farm and after receiving a fair com- 
mon school education, completed a course in the Merom college 
of Sullivan county, this state. January 25, 1882, he wedded Miss 
Ona Barnhill, a native of Marshall county, and settled down in 
life on a farm. Two years later he began merchandising, and is 
now one of the enterprising merchants of Argos. The firm of 
Slayter & Hess, of which he is a member, is among the most 
extensive dealers in hardware and agricultural implements in the 
county. Mr. and Mrs. Hess are members of the Christian 
church, and enjoy high social standing. He is a member of the 
Argos lodge. No. 399, F. & A. M., and in politics is an ardent 

John Hindel was born near Richmond, Wayne county, Ind., 
June II, 1820, and died in Marshall county, Ind., December 20, 
1874. He was a son of Christian and Eve (Miller) Hindel. 
The father was born in Pennsylvania December 17, 1787, and 
died in Marshall county, Ind., January 23, 1869. The mother 
was born in the same state April 5, 1790, and died in this county 
April 23, 1870. They were both of German descent, and raised 
a family consisting of the following children: Adam, George, 
John P., Susan, Mary, Christina, Elizabeth and Christian. About 
1815 the parents became settlers of Wayne county, Ind., and 
some time in the thirties they became pioneer settlers of Mar- 


shall county. Both lived to advanced ages, and were highly 
respected by all who knew them. John Hindel, the subject of 
this sketch, was born and reared on a farm, and his youth was 
spent amid the pioneer scenes of Marshall county. November 17, 
1844, he was united in marriage with Malinda Rinker, daughter 
of Joseph and Christina (Bowman) Rinker, both natives of 
Virginia, and of German descent. These parents were blessed 
in their marriage by the birth of the following children : Malinda, 
Levi, Sarah, Lydia, William, John, Lizzie and Henry. Malinda, 
was born in Piqua, Ohio, April 26, 1S26; and by her mar- 
riage with John Hindel became the mother of the following 
children: James, Oilman, Sandford and Charles, of which chil- 
dren James is the only surviving one. At the close of the year 
1844 John and Malinda Hindel settled on the present Hindel 
homestead of Walnut township, and here Mr. Hindel continued 
a very successful career as a farmer till called from earth by 
death. He grew from a poor man to be one of the foremost 
and most prosperous farmers in Marshall county, owning at the 
time of his death about one thousand acres of land. In his 
death his family lost a faithful father, the community a useful 
member, and the county a well-respected citizen. His widow 
still survives and occupies the old home with her son James, who 
was born in this county August 18, )846. He was reared and 
educated on the farm, where his work has all been done. 
March 22, 1874, he wedded Mary Smith, a native of the county, 
born January 29, 1851. The marriage has resulted in the birth 
of one child, Carrie E., by name. He is the only living offspring 
of the subject of this sketch. The other sons lived to be very 
promising, and in early life death called them from what might 
have been useful lives. 

Charles R. Hughes, the subject of this biography, was born 
in Marshall county, Ind., March 7, i860, and is a son of Joseph 
and Abigail (Williams) Hughes. The father was born in Holmes 
county, Ohio, January 29, 1827, and died in Marshall county, 
April 4, 1862. He was a son of William Hughes, who was born 
near Richmond, Penn., in 1803, the son of Jesse Hughes, a native 
of Maryland. William died in Marshall county, October 31, 
1868. He and his family, including Joseph, came to Marshall 
county, Ind., in 1840. Here, in 1852, May 27, Joseph was united 
in marriage with Abigail Williams, who still survives and resides 
in Argos. The above marriage resulted in the birth of the fol- 
lowing children: Mary, Orton, Elvon and Charles R. Charles R., 
his youngest son, the subject of this sketch, was but a child when 
his father died. His widowed mother reared him on a farm and 
gave him a fair education in the country and Argos schools, and 
at the age of nineteen began the study of telegraphy, and sub- 
sequently became station agent and telegraph operator for the 


L. E. & W. R'y at Argos, a position he still holds. He was mar- 
ried in June, 1886, to Miss Minnie A. Fisher, who was born in 
Randolph county. Ills., March 6, 1869. Mr. Hughes is a member 
of Argos lodge No. 399, F. & A. M.; of Plymouth chapter. No. 49, 
R. A. M., and of the Plymouth commandery, No. 26, K. T. 

Jonathan S. Hussey was born in Kioga county, N. Y., 
August 17, 1840, and is a son of Seth and Junie (Billings) Hus- 
sey, both parents born in the Empire state, where they were also 
married. Their marriage resulted in the birth of three children, 
namely, Phebe A., Caroline A. and Jonathan S. The father 
was a tanner and currier by trade, and in 1842, located with his 
family in Plymouth, Ind., where he followed his calling for a 
number of years, and later followed the hotel business. He 
served one term as sheriff of Marshall county, and later entered 
the employ of a circus show company, with which he remained 
till his death occurred, but of the time and place of his death 
nothing is known to his family. In 1843, his first wife, Junio, 
died, and later he married Amanda Logan, who bore him one 
son, Marshall A. Jonathan S. Hussey was reared mainly in 
Marshall county, and in early youth he was thrown upon his own 
resources. March 10, 1S62, he enlisted as a private in Company C, 
Twentieth Indiana volunteers, and on May 11, 1S63, he was dis- 
charged by reason of disability. May 20, 1864, he re-enlisted as 
a private in Company E, One Hundred and Thirty-eighth In- 
diana volunteer infantry, from which he was discharged Sep- 
tember 22, 1865, by reason of close of war. He participated in 
the attack on Richmond, Va., the Seven Days fight, Malvern 
Hill and others. In 1866 he returned to Marshall county and 
married Elizabeth Krause, daughter of Henr}^ Krause, a settler 
of Argos in 1859. Mrs. Hussey was born in Ohio, February 11, 
1844. To the above marriage was born one child, Ora M. Mr. 
Hussey is a shoemaker, and followed his trade up to 1885. With 
the exception of the interval between 1S75 to 1S85, he has resided 
in Marshall county, and since 1885, he has been a resident of 
Argos, where he is now engaged in operating a confectionery, 
restaurant and bakery. He is a member of the G. A. R. of Argos, 
of the I. O. O. F. of Paris, 111., and is a Master Mason of the 
Center lodge of Dudley, 111. 

Josiah Jones was born in Montgomery county, Ohio, Octo- 
ber 18, 1834, and is a son of Samuel and Nancy (Skinner) Jones, 
both born in North Carolina, of Welsh descent. The parents 
were married in their native state, and in an early day emigrated 
to Montgomery count}-, Ohio, where they resided until 1S46, 
when they removed to Miami county, Ind., where both afterward 
died. To their marriage were born twelve children, namely: 
Nathan, Jonah, Sarah, Polly, Samuel, Elizabeth, Nancy, Amelia, 
John, Ezra, David and Josiah. Josiah, the subject of this sketch, 


was reared on a farm, and remained with his parents until he 
reached his majority, working on the farm with his father. 
August 27, 1S57, he was united in marriage with Miss Mary Jane 
Newman, daughter of Isaac and Susannah (Hoover) Newman, 
both parents natives of Ohio, he of English, and she of German, 
descent, settling in Miami county, Ind., about 1832. Mrs. Jones 
wes born in Miami county, April 15, 1S40. Soon after their mar- 
riage Mr. and Mrs. Jones settled on a farm in Miami county, and 
in i860 removed to Marshall county and located near the village 
of Walnut, where they have since resided. Both are members 
ot the Methodist Protestant church, and are respected by a wide 
acquaintance. He is a member ot the Improved Order of Red 
Men of Walnut. His wife belongs to the Annetta council, also 
of Walnut. 

J. T. Kendall, M. D., a practicing physician at Walnut, Ind.. 
was born at Clifton Springs, N. Y., October 18, 1862, and is a son 
of George W. and Helen (Palmer) Kendall. The father was 
born in New York, and is one of three children, namely: Joshua, 
George VV., and Catherine, whose progenitor was Allen Kendall, 
a native of York state, and of English lineage. He was a very 
prominent citizen of central New York. George W. Kendall 
was reared in his native state, where he was given a liberal edu- 
cation, and his early life was spent in railroading, as a contractor. 
He has had a wide experience in the business world, and at pres- 
ent is manager of the Equitable Trust company, of New York 
city, with his permanent residence at Walnut, Ind. In Ohio he 
was united in marriage with Helen Palmer, born in New York 
state, of German ancestry. The above unipn was blessed by the 
birth of the following children: Helen, deceased; George x-\llen, 
John T., Christine, and Sydney. George Allen Kendall, the old- 
est son, is the present assistant manager of the well-known 
Palmer House, of Chicago. John T., the immediate subject of 
this biography, and Christine, and Sydney, reside in Walnut. 
John T. obtained a classical education in Niles, Mich., and 
began the study of medicine in the fall of 1882, at Springway, 
111., under Dr. George A. Zeller. In the spring of 1885 he 
graduated from the Hospital Medical college, of Evansville, 
Ind., and while in that institution had one year's experience 
practicing in the United States Marine Medical hospital. In the 
spring of 1886 he graduated from the Rush Medical college, of 
Chicago. Two years later he located at Walnut, Ind., where he 
has since had an active practice in his profession. He is a mem- 
ber of the Marshall County Medical society, also a member of 
the Indiana State Medical society. He belongs to the Argos 
lodge, No. 399, F. & A. M., and is a member of the Improved 
Order of Red Men, of Walnut. 

D. C. Knott, M. D., a practicing physician at Argos, Ind., was 



born in Rockport, Ohio, January 2, 1857. He is a son of Will- 
iam and Elizabeth (Stephenson) Knott. The father, a native 
of Richland county, Ohio, and a son of Joseph Knott, who was 
of Irish birth, and who emigrated in an early day to Ohio. The 
mother was a native of Pennsylvania, and by her marriage with 
William Knott, had six children. The parents, in 1S57, located 
in West Cairo, Ohio, where they remained till 1869, in which 
year they located in Rochester, Ind. David Crawford Knott 
was liberally educated in the schools of West Cairo, Ohio, and 
Rochester, Ind., and in early life taught the public schools thir- 
teen successful terms. The last three years of his teaching was 
done in the graded schools of Akron, Ind. In 187S he began 
the study of medicine under C. Hester, M. D., of Rochester, Ind., 
and in the fall of 1S80 entered the Eclectic Medical institute 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, graduating here in June of 1882. In July 
of 1882, he located at Burr Oak, Ind., and began his practice. 
He had an active practice till 1889, and in March of that year he 
located at Argos, Ind., where he has since remained, doing a very 
lucrative business. December 27, 18S2, he wedded Miss Hattie E. 
Clark, of Columbia City, Ind., a union blessed with the birth of 
one child, Harvey. Dr. Knott is a self-made man. From his 
own earnings he defrayed the expenses of his education, and by 
energy and determination, has won the confidence of many who 
have become his patients and friends. In his practice of medi- 
cine he is very successful, and promises to rank among the able 
men of his profession. He is a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church of Argos, and belongs to the Argos lodge. No. 212, 
K. of P. 

Lemuel Littleton, a prominent farmer and stock-raiser of 
Walnut township, was born in Ross county, Ohio, October 7, 1839, 
and is a son of Levi and Catherine (Hurst) Littleton. The 
father was born in Ross county, Ohio, November 27, 1802, and 
died in Henry county, Ind., March i, 1885. He was a son of 
Thomas and Sovela Littleton. Thomas Littleton was born 
in Maryland, of English descent, and was the father of the fol- 
lowing children: William, Thomas, Mathew, Levi and Harriet. 
He emigrated from Maryland to Ohio about 1800, locating in 
Ross county, where he followed the farmer's occupation. His 
first year in Ohio was spent within a fort at Circleville. He was 
a whig in politics, a sturdy pioneer and a faithful friend. His 
son Thomas was a soldier in the war of 1812. Levi Littleton 
was reared on a farm, and was united in marriage in the 
state of Ohio, February 14, 1828, to Catherine Hurst, who was 
born in Maryland, April 12, 1804. She is now residing with her 
children in Marshall county. She is a daughter of Joseph and 
Lovicy Hurst. Joseph Hurst was a native of Maryland, born of 
English parentage, was a farmer by occupation, and settled In 


Ross county, Ohio, about 1806. He was the father of the follow- 
ing children: Thomas, James, Mary, Catherine, Sarah, Nancy, 
Margaret and Harriet. The marriage of Levi and Catherine 
Littleton was blessed by the birth of the following offspring: 
Martha, Emily, Sovicy, Lovela, Lemuel and Mary. From the 
time of his marriage up to 1841 Levi Littleton followed farming 
in Ohio, as a renter and in that year he emigrated to and settled 
in Henry county, Ind., where he continued until his death 
occurred. He was one of the pioneers of Henry county, and 
though beginning life with many obstacles in the way, passed 
successfully through the many privations and hardships and 
lived to an advanced age. He was a Methodist, and in politics 
a staunch republican, originally a whig. Lemuel Littleton was 
married February 28, 1S61, to Sarah M. Bird, of Henry county, 
Ind., the result of which union has been the following children: 
Langdon W., Luther (deceased) and Lenora R. Mr. Littleton 
farmed at home with his father till in January of 1S69, when he 
located in Marshall county, where he has since remained. He 
is a representative farmer and stock-raiser, owning a well-im- 
proved farm, and raising the best of imported stock, principally 
horses. He and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and in politics he is an ardent republican. 

fames Lowry was born in Jefferson county, Ohio, April 10, 
1816, and is the son of Lazarus and Elizabeth (Sweak) Lowry. 
The father, a native of Columbiana county, Penn., was one 
of eight children, viz.: Alexander, RoberJ, James, Lazarus, 
Francis, William, Rebecca and Margaret. These are the chil- 
dren of James and Ruth Lowry, both of whom were born in 
Ireland, but emigrated to America prior to the American revo- 
lution, in which James was a soldier. They first settled in the 
mountains of east Pennsylvania, and subsequently removed to 
Columbiana county, that state, but later to Ohio, where they both 
died. Lazarus Lowry, the father of our subject, was a farmer 
by occupation. He was united in marriage with Elizabeth 
Sweak in Jefferson county, Ohio, and unto their marriage were 
born: Diana, John, Ruth and James. Soon after the birth of 
James the mother was called away by death. She was born in 
New Jersey, and was the daughter of John Sweak, a native of 
Holland and an early settler of New Jersey. Lazarus Lowry 
married a second time and lived for a few years in Allen county, 
Ind., but in old age came to Marshall county, Ind., to make his 
home with his sons who cared for him until his death. James, 
the subject of this sketch, was reared on a farm, and was given 
but a poor chance for education, but learned reading, writing 
and arithmetic. In 1837, when but a young man he came to Allen 
county, Ind., where August 15, 1839, he was married to Sarah 
Pearson, daughter of Jacob and Nancy Pearson; the father, a 


native of North Carolina, was a soldier in the revolutionary 
war; the mother's maiden name was Buffinton, and she was a 
native of South Carolina. Mrs. Lowry was one of six children, 
namely: Peter, Aaron, Sarah, Mark, Carry and Benson. Sarah 
was born in Miami county, Ohio, March i, 1823. Her marriage 
with, Mr. Lowry has been blessed by the birth of the following 
offspring: Mary A., John, Alfred, James M., Martha, Aaron, 
Jasper, Arilla J., Lucinda, Ellen and Nelson. Soon after his 
marriage Mr. Lowry settled on a farm in Allen county, and be- 
came a pioneer farmer of that part of the state, where he resided 
till 1855, in which year he came to Marshall county, settling in 
Walnut township, where he has since resided. February i, 1862, 
he enlisted In Company C, Forty-eighth Indiana regiment, and 
after the battle of Fort Donaldson he was detailed to wait on 
the sick and wounded, and given charge of a division of the hos- 
pital, here he contracted disease and subsequently, on account of 
ill-health, was discharged at Indianapolis December 4, 1862. He 
furnished two sons who were gallant soldiers in the civil war. 
After his discharge he returned home, where he has since given 
his time to farming, stock-raising and dealing in live stock. In 
his calling he has been a marked success. It might be interest- 
ing to state that Mr. Lowry in his lifetime has saved the lives of 
eight persons, the full narrative of which we have not space to 
give. He has been a lifelong member of the Missionary Baptist 
church, has filled several positions of honor and trust, and in- 
deed is a representative citizen. In politics he has been either a 
whig or republican: He voted for " Old Tippecanoe" in 1S40. His 
life has been one of much endurance, his trials many, but with 
patience he has borne all, and is now classed among the oldest 
and most respected citizens of the county. 

James L. McCoy, the railway-station and express agent at 
Walnut, Ind., was born near Worcester, Wayne county, Ohio, 
June 2, 1848. He is a son of Stewart and Sarah (Alleman) 
McCoy. The father, a native of Ohio, was a son of James McCoy, 
of Irish origin, and the mother a native of Pennsylvania, is of 
Dutch descent. Stewart McCoy died in 1S49, and subsequently 
the mother was wedded by Frederick St? ir, whose sketch ap- 
pears elsewhere in this volume. Her marriage with Stewart 
McCoy was blessed by one child. The subject of this mention, 
James L. McCoy, was reared on a farm, and received a common 
school education, and remained w'th his mother and step-father 
till past twenty-one years of age, aud at wh'ch time he began the 
struggle of life for himself on a farm. Fa'-ming and trading in 
live' stock, this he continued till 1876, then for two years he 
bought grain at Walnut. Later he entered the Bryant & Stratton 
Business college of Indianapolis, graduating in 1878. Since 1880, 
he has continuously held the position of railway station agent at 


Walnut, and at present Is also agent for the express company, 
and has also continued to deal in grain. October 28, 1SS5, he 
wedded Miss Marj' E. Bodey, daughter of Samuel Bodey. She 
was born October i, 1866, and by her marriage with Mr. McCoy 
has become the mother of one child, namely, James N., born 
September 25, 18S6. Mr. McCoy is a competent business man, 
and a well respected citizen. He is a member of the Center 
lodge. No. 435, I. O. O. F., and in politics is a staunch democrat. 
Jesse R. Moore was born January 17, 1834, in Marion county, 
Ind., and is a son of David H. and Jemima (Roberts) Moore. 
The father was born in Virginia in 1805, and died in Marshall 
county, Ind., in 1838. He was a son of Benjamin and Elizabeth 
(Smith) Moore. Benjamin was a son of Benjamin Moore, who 
was born in England, emigrating to and settling in Virginia in an 
early day. His son, Benjamin, who was a farmer by occupation, 
was the father of the following offspring: John, Franklin, 
David, Henry, Susan, Martha, Catherine and Jane. The father 
and family in an early day removed to Kentucky and settled 
near Frankfort, where the father died. David Moore, the father 
of Jesse R., moved to Marion count}-, Ind., in an early day with 
his mother, where the latter afterward died at an advanced age. 
David was a farmer by occupation, and while living in Marion 
county, was married, in 1827, to Jemima Roberts, daughter of 
Minor Roberts, who was an early settler of .Switzerland county, 
Ind., where Mrs. Moore was born in 180S; she died in Marshall 
county in 1850. The above marriage resulted in the birth of 
seven children, namely: Elizabeth, William, Marion, Artimesia, 
Jesse R., Neoma and Matilda. In 1S35 the parents and family 
removed from Marion county and settled In Marshall county, 
where the parents lived until death called them away. Jesse R. 
Moore, the subject of this biography, by losing his parents in 
youth, was early in life thrown upon his own resources. He was 
reared upon a farm, given a limited education in the early 
country schools and began life at farming, which has been his 
occupation. In 1857 he was united in marriage with Sarah 
Allen, who died in 1861. He then joined the army, enlisting 
August 29, 1861, as a private In Company D, Ninth Indiana vol- 
unteer Infantry, and was discharged September 6, 1864. Among 
several other engagements In which he was engaged may be 
mentioned Greenbrier, W. Va., Shiloh, Tenn., the pursuit of 
Bragg, the battle of Stone River and others. After the close of 
the war Mr. Moore returned to Marshall county, and in 1866 he 
wedded Miss Ann Starkey, daughter of William D. and Nancy 
(Pugh) Starkey; the father a native of Pennsylvania, and the 
mother of North Carolina. Mrs. Moore was born In Marlon 
county, Ind., January 18, 1849, and died in this county January 3, 
1877. Unto the above marriage were born these children: Eva, 


Sarah, Lucy J. and Israel. In 1878 Mr. Moore married for a third 
wife, Sarah Low, who is still living. Mr. Moore is a member of 
the G. A. R., La Fayette Gordon post, No 123, of Argos; also 
a member of I. O. O. F., Argos lodge, No. 162. He is also a 
member of the Advent church, and is one of the representative 
citizens of the county. 

Chasteen Pickerl was born in Virginia, October 7, 1808, and 
died in Marshall county, Ind., January 29, 1871. He was a son 
of Jonathan Pickerl, who was born in Virginia, of English lin- 
eage, and who became the progenitor of five children, namely: 
Hanson, Eliza, Rebecca, Chasteen and Lucinda. In an early day 
Jonathan Pickerl removed from Virginia, and settled in Holmes 
county, Ohio, where he remained till his death. He was a farmer 
by occupation, and with his wife, who was born of Holland-born 
parentage, belonged to the Methodist Episcopal church. Chas- 
teen Pickerl was reared a farmer, to which his life was devoted, 
and in early life he learned the carpenter's trade to which he 
also gave considerable attention. At the age of twenty-two 
years he was united in marriage with Miss Sarah Hughes, daugh- 
ter of Hugh Hughes, born in Virginia, of Scotch descent. The 
daughter was also born in Virginia in 1S14, June 14, and came to 
Ohio with her parents in an early day. She died April 15, 1887. 
The marriage of Chasteen and Sarah Pickerl was consummated 
in Holmes county, Ohio, and was blessed by the birth of the fol- 
lowing children: Elizabeth, Hugh, Jonathan, Aram, James B., 
Margaret J. Hagenbush, Sarah S. Ball, John and Chasteen. The 
parents left Ohio in an early day and came to Indiana, locating 
in Marshall county, in what is now Walnut township. Subse- 
quently they settled about three miles west of the present site of 
Argos, where the father and sons cleared a homestead on which 
the parents resided until their respective deaths. These pioneers 
were both members of the Methodist Episcopal church from, 
early life until death, and were universally respected by all who 
knew them. 

Hugh Pickerl was born in Holmes county, Ohio, December 29, 
1834, and was reared and educated on a farm. He came to Mar- 
shall county with his parents, Chasteen and Sarah Pickerl, and 
has since been an honored resident of the same. He remained 
with his parents till past the age of twenty-one years, and at the 
age of twenty-two was united in marriage with Samantha Berry, 
who was born in Holmes county, Ohio, in which county her death 
also occurred. The marriage was blessed by the birth of the 
following offspring: Doria, Wilber (deceased) , and Frank M. 
Mr. Pickerl married for a second wife Cyntha Gordon, who has 
borne him one child, Austin. In early life Mr. Pickerl taught 
four terms of country school, teaching in winter and farming in 
summer. His career as a farmer was brief, and ended in 1867. 


About 1868, with his brother Jonathan as a partner, he embarlced 
in general merchandising in Argos, which he continued till 1880, 
in which j^ear, in partnership with B. F. Taylor, he entered the 
grocery business. In 1885, on account of failing health, he aban- 
doned the grocery trade, and for four years was out of business. 
September i, 1889, he was appointed postmaster of Argos, and 
is the present incumbent. In politics he is an ardent republican. 
He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church of Argos, 
and also a member of the G. A. R., Lafaj'ette Gordon post. No. 
132, of Argos. He enlisted as a private in Company F, Eighty- 
third Indiana volunteer infantry, in September, 1864, and was 
discharged from Company E, Forty-eighth Indiana volunteer in- 
fantry, in August, 1865. As postmaster of Argos, he is assisted 
by his son, Frank M., who is a promising young man. Frank M. 
was given a common school education in the schools of Argos, 
and completed a liberal education by attending for two years the 
Purdue university of Greencastle. For four years he taught in 
the public schools of the county, achieving success in the 
profession. Like his father, he is an ardent republican in politics. 
He is a member of the Argos lodge, No. 212, K. of P., and also 
of the Argos lodge. No. 399, F. & A. M., of Plymouth chapter, 
No. 49, R. A. M., and Plymouth commandery. No. 26, K. T., and 
is a member of the Sons of Veterans, Gettysburg camp. No. 97, 
of Argos. 

Elias Hicks Pocock, a citizen of Walnut township, is the sub- 
ject of this biography. Daniel Pocock, his paternal grandfather, 
was born in England about 17 18, and at an early age emigrated 
to America, and in 1734 settled in what is now Harford county, 
Maryland. At Baltimore he heard of Eleanor Pocock, a native 
of England, who had emigrated with relatives in about i734,"but 
no relation could be traced, and in 1736 they were united in mar- 
riage. To their union there were born the following offspring: 
Saleni, Charity, Daniel, Nella, Uavid, Jesse, Mary, Elisia, Char- 
lotte and Elijah. Before coming to this country Daniel Pocock 
was a soldier in the British army, and during the American revo- 
lution he was a tor}'. Notwithstanding his father's political 
loyalty to the king, the oldest son, Salem by name, became a 
colonial soldier, and served as captain of a company' during the 
war of independence. Daniel Pocock was a rich slave holder, 
and a farmer by occupation. His son, Elijah, the father of our 
subject, was born in Harford county, Md., in 1770, and died in 
Wayne county, Ohio, in 1863. He was raised on a farm. At 
about nineteen, he was placed in Washington county, Penn., to 
learn the blacksmith's trade. Here he became associated with a 
class of Quakers, to which faith he became converted, remaining 
faithful to the church of his choice until his death. Upon the 
death of his father he became heir to fourteen slaves and other 


property, but slavery not being in harmony with his views, these 
bondmen were accordingly liberated. Subsetjuently he became 
united in marriage with Catherine Hughes, who by the marriage 
became the mother of Daniel, Joseph, James, Elijah and Eliza- 
beth. Some years after the mother's death Mr. Pocock wedded 
for a second wife, Grace Smith, who became the mother of the 
following children: Jabez, Eleanor, Cornelius, Elias, Robert, 
Rachel, William, David, Dudley and John. In about 1S19 Elijah 
Pocock became an early settler of Wayne county, Ohio, and 
there remained till he died. He cast his first presidential vote 
for Washington and his last for Lincoln. His son, Elias H., the 
immediate subject of this sketch, was born in Wayne county, 
OTiio, May 10, 1S32. He was raised on a farm and given a liberal 
common school education, and remained on the farm with his 
father till past twenty-two years of age. At the age of twenty- 
one he began the study of medicine. In 1S66 he graduated from 
the Charity Hospital medical college of Cleveland, Ohio, and in 
1870, graduated from the Starling Medical college, of Columbus, 
Ohio. He then continued an active and successful practice up 
to 1S79, coming to Marshall county in 1S72, remaining in the 
count3^ being now located on a farm in Walnut township. He 
abandoned the medical profession for farming, which he has since 
followed as a matter of choice. He served as surgeon in the 
United States army from October, 1862, to September, 1864. In 
1853 he was united in marriage with Mary A. Hinkle, who died 
after there were born three children, namely: Charles, Lee and 
Frank. In 1876 he married Mary A. Reddinger, who died after 
the birth of Grace and Rett. In 1883 he married his present 
wife, Mary E. Bowman. Dr. Pocock is a progressive citizen, a 
close student of the classics and sciences, and is one of the intel- 
ligent men of Marshall county. 

William Railsback, the paternal great-grandfather of William 
Railsback, was Henry Railsba*k. Henry and wife, Margaret, 
were born in Germany, were married in their native country, 
and there the following children were born: Henry, Edward and 
Elizabeth. In May, 1765, the father, mother, and three children 
set sail for the American colonies, and later landed in Virginia, 
first stopping with a brother of the father, who had previously 
settled in Loudon county, that state, in 1760. Soon they pro- 
ceeded to Rowan county, N. C, and settled on the Yadkin river, 
less than thirty miles from the Atlantic coast, where the follow- 
ing members of the family were born, namely: David, Mary, 
Daniel, Rose, Lydia and Annie. Of these children David was 
united in marriage with Sarah Stevens, of Virginia birth, and be- 
came the father of the following offspring: Enoch, Edward, 
William, Caleb, Mathew, Joel, David, Nathan, John, Mary, 
Judia and Sallie. The father of these children was born 


in 1768, and lived to the age of eighty-eight years, the 
mother dying at the age of eighty-five years. They came 
with their family to Indiana in 1807, and settled on White 
Water river, in Wayne county, locating in the woods, and at that 
time Indians were numerous iji the locality. Subsequently the 
parents removed to Marion county, where they died. Their 
son, Caleb, was born in North Carolina, July 7, 1805, and hence 
was but a child when brought to Indiana. Caleb grew to man- 
hood in Indiana, and has continuously lived in this state. He was 
married in 1828, in Marion county, to Nancy Barnhill, a native 
of Butler county, Ohio, born in iSii, dying in Marshall county 
in 1875. Unto the above marriage were born: Sarah, William, 
David, Robert, Nathan, Hugh, Richard, Benjamin F., John, Joel, 
and Mary J. Railsback. The parents and children came to Mar- 
shall county in the fall of 1S46, and located in what is now Wal- 
nut township, where the mother died and where the father still 
resides at an advanced age. His life has been spent in farming, 
and as a pioneer of Marshall county, he is of the earliest and 
oldest now living to tell the story of the county's early history. 
His son, William, who is the immediate subject of this sketch, 
was born in Marion county, Ind., December 3, 1S30. He was 
reared and educated on a farm, and farming, together with saw- 
milling, has been his principal occupation up to recent years. 
He came to the county with his parents in 1846, and has since 
remained in the county. In F'ebruary 3, 1853, he was united in 
marriage with Miss Melissa Brown, a native of Jefferson county, 
N. Y., and a daughter of Charles and Lucy (Conner) Brown, who 
came to this county with her parents in 1837. Unto the above 
marriage have been born the following children: Simon B., 
Diantha, Melissa J., Nancy M., John W. and Lucy E. Mr. and 
Mrs. Railsback are members of the Church of God, in Argos. 
Mr. Railsback has been associated with T. O. Taber since 
April 21, 1885, in the banking business in Argos. He is one of 
the representative business men and enterprising citizens of the 

Jacob Shafer was born in Maryland, in 1794, and died in Mar- 
shall county, in 1854. He was of German ancestry, and emigrated 
from his native state in an early day, and located in Stark county, 
Ohio. Here he was united in marriage with Catherine Baum, 
who was born in Bucks county, Penn., in iSoo, dying in Marshall 
county, Ind., in 1890. The above marriage resulted in the birth 
of the following offspring: Polly, John, Henry, Daniel, David, 
Joseph, Rachel, Samuel, Elihu and Hannah Shafer. In 1848, the 
family left Ohio and came to Indiana, settling on a tract of land 
in section twenty-five, of Walnut township, Marshall county. The 
old homestead is now owned and occupied by Elihu Shafer. 
On this land had been built a log cabin by the former occupants 


of the land, into which the family removed and here began the 
struggle of pioneer life, under its many trials and privations. Six 
years later the father was called away by death, but the widowed 
mother and her children continued the unfinished work of the 
father, and on the homestead the. mother remained till she, too, 
was called above. 

Samuel Shafer, a son of Jacob Shafer, was born in Stark 
county, Ohio, February 12, 1838, and was reared on a farm, where 
his work of life has been principally done. He came with his 
parents to this county in 1848, and has since resided in the county. 
In early life he worked at whatever work he could get to do, as 
a day laborer, and March 25, 1S58, he was married unto Mary 
Ellen Dawson, and soon thereafter settled in life on a farm. 
Mrs. Shafer is a daughter of Ranyard and Lucretia (Holland) 
Dawson, the former a native of Virginia, the latter of Ohio. In an 
early day they settled in Hancock county, Ind., later in Fayette 
county. Mrs. Samuel Shafer was born September 23, 1837. One 
daughter, Alice by name, has been born unto Mr. and Mrs. Shafer, 
who are both members of the Christian church, and are highly 
respected by a large number of friends. 

Elihu Shafer, a son of Jacob Shafer, was born in Stark county, 
Ohio, February 19, 1838, and was reared on a farm, and farming 
has been his life occupation. He came to this county with his 
parents, and has since made this county his residence. Octo- 
ber 17, 1861, he enlisted in Company K, Forty-sixth Indiana vol- 
unteer infantry, and was discharged at Louisville, Ky., Septem- 
ber 12, 1S65, as a veteran. Among some of the engagements in 
which he participated may be mentioned, the battles at New 
Madrid, Island No. 10, Fort Pillow, Memphis, St. Charles, Vicks- 
burg, Sabine Cross Roads and others. At the last named en- 
gagement he was captured, but subsequently was paroled and 
exchanged and then ordered on to Louisville on provost duty. 
At the close of war he returned home and has since been en- 
gaged in farming. May 2, 1873, he married Mrs. Elizabeth 
Stroup, /ice Miss Elizabeth Dawson, who is a sister of Mrs. Sam- 
uel Shafer. She was born in Fayette county, Ind., February 14, 
1842. Unto her first marriage there were born two children, 
William A. and Charles D.; her marriage with Mr. Shafer has 
resulted in the birth of two children, Cora E. and Herbert F. 
Mr. Shafer is a member of the G. A. R., Lafayette Gordon post, 
No. 132, of Argos, and in politics a staunch republican, and is both 
a representative farmer and citizen. 

Fred Shaffer was born in Montgomery county, Ohio, near 
Dayton, March 10, 1832, and is a son of John and Catherine 
(Oldlinger) Shaffer, the father a native of old Virginia, and the 
mother of Pennsylvania. John Shaffer was a son of Frederick 
Shaffer, a native of Virginia, and of German descent, and Mrs. 


Shaffer was a daughter of George Oldlinger, a native of Pennsyl- 
vania. Their marriage resulted in the birth of five sons and three- 
daughters. The father was a farmer by occupation, and was a 
very large man, weighing a few pounds less than 500. He died 
in 1853 at the age of sixtj' vears. The mother, who is now be- 
yond the advanced age of eighty-five years, resides in Iowa. 
Fred Shaffer was reared on a farm, and at the early age of fif- 
teen, took up carpentering as a life work, which trade he has 
since followed. He is a skillful mechanic, and has the reputa- 
tion of being one of the most competent builders in this part of 
the country, doing all kinds of work from the simplest framing, 
up to the highest form of architecture. He has through life, 
been in some way, identified with farming, always residing on a 
farm. October 17, 1857, he was united in marriage with Eliza- 
beth Brumback, born July 24, 1837, in Wayne county, Ohio, where 
the marriage was consummated. To this marriage have been 
born: Annie Mary, Laura E., William B., Enos L., Armedia A., 
Mahala; Sarah E., deceased; Charles A., deceased; Nelson F. and 
Mina F. For a short time after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Shaffer resided in Iowa, but later, returned to Wayne county, 
Ohio, where they continued until the fall of i860, when they lo- 
cated in Marshall countj', Ind. They now reside in Walnut town- 
ship, near Argos, and are among the representative citizens of 
the county. In their religious faith, Mr. Shaffer is a Lutheran, 
while Mrs. Shaffer is a Dunkard. September 4, 1864, Mr.Shaffer 
became a private in the United States army, from which he was 
honorably discharged May 5, 1865. He is a member of the 
G. A. R., Lafayette Gordon post. No. 132, Argos, Ind., and of the 
Argos lodge. No. 399, F. & A. M. In politics Mr. Shaft'er is a 
staunch democrat. 

Marquis L. Smith, who is among the earliest settlers of Mar- 
shall count}', came to the county in March of 1843, and settled 
in what was then a part of Green township, but now known as 
Walnut township. He was born in Nicholas county, K}-., on 
July 25, 1817, and is the son of Hezekiah and Mary Ann (Rector) 
Smith. The father was of Scotch descent, but of Virginia 
birth, in which state the mother was also born. They were mar- 
ried in Virginia, where their parents had made their home, 
and from that state removed to Nicholas county, Ky., where 
eleven children were born, viz.: Elizabeth, Susan, Debrah, 
Daniel, Peter, Hezekiah, Jr., Nancy, Simeon, Miles C, Caralton, 
Marquis L. In 1822 the parents and their eleven children came 
to Indiana and settled in Marion county, where they continued 
to reside till called away by death, the father dying in 1824, at 
the age of s'::-/-one years, and the mother in 1836, at the age of 
sixty-one ye? -s. The father was a soldier in the Revolutionary 
war, under the commandery of Gen. Washington, and for forty- 



five j^ears of his life was a minister of the gospel in the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church. Marquis L. Smith was but five years old 
when his parents came to Indiana, and hence was mainly reared 
in this state. He was educated in the early country schools, 
which gave but a poor chance for an education, but by an active 
life and through the avenues of books and papers he has since 
become conversant with subjects of general interest. In 1837, 
in Marion county, this state, he embarked in the mercantile 
business, but because of a general depression in business of that 
year, he, with many others, sustained a failure, and it was some 
six years later that he cast his lot in Marshall county, where he 
has since resided. In 1843 (August), he married Cyntha Bliven, 
born in Rush county, Ind., the daughter of Edward and Famar 
Bliven. Soon after his marriage Mr. Smith settled on his present 
homestead, where he has since lived. He has been engaged in 
farming, and for many years kept the only hotel in Argos, his 
hotel being the first of the place, and the origin of the town of 
Argos. He is extensively known, because of being the landlord 
that had given headquarters to so many weary travelers. For 
over thirty years he has been an active and zealous member of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. He has filled many positions 
of honor and trust. Throughout life he has been in politics 
either a whig or republican. He voted for Gen. W. H. Harrison 
in 1S40, and was one of the delegates to the organization of the 
republican party in Indiana, and has since been an active worker 
in the party. He is a Master Mason of Argos lodge. No. 399; 
became a member of the Plymouth, No. 149, some thirty years 

Frederick Stair was born in Cumberland county, Penn., 
March 5, 1822. John Stair, his paternal grandfather, was a na- 
tive of Scotland, which country he left at an early day, emigrat- 
ing with his family to America and settling in Cumberland 
county, Penn., where he followed farming and blacksmithing. 
He lived a long and useful life, was twice married, raised a large 
family, and died in the country of his adoption leaving a valua- 
ble estate. His son Jacob, the father of the subject of this 
sketch, was born in Cumberland county, Penn., November 28, 
1786, and died in Ohio in 1883. He was married to Anna Stahl, 
and had a family consisting of the following children: Williarn, 
Elizabeth, Jacob, Daniel (deceased), John, Mary, Peter, Levi, 
Frederick, Daniel, Priscilla and Malinda. Jacola Stair moved 
from his native state in the spring of 1829, and settled in Wayne 
county, Ohio, where our subject grew to manhood, working on 
the farm with his father until past twenty-two years of age. At 
this time he began the study of veterinary surgery, and subse- 
quently took a six months' course, and still later graduated from 
the Philadelphia veterinary college. Desiring to obtain a still 


more thorough knowledge of the profession, he afterward at- 
tended an institute at Toronto, Canada, where he completed his 
studies and became one of the most thorough veterinary sur- 
geons in the country. Being thoroughly equipped for the prac- 
tice he traveled extensively for several years, operating in over 
eighteen states, and performing some of the most difficult sur- 
gical operations with admirable skill. In 1849 he was united in 
marriage to Mary Downer, who departed this life one year later. 
In 1S50 he settled on a farm in Wayne county, Ohio, where, on 
March 20th of the following year, he married his present wife, 
Mrs. McCoy, whose maiden name was Alleman. To this union 
have been born six children, viz.: Anna, Jacob, Maria, Carrie, 
Isadore and Emma. Soon after his marriage Mr. Stair removed 
from Ohio to Indiana, and located in Walnut township, Mar- 
shall county, where he purchased 585 acres of land, and began 
farming upon an extensive scale. He is the founder of the town 
of Walnut, having laid out the place soon after coming to the 
county. Recently he removed into Walnut township from the 
township of Green, where he had resided for a number of 
years, and in which he had served as trustee, besides filling other 
official positions. Mr. Stair is a representative citizen, a staunch 
democrat, and a man widely and favorably known throughout 
this and adjoining counties. 

Asa St. John, one of the oldest citizens of Walnut township, 
was born in Ontario county, N. Y., September 18, 1813, and is a 
son of Peries and Mary (Talbert) St. John, both natives of New 
York, born near Cazenova. The marriage of the parents was 
consummated in York state, and resulted in the birth of the fol- 
lowing children: Harlow, Peries, Betsie, Charles, Asa, Edward 
and James. After their marriage the parents continued to re- 
side in their native state till 1S26, when they removed to Michi- 
gan, where they resided till their deaths occurred. Asa St. John 
was reared on a farm, received a limited education in the early 
subscription schools, but being of a naturally shrewd and observ- 
ing nature he acquired, by experience, a practical knowledge of 
the world and of business that has served him in lieu of an edu- 
cation. He is now one of the foremost farmers of Walnut 
township, owning a well-improved farm of 212 acres. He began 
life a poor man and has gained prosperty through industry and 
hard toil. He has resided in Marshall county since 1837, a 
period of over a half century. February 7, 1839, he was united 
in marriage with Lucinda Roberts, born in Kentucky, March 12, 
1810, dying in this county, October 27, 1870. The above marriage 
resulted in the birth of three children, namely: Sarah J., born 
November 20, 1839; Rebecca, born May 16, 1843, and Albert R., 
born March 24, 1845. Our subject has lived a long and active 
life. Though not a member of any church, he is a sober, moral 


and honest man in the daily walks of life. He is an ardent advo- 
cate of the temperance cause, and though not a Christian in name 
is a believer in the existence of a Supreme Ruler. He has lead 
a quiet and peaceful life; has never had a law-suit, and has so 
lived that he has gained the universal esteem of a wide 

T. O. Taber was born in this county, November 25, 1856, and 
is a son of Cyrus and Rachel (Plake) Taber. The father was 
the first white child born in Marshall county. The date of his 
birth was June 26, 1833. He was a son of Samuel D. Taber, who 
was among the very first settlers of Marshall county, and was a 
farmer by occupation, and took an active part in the improve- 
ments inaugurated during his life. Cyrus was reared on the 
farm, and for a life occupation chose farming. November 15, 
1853, he was united in marriage with Rachel Plake, daughter of 
John and Nancy Plake, early settlers and highly respected citi- 
zens of Marshall county. To the above union were born five 
sons and one daughter. T. O. Taber, the immediate subject of 
this biography, was reared on a farm, and received a liberal edu- 
cation in the schools of Plymouth, supplementing the same by a 
commercial course at Valparaiso, Ind. October 18, 1879, he was 
married to Melissa J. Railsback, daughter of William Railsback, 
of Marshall county, a union blessed with the birth of four chil- 
dren, namely: Setta, Earl, Gracie, and Cyrus. For three years 
after his marriage, Mr. Taber followed farming, and in 1883 
began merchandising at Plymouth, being actively engaged up to 
1885, when he located in Argos, Ind., and formed a partnership 
with William Railsback in the banking business. He and Mr. 
Railsback have since continued to operate the Argos Exchange 
bank. Mr. Taber and his brother, J. H. Taber, also operate the 
Citizens' Bank of Mentone, Ind. Mr. Taber and wife are mem- 
bers of the Church of God of Argos, and he is a member of the 
Argos lodge, No. 212, K. of P. 

George Van Dorston, the subject of this sketch, is a farmer 
and citizen of Walnut township, and was born in Wayne county, 
Ohio, April 4, 1S28. His paternal grandfather, Samuel Van 
Dorston, was a native of Holland. It is told that Samuel on one 
occasion was provoked by the king of Holland, whom he struck 
and knocked down, in consequence of which he was arrested 
and placed under guard, to which guard at night, he gave liquor 
so that he became intoxicated. Taking advantage of the guard's 
helpless condition, Mr. Van Dorston gained his freedom and se- 
creting himself on board a vessel almost ready to set sail for 
America, he remained hidden until the ship was far out at sea. 
Upon being asked his name he gave it as Van Dorston, changing 
it from Dorston. Subsequently he married and settled in the 
southern part of Ohio. He was the father of the following child- 


ren: Henry, Jacob, Samuel, Rudolph, Herman and three 
daughters. Of these Samuel was united in marriage with Mary 
Flickinger, a native of Pennsylvania. The marriage was blessed 
by the birth of the following children: Matilda, Leah, Levi, 
George, John, Harmon, and Cornelius. Soon after marriage the 
parents settled in Wayne county, Ohio. In after years the father 
died in St. Joseph county, Mich., while the mother died in Indi- 
ana. Their son George, the immediate subject of this sketch, 
was reared on a farm and given a limited education. In early 
life he learned and followed blacksmithing, but has done much 
farming. In Wayne county, Ohio, August 5, 1S51, he was united 
in marriage with Catherine Keifer, also a native of Wayne 
county, born August i, 1S28. Unto the above union have been 
born, Alvin W., Lydia E., Mary E., Barbara A.; Caroline, de- 
ceased; Clary U., and Marion W., deceased. In i860 Mr. and 
Mrs. Van Dorston left Ohio and came to Indiana, and settled in 
Marshall county, where they have since remained. Our subject, 
though given a limited education, has through the avenues of 
books and papers become conversant on subjects of general in- 
terest. He is a natural mechanic and has made much study of 
machinery. He, with his son, Alvin W., are joint patentees of a 
promising steam boiler which they invented a few years since. 
His son is the inventor and patentee of the Van Dorston car 
coupler, that has proven a marvelous success. Mr. Van Dorston 
is indeed one of the representative and progressive citizens of 
the county, and is entitled to much praise, for he began in the 
struggle of life with no capital and under adverse circumstances, 
and through industry and honesty has grown prosperous and 
well respected. 

Hiram Vanvactor, one of the pioneers of Marshall, settled in 
the county near Argos, in August, 1845. He had visited the 
county in 1837, and purchased a homestead in the north part of 
what is now Walnut township, where he now resides. He was 
born in Union county, Ind., November 29, 1817, and is a son of 
Joseph and Sarah (Burt) Vanvactor, the father of Virginia birth 
and German lineage, and the mother a native of Pennsylvania. 
Unto them were born: David, Hiram, Cyrus, Hannah, Maria, 
Sarah and Emily. The marriage of Joseph and Sarah Vanvac- 
tor was consummated in Pennsylvania, and soon after their mar- 
riage, emigrated to Indiana, and settled in an early daj^ in Union 
county. Hiram Vanvactor was reared and educated on a farm, 
and has always resided on a farm. He was married August 3, 
1845, wedding Catherine Buck, a native of Preble county, Ohio. 
Unto this marriage have be-^n bnrn Cyrus, deceased; John, David, 
A. Lincoln, Tyner; Tilman, deceased; Sarah, Malissa, Emily and 
Martha. Mr. Vanvactor begun life a poor man but is now pros- 
perous, and enjoys the esteem of a wide acquaintance. He has 


kept aloof from public life, preferring the life of a reserved and 
respected citizen. 

Oliver J. Warner, the popular proprietor of the Argos livery 
stable, was born in Elkhart county, Ind., December 5, 1S61, and 
is a son of Jacob and Margaret (VVilhelm) Warner. Jacob 
Warner was born in Franklin county. Ind., March 5, 1S28, and is 
a son of John and Elizabeth (Cook) Warner, the former of 
Dutch, the latter of Irish, descent. In 1852 Jacob wedded Mar- 
garet Wilhelm, born August 10, 1830, in Ohio, of Dutch descent. 
The marriage resulted in the birth of the following children: 
Sarah E., Francis, Oliver J., and Cora and Nora (twins). The 
family have resided in Marshall county since iS63,and the father, 
who is a farmer by occupation, is now a citizen of Argos. 
Oliver J. was reared on a farm and remained with his parents 
till past twenty-five years of age. In January, of 1887, he began 
business in Argos, and he now has a well-stocked livery, feed 
and sale stable, and always has on hand good rigs, single and 
double, and gives special attention to the commercial trade. 
Mr. Warner was united in marriage in 1886 with Miss Hattie 
Taylor, daughter of Jordon Taylor, who was killed in the civil 
war as a Union soldier. Mrs. Warner was born in Marshall 
county, and by her marriage has become the mother of two 
children. Mr. Warner is a live and energetic business man and 
is a member of the Argos lodge. No. 212, K. of P. 

James H. Watson was born in Wellsville, Columbiana county, 
Ohio, November 15, 1848. He is a son of John S. and Bathsheba 
(Hull) Watson. The father, a native of Ohio, born in 1828, 
and was a son of Jacob Watson, a native of Pennsylvania, and a 
son of an English emigrant, who came to the colonies a short 
time prior to the American revolution, at the conclusion of which 
he settled in Pennsylvania. Jacob Watson settled about the year 
1808, in Ohio, where John S. Watson was born, reared and mar- 
ried, weddmg Miss Bathsheba Hull. The marriage resulted in 
the birth of the following offspring: Robert E., William H., 
James H., Daniel D., Samuel S., Charles M., Edward R., Ben- 
jamin F. and Anna A. The three oldest sons and father were 
Union soldiers in the civil war. James H., the immediate sub- 
ject of this sketch, enlisted as a private in March of 1865, and 
was discharged in the following December. From the age of 
thirteen years up to enlistment, he had worked at the printer's 
trade, and at the close of the war he resumed the trade and has 
since followed the same. In 1882, he located at Argos, where 
he purchased the Ar^os Reflector, a non-political -and weekly 
paper, of which he has since been editor and proprietor. Mr. 
Watson was married in Ohio, in 1871, to Mary Rosenberry, a na- 
tive of Ohio, who was born in 1851. To this marriage have been 
born the following children: John H., Jenette, (deceased), 
18— B. 


Homer, Frank, Howard (deceased), and Mildred. Mr. and Mrs. 
Watson are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, to 
which they have both belonged since early youth. Mr. Watson 
is a member of the Lafayette Gordon post, No. 132, G. A. R., of 
Argos. He is progressive, and as an editor he has ability and 
enterprise, and before him lies a bright future. 

Willis Whisman, a native of Rush county, Ind., was born 
April I, 1836. He is a son of Michael and Diademia (Spurgeon) 
Whisman, the father a native of Virginia, and the mother of 
Kentucky, both of German lineage. To these parents there 
were born five children, namely: Nancy (deceased) , Lavina, 
Willis, Thomas, and Mary. In an early day the parents settled 
in Rush county, this state, and in about 1857 they settled in Mar- 
shall county, where the father died in 1885, aged seventy-^ight 
years, the mother's death also occurred in this county. The 
father was a farmer by occupation, and was a sturdy pioneer of 
the county. In politics he was a staunch democrat. He and 
wife were members of the Christian church, and were universally 
respected by many friends. Willis Whisman is one of the fore- 
most farmers of Walnut township, and his life has been spent on 
a farm. February 16, i860, he was united in marriage with Miss 
Lavina T. Gordon, daughter of Sandford and Sarah (Wright) 
Gordon. The father, a son of Robert Gordon, was born in Ohio, 
January i, 1S08, and died a citizen of Marshall county, Ind., De- 
cember 20, 1881. Sarah, his wife, was born in Virginia, Febru- 
ary 25, 181 1, and now resides with our subject and his wife. She 
is of German and Irish descent. Unto her marriage with Sand- 
ford Gordon, there were born the following offspring: Francis, 
Sarah J., John, Elizabeth, Romania, Lavina T., Cordelia, Isaac, 
Samuel, and William. The parents were married in Ohio in 
1832, and one year later located in Wayne county, Ind., later in 
Fulton county, and in the early fifties located in Marshall county. 
The father was for many years a school teacher, but during .his 
later days followed farming. He and wife became members of 
the Methodist Episcopal church at an early date, he died a faith- 
ful member of the church, and she remains one. Their daugh- 
ter, now Mrs. Whisman, was born in Wayne county, Ind., 
September 22, 1839, and by her marriage with Mr. Whisman, she 
has become the mother of the following children: William D., 
Luella E., Willis W., Reason E., Clinton D., and Herbert P. 
Mr. and Mrs. Whisman are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and enjoy a high social standing. 

J. M. Wickizer, a resident of Walnut township, was born in 
Fairfield county, Ohio, February 23, 1831, and is a son of John B. 
and Annie (Brooke) Wickizer. The father was born in Penn- 
sylvania in 1803, and died in Fairfield county, Ohio, in 1843. He 
was a son of Andrew and Mary (Bennett) Wickizer. Andrew 


Wickizer, who was a native of Pennsylvania, was one of four 
sons, namely: Abraham, Conrad, Jacob and Andrew, born of 
German-born parentage, the parents emigrated to Pennsylvania 
from Germany in an early day. Andrew and Mary Wickizer had 
born unto them the following offspring: Asa, William, John B., 
Conrad, Rebecca, Lydia, Wealthy, Hannah, Rhoda, Mary, Ros- 
anna, Sallie and Elizabeth. In a very early day, Andrew Wick- 
izer and family emigrated to Ohio and settled in Fairfield county, 
where he died in 1844, aged seventy-five years. He was a far- 
mer by occupation, and a Master Mason. John B. Wickizer was 
united in marriage with Annie Brooke, and became the father 
of the following children: Hannah, George W., Thomas J., 
James M., Andrew J., John O., Jacob S., Sarah J. and Pulaski, 
The father died in 1843, and soon after the death, the widowed 
mother and her children determined to move to Indiana. In 
the fall they came to this state and settled in Marshall county, 
where the mother died in 1879, aged seventy-six years. James M., 
our subject, was not of age when he came to this county with 
his mother. His youth was spent on a farm, and in his native 
county he gained a fair education in the Greenfield academy. 
He came to Marshall county in the fall of 1850, and in the winter 
of that year, began school teaching in the district schools of the 
count)', and afterward taught some nine or ten successful terms 
In March, i860, he entered general merchandising in Argos, 
where he continued a successful business until 1882, when, on 
account of ill-health, he suspended business and removed on his 
present farm near the town where he has since resided. April 7, 
1861, he wedded Miss Rebecca Williams, who became the mother 
of six children, after which her death occurred. These are the 
children born unto the marriage: George, Albert, Corben W., 
Frank, Richard and Samantha. November 7, 1878, Mr. Wick- 
izer married for a second wife, Alice Haines, unto whom a son, 
named Elmer Otis, was born, and then her death occurred in 
1883. Mr. Wickizer is a well respected citizen, a self-made man, 
a member of the Christian church, and a demitted member of the 
Argos lodge. No. 399, F. & A. M. 

Thomas J. Worthington was born in La Porte county, Ind., 
October 6, 1842. He is a son of William Worthington, who was 
born in Fleming county, Ky., January 30, 1820, of Scotch ancestry. 
William Worthington, with his then widowed mother and others 
of her children, left Kentucky and removed to Rush county, 
Ind., in 1838, and later, in 1840, removed to Jackson county, 
Mo. In 1842 William returned to Rush county and wedded 
Matilda Heaten (iicc Eagan), who was born in Fleming county, 
Ky. The marriage resulted in the birth of the following chil- 
dren: Thomas J., George W., Doctor F., Evaline and Sarah A. 


For thirteen years after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Worthing- 
ton resided in La Porte county, where Mr. Worthington followed 
farming. In 1855 they settled in Marshall county, near Argos, 
where the father died June 13, 18S8. He was a good and worthy 
citizen, a prosperous and practical farmer, and a zealous member 
of the Methodist Episcopal church. His widow still survives 
and resides with her children in the county. Thomas J., the 
immediate subject of this sketch, was reared and educated on a 
farm. He worked on the farm with his father till past twenty- 
one years of age, and then he went westward, and during the 
years '64 and '65 drove, for a United States government con- 
tractor, teams across the great plains. His e.xperience on the 
plains was severe and dangerous, and attended with many hard- 
ships and perilous risks, such as only a man of courage and 
bravery could go through. In 1866 he returned to Marshall 
county, and in 1868, October 18, wedded Susan Jordon, a daughter 
of Benoni Jordon, a pioneer settler of the county. Unto the 
above marriage there have been born four sons and one 
daughter. Mr. Worthington is a practical and successful farmer, 
owning a good farm of 142 acres, and is one of the leading 
citizens of Walnut township. 

A. N. Yoast, a farmer and stock-raiser of Walnut township, 
was born in Henry county, Ind., April 19, 1835, ^"d is a son of 
Isaac and Susannah (Collinsworth) Yoast. The father, a native 
of Virginia, was born August 29, 1808, and died in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, December 19, iSschis death having occurred while he was 
on his return home to Henry county, Ind., from California. He 
was a son of Jacob and Esther (Slusheri Yoast, both parents na- 
tives of Virginia, the father of German parentage, was born Sep- 
tember 19, 1784, and the mother was born March 20, 1777. These 
parents were blessed in their marriage by the birth of the fol- 
lowing offspring: Susannah, Abraham, Isaac, Elizabeth, Jacob, 
John and Polly. In an earl^' day the parents emigrated to Ohio 
and settled in Preble county, and there died. In this county, 
August 8, 1S31, Isaac Yoast and Susannah Collinsworth were 
united in marriage. Susannah was the daughter of John Col- 
linsworth, and was born of V'irginia parentage in Preble county, 
Ohio, June 1, 1812, and died in Henry county, Ind., April 4, 1S51. 
Unto the above marriage there were born the following offspring: 
Cassander, Currenah, Anderson, Clementine, Hazzard, Josephine, 
Malsona A., Climenamus, Morgan and Clarry. The father was 
a farmer by occupation, and soon after their marriage settled in 
Henry county, Ind., which continued to be their residence until 
their respective deaths. Anderson N. Yoast, the immediate sub- 
ject of this biography, was reared on a farm and received a lim- 
ited education in the country schools. At an early age he lost 



his parents, and when but fifteen years old he was thrown upon 
his own resources for support. In Henr}' county, Ind., Decem- 
ber 17, 1857, his marriage was consummated with Mary Littleton, 
a native of the above county, born August 28, 1842. In 1859 
Mr. and Mrs. Yoast became citizens of Walnut township, Mar- 
shall county. Here Mr. Yoast from a poor man has grown to be 
one of the foremost farmers of the count}'. He has held several 
positions of trust among his fellow townsmen, and served one 
term as their township trustee. In politics he is a staunch re- 
publican. He is a member of the Argos Masonic lodge, No. 399. 





ARLY in the year 1839 Mr. and Mrs. John Greer, Mr. 
and Mrs. James O. Parks, Edward and Tolliver Parks, 
John F". and Grayson, five brothers and their brother-in- 
law, Mr. Linn, and his wife, removed from Bourbon 
count3% Ky., to what is now Bourbon, Bourbon township, 
and purchased the first government lands ever sold in 
this part of Marshall count3\ Mr. Greer located the 
quarter section and built him a cabin where now Bourbon 
high school buildings are located. James O. Parks bought the 
land, now the farm of Mr. and Mrs. H. D. Weaver, son-in-law and 
daughter of J. O. Parks, one-fourth mile north of Bourbon. The 
Linn family settled the land now owned by James Sherwood. 
John F. Parks located the farm two miles east of town, where 
now John Disher is living and farming. The others located lands 
convenient to the new settlement, as the entire region was a wilder- 
ness, populated with the Indians and all the wild animals of this 
region roaming about very little restricted by white man up to 
this period. The woods were so dense that whenever one of the 
settlers attempted to go from one part of the region to another, 
it was absolutely necessary to carry along an axe to chop out a 
path, or "blaze" his route on the trees to permit him to pass 
through the impenetrable thickets or to make sure of his find- 
ing his way to his cabin home again. The land was as fine as 
the sun ever shone on, soil deep, black, vegetable loam, to de- 
light the eye of the would-be farmer; but, oh, how discouraging, 
when contemplating the clearing of the lands for farming pur- 
poses, when the hundreds of giant trees to each acre were seen 
that it would be necessary to dispose of before the sun shine could 
be allowed to light up the ground destined for the purpose of 
raising bread for the settler's family. Yet the brave heart was 
not discouraged, but willing hands commenced the task that has 



now given Bourbon township some of the most magnificent of 
farms, thoroughbred, blooded stock, farm buildings and ma- 
chinery, the state can boast of possessing. Game in abundance 
was to be had at any moment almost for the shooting; of-times 
by the settler standing in his own door he could kill a fine deer 
or fat turkey, and squirrels ran about everywhere almost by the 
millions. Wild chickens, ducks and geese, could be had at almost 
a moment's notice, and fish of the finest possible varieties 
abounded in every creek, so the settler had no difficulty to pro- 
cure meats, but the trouble was in procuring " bread stuff." The 
settlers were compelled for a long time to go to mill long, long 
distances, even so far as to Goshen, and even then were unable, 
for a long time, to go in a cart or a wagon, but on horseback, 
because the roads had not yet been "cut out," and only paths or 
foot tracks were made sufificient for a man or a horse, and that 
in single file. 

For this reason many did with little or no bread for quite a 
number of years after the first settlement of Bourbon township. 
Bear skins and all furs and peltries were full "legal tender" 
with our pioneers. All mail matter for the settlers had to be 
had from the Plymouth or Warsaw offices, until after about a 
year's time, a postoffice was established near the settlement. 
The office was located at Dr. J. F. Parks' "clearing," and the 
doctor was appointed first postmaster for what is now Bourbon. 

In platting the county in townships, some considerable time 
after our first settlements, a township was laid out extending 
from the north part of the county six miles wide, across the 
county to the southern border, and this township was christened 
Bourbon township, by J. O. Parks, in honor of his native county 
in Kentucky. After several years a township was cut off Bour- 
bon, on the south, and called Tippecanoe township. In a year 
afterward another township was cut off on the north of Bourbon 
and named German, thus leaving Bourbon township something 
like six miles square. 

Now roads were laid out and a little work done on some of 
them toward Plymouth and Warsaw, so that in dry weather it 
was barely possible for an ox cart to pass over. This gave our 
settlers an outlet to "God's country," and they began to consider 
themselves quite independent when they could go a little distance 
away from the settlement in a cart as proudly as a prince " in his 
chariot and six." Now other settlers found this land so desir- 
able for a home seeker who feared not hard work and privations 
and began to settle about the first comers, who received all with 
welcoming hands. Aaron Martin, Mr. Kincaid, the Miners, the 
Hahn family, the Minards, James Barton and family, Samuel 
Pershing and family, Capt. Hederick's family, Alvah Baylor, Sr., 
Henry Huffman and others. Now an occasional itinerant 


preacher came through the settlement semi-occasionally and held 
forth to the settlers from any cabin in service of the Lord. 

A school was opened the first year with Edward Parks as 
teacher of five or six scholars, in a little log cabin with puncheon 
floor, slabs for benches and desks, and a huge old fire-place, with 
an outside stick and mud chimney belching forth its black clouds 
of smoke inside as well as outside this educational temple. After 
this school finished, Edward and John F. studied medicine, and 
then the settlers had the benefit of a physician, although the 
community was an extraordinarily healthy one. Dr. Edward P. 
died about a score of j'ears ago at the residence of his brother 
James O. Dr. John F. then commenced and continued the 
practice of his profession until within a few years since, when he 
retired from active practice on account of declining health. He 
is now living independently on his beautiful suburban place, south 
of Bourbon. James O. Parks was elected to the state legislature 
and served with honor for several terms. He also served as sur- 
veyor for several years, and did much to locate the lands in this 
part of the county. He secured a vast quantity of the very best 
lands in the township, that by holding until within a short time, 
has made him very wealthy. He built the first frame house 
erected in the township in 184S, for a residence, and has resided 
in it from that time to the present. He has seen the township 
progress from a howling wilderness to one of the most beautiful, 
wealthy, farming and residence townships in the Union. 

In 1840 the immigrating settlers removed from distant states 
to the Parks settlement almost constantly: the Cats, Baxters, 
Wolfs, INIoonej's. Sellers, Stockmans, Snyders, Drakes, Carls, 
Shivelys and others, and in a year or two later we find the John- 
sons, Kinzies, Klingers, Caldwells, Coons, Biggs, Miners, Ret- 
tingers, follow-ed a little later by the Minards, Updykes, IDavis', 
Becks, Cless', Beamans, Garrisons, Baits, Hellers, Gallentines, 
Burkeys, Wymans, Hahns and Smiths. Within four or five years 
or so longer, came Schraders, Stoughs, Ackers, Sharps, Cases, 
Roses, Banks, Millers, Helpmans, Snepps, Thayers, Thomas', 
Reeds, Seers, Bennetts, Sumners, Bowmans, Lemlers, Grants, 
Connors, Fauts, Stinemans, Campbells, Lints, Hales, Beals, 
Stockmans, Houghtons, Boultons, Comptons, Nichols and Hess 
families, and the new settlement had now quite the appearance 
of a farm region, and prosperity and plenty appeared round 
about. Later, and up to about 1S4S, manj^ of the settlers began 
to have quite a little produce to sell, but as the roads were so bad 
as to be almost impassable, it was almost worth the price of the 
crop to market it; it often being necessary to haul to Michigan 
City or Fort Wayne for a market. The Indians remaining in 
this region were removed to the west, all but a few who refused 
to go from their old "hunting grounds." One in particular. 


" Niago " by name, defied the government officials when sent to re- 
move him, and remained with his squaws. " Niago " killed an In- 
dian who pursued a squaw to his wigwam, and was banished to 
Michigan by a council of Indians, and sentenced to hunt five 
years for his crime. 

From this time forward everything assumed a prosperous 
condition, and the population of the settlement appeared as 
happy and contented as any people. Schools were organized in 
newly constituted districts, although long distances were neces- 
sary to be traversed to reach some of the schools, educational 
affairs could not be and were not neglected, and creditable ad- 
vancement was made in these schools, that perhaps would com- 
pare favorably with that of our city high schools. Possibly the 
practical education received in these schools was more advan- 
tageous to the average student, than the superficial of a modern 
school course of to-day, for practical business life. The log 
cabins were now replaced by a different class of buildings, and 
frame cottages and more pretentious houses were erected here 
and there all over the township. Good substantial barns were 
built to store the harvests, and the wonderful " traveling 
threshers " began to put in an occasional appearance after harvest. 

The city of Bourbon was laid out as a village in the southern 
part of the township, in 1851, by Nideg & Thomas, Martin & 
Carter, Boley, Dr. J. F. Parks, Bailey, and Rev. George H. 
Thayer. The first lots sold were by auction, a great auctioneer, 
Henry Baxter, happening along the day of the sale, stopped 
over and cried the sale. The first building erected in the town 
was a log store room on the corner, where Dr. Matchette's drug 
store building now stands. It was ercted by William E. Thomp- 
son, and afterward owned by Dr. R. Cornwall, who conducted an 
extensive drug business in it for over a dozen years. John Cless 
and D. O. Beaman built a frame store building and occupied it 
with general stores about that time, where the Central House 
now stands, and it remained there in connection with Grant & 
Co.'s stores until Heller & Gallantine removed it and erected 
what, in 1865, was thought to be a magnificent building. Within 
a dozen years, however, it had become so antiquated it had to be 
removed further from the business center and an elegant brick 
block erected on its old site. Bourbon was incorporated in the 
fall of 1865^ J. H. Porter, president of the town board; Omar 
Davis, secretary, and Caleb Davis, marshal. This was a year of 
great prosperity for Bourbon, money being plenty, work for 
every one, at from $1.75 to $2.25 per day for day laborers, and 
$4.50 to $5.50 for mechanics, and even at these big prices, it was 
ditftcult to secure workmen, as miprovements were going forward 
everywhere and workmen were of consequence perfectly mde- 
pendent and did not have to almost beg work at any price, how- 


ever low, as they frequently are compelled to do to-day. Over 
150 new houses were erected that year, in Bourbon, and from 
two to five families were often crowded in the houses, as fast as 
enclosed. The trustee, J. H. Case, erected the then new school 
building in the south part of the town, very large then, but very 
small to-day, accommodating about 450. Davis Brothers, in 1867, 
erected a fine large brick business block on Main street, where 
now L. Ballow's block stands, that was recently erected by Col. 
Sear after the Davis Bros.' block was destroyed by fire. Omar 
Davis, in 1865-6, erected the large brick block on the southeast 
corner of Main and Center streets, where stood the first hotel in 
the town, so long conducted by Henry Baxter. This brick block 
is now occupied by Babcock & Sons, E. J. Kline and John E. 
Chamberlain. The old Cunningham & Weaver drug building is 
now a " tonsorial parlor" of Mr. McCuen. The old Gallantine & 
Heller store rooms, is the Ringenberger Bros.' livery stable. 
That old land mark, the old Sheets hotel, still houses the trav- 
eling public, with Capt. J. E. Page as mine host. Hon. M. M. 
Gallantine, at this time, 1868, was elected to the legislature and 
"did old Bourbon proud" as representative, as did Hon J. W. 
Davis in same place in 1876. To-day the Central house is pre- 
sided over by Col. S. E. O'Brien, and a more popular landlord 
never smiled on the jolly traveling man. To-day the popula- 
tion of old Bourbon township is close on to 4,000, and not a 
finer or more prosperous township can be found than this, that 
the mere mention of its name is so suggestive. 

Churches. — In churches Bourbon has something that she can 
point to with great pride, both as to number of societies and the 
beauty of the church edifices, since all the original log ones are 
gone. The first church organized in the township was the Bap- 
tist, and a building was erected for a " free church " one mile west 
of the present city of Bourbon, on the southeast corner of what 
is now Matthew Irwin's farm, then belonging to Alvah Baylor, Sr. 
It was a log structure, but at that early day, 1830, it was consid- 
ered a most beautiful and imposing edifice. It remained for near 
forty years and was used thousands of times for church, school, 
and singing classes. The next church to be organized was the 
Methodist, which was within a year or so afterward. A church 
building was erected in the center of wliat is now the city of 
Bourbon, and there remained until the past half dozen years, when 
it was removed and converted into a barn by Mr. George Keller, 
and a beautiful brick edifice erected on the old site, truly a credit 
to almost any city in this or any other state. 

The United Brethren was the next church organized about 
the time of that of the Methodist Episcopal church, and has a 
very large number of communicants. Their first church build- 
ing was burned in 1864, but has been rebuilt and now this church 


has a large and substantial brick building on a prominent corner 
on Main street. The church rules that were so intolerant of 
secret societies, having of late been repealed by almost a unan- 
imous vote of the grand conference, has resulted in a small seces- 
sion from the church, and the establishment of the seceders so- 
called Radical church. A Sabbath school of several hundred 
is the boast of this church, and was established over forty years 
ago; also prayer-meetings for near fifty years. 

The Presbyterians have a large congregation, and a beautiful 
brick church edifice, free from debt and growing in influence. 
Their Sabbath school is the pride of the community, although 
not so old as others, is as influential and prosperous and may be 
popular, because of the instrumental and vocal music dispensed 
at this church, that is truly unsurpassed by that of the most fa- 
vored churches of the largest metropolitan cities of the Union. 

The Catholic church was organized at an early day, but until 
1879 had no house of worship. Now a tasty church building 
stands in the southern part of town, near the old public school 
building. This congregation is not so large as some of the others, 
but for earnestness, zeal or piety cannot be surpassed by any 
other church. 

The Disciples organized a society about a score of years ago; 
have a goodly number of communicants, but as yet have no 
church building of their own, although they have purchased a 
beautiful lot on Main street for their church. 

Seventh Da}^ Adventists are not very numerous at present, not 
having been organized but a few years, but are gradually increas- 
ing in number and influence. Their services are usually held on 

The Methodists have a second church at Foster chapel, and 
have a fine number of communicants with a large and handsome 
church building. This church's Sabbath school is in a most en- 
couraging condition as regards numbers and finance. Sand 
Ridge cemetery adjoins this chapel. 

The Second United Brethren church is on sand ridge, and is 
a handsome building recently erected. A goodly number of 
communicants are connected with this church with encouraging 
additions to the membership constantly. The Sabbath school of 
this church is large and appears to be accomplishing a work that 
shall be felt for time and eternity. 

The Albright Methodist church is a large congregation of ear- 
nest, faithful Christian workers, and has been in existence about 
a score of years. Their church building is commodious and 
stands on a beautiful spot. Sabbath schools here are largely at- 
tended and the instruction thorough. 

Lutheran church, near to the last mentioned, has a member- 
ship composed of a community largely scattered throughout the 


country, large in numbers, devout and carry their religious 
teachings into every day life and business to a degree unexcelled 
by any other denomination. Their Sabbath schools, when regu- 
larly held, are well attended, and are models of practical relig- 
ious schools, as are all of the Sabbath schools of the churches of 

German Baptists, or Tunkers, is a church that any commun- 
ity may well feel a pride in having in their midst. This church has 
existed in this section ever since in the early forties, and has a 
large number of conscientious communicants who endeavor to 
live a life that shall exemplify true Christianity in every daily 
transaction. Their church building, erected in 1868, is large 
and conveniently arranged for preaching, Sunday-schools and 
their church feasts, etc. It adjoins the White School cemetery. 

The Third United Brethren is the latest organized. 

The White School-House church, near to the last named 
church, is the Baptist denominational, and has a large and grow- 
ing society, although it has not been organized but comparatively 
a few years, its members are widely scattered over several town- 
ships, but are most regular in attendance on all church services 
despite the distances to travel. 

The Salvation army have a very recent organization in Bour- 
bon, and appear to be mustering in recruits at quite a lively rate, 
until they have a large company in the awkward squad when out 
on daily drill. 

Societies. — The work of the different temperance associations 
of Bourbon has been herculean, and the beneficial influences will 
be sure to be felt for many generations. The ladies' temperance 
crusade of 1873 was continued for several months, siege of the 
saloons, day and night, until one saloon capitulated and surren- 
dered at discretion. The liquor traffic at the present time is con- 
ducted in quite an orderly and respectable manner, according to 

Bourbon's Chautauqua Circle is one of the literary associations 
of the city that is of great interest to its patrons, and is very 
rapidly adding to its number and influence. 

Epworth League is under the auspices of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, and is thought to be the grandest of all the 
church associations. This is a strong organization in Bourbon — 
the Ciceronians, an old school society. 

The Christian Endeavor is under the patronage of the Pres- 
byterians, and it is certainly an organization that is of vast influ- 
ence for good to the community of Bourbon and vicinity. 

Scarf Societies. — The Odd Fellows organized in Bourbon in 
1858, and have a membership of over 200, and are in a most flourish- 
ing condition, financially, having a nice sum in bank and own a most 
substantial business block on a prominent corner, with a large 


and well furnished lodge room in the upper story; an encamp- 
ment also exists. 

The order of the Daughters of Rebecca Is well represented by 
a large membership from the very best families of Bourbon and 

The order of Good Templars had a lodge instituted in Bour- 
bon soon after the first organization of the town, and did famous 
work here. 

The Masonic lodge was organized in 1865, and for a longtime 
thereafter was conceded to be among the brightest working 
lodges of the state. The lodge hall was burned in 1877, which 
badly crippled the organization here for quite a number of years, 
but it has now entirely recovered from this misfortune. 

A chapter of Eastern Star has a most creditable organiza- 
tion, with a constantly increasing membership. This lodge oc- 
cupies the Masonic hall, which is a large and most beautiful one. 

In 186S the Improved Order of Red Men organized a Potta- 
watamie tribe in Bourbon, and now has over 100 active members, 
and the good it has accomplished in charitable works is only 
known to its committee, as perfect secrecy is ever a characteristic 
of its charitable works. Several of the officers of the grand 
lodge of the state are members of Bourbon lodge. 

A Pocahontas tribe is a most creditable order that has been 
flourishing in Bourbon for the past few years, and is rapidly in- 
creasing in number of its membership, and doing a world of 
good — works of charity. This lodge has several members that 
are officers of the Grand lodge of Indiana. 

A lodge of Ancient Order of United Workmen was organized 
in Bourbon, in 1S79, and soon had a good large membership 
from the best of the community. Its insurance feature is one 
proving quite attractive. Also Knights of Labor. 

A post of the Grand Army of the Republic was mustered into 
service in 1885, from among the veterans, and soon had over fifty 
members, and has done much toward assisting comrades in se- 
curing their rights in pension matters and alleviating suffering 

The Patrons of Husbandry had a membership of hundreds. 

A K. P. lodge was organized in Bourbon in 1889, with about 
thirty members, and since has added largely to that number. 
This lodge bids fair to be one of the most beneficial of the secret 
orders in the city. 

The S. I B.'s are doing a good work of love and charity, and 
are no doubt more attractive, and their unwritten work and 
secrets of their sanctum sanctorum, past the finding out of the 
average fellow outside. 

Bourbon's Woman's Christian Temperance Union is one of the 
best working societies of the state, and is doing a most admirable 


work in the county. It has several fine public speakers that are 
in demand all over the state. 

The Methodist Temperance association is another association 
that Bourbon is most proud of indeed for the good it accomp- 

The Martha Washington society is one of the Methodist 
church organizations that has a large membership. Within the 
past few years it has raised nearly $2,000 to aid in paying off the 
church's indebtedness. This church has a very flourishing Sab- 
bath school. 

On a beautiful spot near the southwest suburb of Bourbon 
the Odd Fellows have a few acres of high rolling ground platted 
as a " God's Acre." It is being beautified year by year, and year 
by year the little mounds grow apace, evidencing the fact that 
all are mortal, and in good time will be solemnly, sadly con- 
signed to a silent bed to sleep the dreamless sleep that knows 
no waking until the last trump shall call to resurrection and per- 
chance an immortality. The " Gentshorn cemetery,'' and " Parks' 
cemetery," and " Bailor's cemetery," were the first laid out in 
the township. The " Red Men" are contemplating the purchase 
of a beautiful spot of ground in an opposite direction from the 
city for cemetery purposes, to be conducted under the auspices 
of this order. Should this be done, it is the intention of erect- 
ing on one corner of the grounds, so selected, a commodious 
church, to be a free church, and not to be controlled by any de- 
nomination, but be the property of the Red Men, open to all 
churches alike at any and all occasions. This manifests a spirit 
of liberalit}' seldom seen. 

Schools. — There are sixteen district schools in the township, 
and one graded or high school. All the school buildings are 
good and substantial, manj- of them handsome brick structures, 
well arranged and supplied with the best of modern school fur- 
niture and apparatus for instruction. The number of months of 
school equals that of any other county in the state, and the 
teachers will favorably compare with those of any locality. 
About 1,000 pupils are in attendance in the different schools, and 
the progress is most satisfactory indeed. The graduates of the 
Bourbon schools are a credit in an educational point of view, to 
the best of the high schools of the state. The "Teacher's In- 
stitute " of the township is one of the institutions of Marshall 
count}^ and our township trustees are justly entitled to the honor 
of so perfecting the institutes as to reflect the greatest possible 
credit on our township, rendering it the educational peer of any 
township in the great state of Indiana. 

A bright gala.xy is that of the teachers of Bourbon, such as few 
communities can boast of having in their midst. Prof. McAl- 
pine, superintendent of city high schools, with his corps of 


assistant teachers: Miss Mercie Kehler, Prof. VanVactor, Miss 
McKinney, Miss Mirtie Davis. Also, Miss Biggs, Miss Groves. 
Miss Berlin, Miss Butler, Miss Edie Keller, Miss Minard, Miss 
Porter; Profs. Austin, Dillingham, Reed, Belts, Shaddinger, 
Mortin, Red, Steckman, Duckett, Miss Lj'nch, and Profs. Strine- 
bach. Hale, Miss Perkins, Prof. Bailey. The county superin- 
tendent of public schools is an old Bourbon teacher, and he has 
accomplished a wonderful work in elevating the standard of the 
profession in our county. A number of Bourbons have been 
elected to county office: John K. Houghton, county recorder; 
Daniel McDonald, clerk of the court; H. Barnaby and William 
Garrison, county commissioners; Fred Fisher and J. K. Law- 
rence, county treasurers. 

The fine new brick school buildings of Bourbon erected in 
1885, are equal to any school building of the size in the state. 
They are located in the beautiful old college campus, recently 
owned by the Tunkard church, and whose college buildings 
were there destroyed by fire a few years ago. The old United 
Brethren college was also located there. The present buildings 
are of modern style of architecture, beautifully finished inside 
and out, regardless of expense, and arranged inside most ad- 
mirably to secure perfect convenience for the purposes of instruc- 
tion, and to secure comfort, ventilation, light, heat and perfect 
sanitation as a pre-requisite. 

The grounds are high and beautifully slope from the building 
toward the three streets which surround the propert}^ securing 
perfect drainage. The campus is tagtefully set out in forest and 
ornamental trees and shrubbery, rendering the grounds one of the 
most lovely spots imaginable for the location of such hand- 
some structures as are the Bourbon high school buildings of to--':' 
day. The old school building still stands solidly. ^^ 

iVcwspapcrs. — The Bourbon Independent was established in 1865 
by J. F. Beck, a weekly paper, eight column folio, independent 
in politics, with a leaning toward republicanism. Mr. Beck died 
in Kansas lately. In 1S71 the Bourbon Mirror was started by 
that veteran editor, Col. I. Mattingly, who is conceded to be the 
most experienced and able editor in the state, having edited a 
weekly in the campaign of 1S40, at Corydon, in this state, sup- 
porting "old Tippecanoe Harrison" for president. He has 
been in the editorial chair ever since, even to-day wielding the 
quill with that vigor that few younger men dare hope for ability 
to accomplish. The Bourbon Review, a weekly paper, advocat- 
ing the doctrine of greenbackism, was commenced by Dr. Wait 
in 1879. The BoinZon Demoerat was established in 1882 by Col. 
W. VV. Miekels, soon being succeeded by Mr. Peter Hahn; a 
democratic paper as its name would indicate. The Bourbon Bit- 


ters, a comic paper by Col. Miekels, and finally the Gospel Mes- 
senger, by Rev. J. H. Swishart. 

Boys ill Blue. — It is a fact that during the late civil war 
Bourbon township sent more loyal recruits to the army than any 
other township in the state in proportion to population. No 
draft was ever necessary, but on the contrary Bourbon furnished 
quite a ^rge number of soldiers, and above quota required, 
on every call. 

Militia. — Bourbon has had only one company of militia, that 
was organized in 1876. The company was as finely appearing as 
any similar body of men in the Union, and in the manual of arms, 
were quite up to the requirements. Arms were supplied them 
from the state armory. The boys seemed to pride themselves 
on the perfection of their drill, and the citizens of the city, 
generally, were proud of their gallant militia. The younger class 
of men are now agitating the propriety of organizing a second 
company of militia for Bourbon, and it is expected that within a 
very brief period that the determination will be consummated. 
Bourbon, no doubt, has sufficient material from which to organ- 
ize two or three other companies, should the spirit but move 
them in that laudable direction. 

Fire Department. — The fire department of Bourbon, organ- 
ized in 1873, is the most efficient imaginable; the fire laddies 
are prompt to respond to the call to battle on any and all occa- 
sions wheneverit is possible for any force to combat a fire success- 
fully, our fire boys have always been remarkably successful in 
arresting every fire that has ever visited the city, without much 
loss, comparatively. But few large fires have visited Bourbon. 
In 1863 the Heller «& Gallentine flour mills and the Odd P""ellows' 
building were destroyed. The church and the public school 
buildings in 1864, the Davis mills in 1865, the west side of Main 
street, almost an entire business block, in 1871, the Sear block in 
1873, the old college building in 1884, the east side of Main street, 
including the Ledas block, the Matchette block, Brillhart, Ben- 
dell & Pickett block in 18S5, are the principal buildings destroyed, 
with the Pittsburg depot in same year. Bourbon has a right to 
feel a just pride in the brave fire department she possesses. In 
parade or in tournament, the boys are equally as creditable, 
usually taking all "sweep-stakes" prizes. 

Bourbon can boast of a large number of fine musicians, both 
vocal and instrumental. In fact some that could be well classed 
as almost " natural musicians." The church choirs are noted for 
the artistic music that is always rendered on church occas- 
ions. This has been characteristic of Bourbon churches for 
many years past. Bourbon bands have for over a score of years, 
had the credit of being most proficient in all the artistic music 


of the period, and their services are always in demand when con- 
cert music is in request on special occasions. In many band 
tournaments at different points, Bourbon bands have carried away 
the prizes offered. Among the old, old standbys of the Bourbon 
bands may be mentioned Mr. Henry Steinbaugh, Mr. George 
Hupp, Mr. S. E. O'Brien, Harry Wilkins, Peter C. Knisely, 
William Steinbaugh and his brother Harry are quite musical gen- 
iuses. In 1S7S, Prof. F. M. Hammond opened a " musical con- 
servatory " in Bourbon, and very soon was patronized by as many 
students as the establishment could give perfect attention to. 

Ministers. — Rev. H. A. Snapp is the oldest minister for long 
and continuous service, who is a Bourbon. He has resided here 
over thirty years, and has held many important positions in 
church work, the greater part of the time being presiding elder 
for the United Brethren church, but retaining his home at Bour- 
bon. He has just been appointed postmaster at his old home, 
vice George Stockman, an old soldier laddie. Dr. J. F. Parks is 
a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal church, for forty 
years. Rev. Dr. Elliot is pastor of the Presbyterian church, the 
second time he has been in charge. Rev. Cain is the Methodist 
Episcopal pastor, a young minister but very eloquent, and a good 
worker. The United Brethren church has Rev. Pontius as its 
pastor. Rev. S. Pershing once preached here. Elders Revs. John 
Sellers, Darling, Hale and William Myers are ministers in the 
German Baptist church. Rev. Samuel Smith, the oldest minister 
in an)' of the Methodist Episcopal conferences, has recently de- 
ceased at a very advanced age. but until recently, quite active. 
Rev. George H. Thayer, a local minister of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, for long years resided in Bourbon, occasionally 
delivering a most eloquent sermon, as he felt like it or the op- 
portunity offered. But few were so gifted as is this minister. 
Rev. Timmons, a minister of the Methodists, whilst a resident of 
Bourbon a score of years since, fell dead on the street one day 
whilst in apparent health. Bishop Castle is a Bourbon. Revs. 
Hill, Stewart, Robinson, Wayman, Cone, Wade, McElwee, Par- 
rett, Bradshaw, Johnson, Farmer, Hyughs, Fodge and Thomas 
are some of the old ministers, all remember. Rev. N. B. Surface 
has been in the ministry for over thirty years, and held many po- 
sitions of honor in his church in this and other places. Rev. Dr. 
Curran, a minister of the Presbyterian church for over fifty years, 
preached for churches both east and west, north and south. He 
was a scholar of rare attainments, a minister of great eloquence, 
and from his personal magnetism had secured the esteem and 
confidence of a large circle wherever he went. 

Physicians. — Dr. Johnson commenced practice here some 
twent}' years ago, returning for a few years to his farm, and only 
recently retiring to Bourbon and practice. Mrs. Dr. Boulton, a 


lady physician of over thirty years' experience, has been in the 
county many years, and enjoys a fine practice over several coun- 
ties. Dr. Matchette, for over a quarter of a century, has been 
practicing his profession in Bourbon, locating there after the 
close of the late war, where he served several years as surgeon, 
U. S. A., and soon thereafter arranging a partnership with his 
brother, " the old doctor," or W. C. Matchette, who at that time 
was in practice in Bourbon. Drs. Short, Peck, M. Eva Peck, 
Crusan, Bantraive, Bock, (Boman, now deceased), Fritz, Gra- 
ham, Purhart & Gould, Southall & Miner, Brodie & J. Phin- 
eas Parks, are all old practitioners of Bourbon. Dr. Dillnius, a 
German physician, has been in practice for five or six years and 
enjoys the confidence of a vast number of the communities of 
some dozen counties or more. Dr. Edson has been in Bourbon 
for half a dozen years in practice, except for a few months when 
he was in the legislature. The list of physicians of Bourbon is 
quite large, not that it is a sickly place, but on the contrary most 
healthy and very desirable place to reside, for a doctor as well as 
every one, so it is not strange they seek it for a very pleasant lo- 
cality for a permanent home. Dr. John F. Parks is the oldest, 
but he is not now in active practice as in past years. His old 
partner. Dr. Manville, died from the effect of a poison taken by 
mistake sixteen or eighteen years since. Everybody hereabout 
knew him and lamented his untimely death. Drs. Linn & Spen- 
cer as it used to be are both living, Dr. Linn residing in Bourbon 
for the past forty or fifty years, and Dr. Spencer is practicing at 
Tippecanoetown, in this county. Dr. S. France for over twenty 
years has been engaged in active practice, the fort}' odd years of 
professional life not apparently leaving its marks on him. 
Dr. R. Cornwall has been in practice in Bourbon for over thirty 
years, and is yet engaged in practice, but not so actively as in 
"former years. 

Attorneys. — Hon. James O. Parks is the honored veteran of 
the county bar. His son, S. D. Parks, has been bred to the legal 
profession, and is a graduate of Ann Arbor law school. Hon. 
J. W. Davis has practiced for over thirty years, but has now re- 
tired. Z. D. Boulton for about a quarter of a century has been 
in practice. John D. Thomas for over a dozen years has had a 
good practice. Judge William B. Hess is a Bourbon among Bour- 
bons, as if he were still among his old compeers. Col. W. W. 
Miekels gives rather more attention to real estate than to law of 
late years. Jesse D. Chaplin, as a leader of the legal profession, 
stands biggest of them all. 

JMcnIiaiits. — Mr. George P^rash is one of Bourbon's solid mer- 
chants, and carries a fine stock of dry goods and notions. He is 
one of "God's noblemen" in every respect, and has the confi- 
dence and well wishes of the community. E. J. Kline is an old 


grocer, a German, and finds himself perfectly at home among 
the large German population tributary to Bourbon. Fribley's 
millinery and notions establishment is one of the best conducted 
stores of the state. The same can be said of those of Mrs. 
Lewis and Miss Tillie Williams, who are in the millinery business 
also. It is claimed that there are over three score and ten widows 
in Bourbon. C. Snyder, Demoss Brothers and Daniel Walmer 
are heavy manufacturers in everything in the foot wear line. They 
are all honorable dealers and enjoj^a large trade, all having been 
long time residents of Bourbon. Mr. C. M. Parks was born in 
Bourbon, and has lived there all his life, and is an Ai citizen. 
He engaged in the drug business years ago on reaching his ma- 
jority, having succeeded his brothers Bromin and Dr. Brodie. 
Shakes & Unger have perhaps the heaviest stock of general mer- 
chandise carried by any firm in the state not exclusively a whole- 
sale establishment. They succeeded to the firm of Lawrence, 
Matchette & O'Brien, who had been in trade for a score of years 
under that and different firm names. McKinney Bros. & Baker 
have an immense stock of general merchandise, and are con- 
ducting a safe and profitable business in the Matz block. This 
firm succeeded Kingery & Watson, and the latter firm William 
Sear. Mrs. Murphy is the proprietor of a fine fancy goods and 
notion store, next door to the last establishment. She is an old 
resident of Bourbon, and has the confidence of the entire com- 
munity. Jacob Spite has a saloon in his block, and has been a 
resident of Bourbon but a few years, and contemplates engaging 
in farming in the near future. Syl. Beals, ever)' one in northern 
Indiana knows Syl, as he has so long been a resident of that part 
of the state, occupying different offices of trust for so many years. 
He was among the first of Bourbon's postmasters, justice of peace, 
sheriff, etc. He is at present conducting a saloon in Bourbon, in 
the Renberger opera block. The Exchange bank of Bourbon 
is the sole property of J. H. Matchette, who is on deck almost 
day and night attending to the duties of the establishment in 
person. For the past twenty-five years he has attended as closely 
to business affairs as any one possibly could do, and is one of the 
capitalists of the state, to show for his years of close application 
to business. A. Brillhart and son Ed. are heavily engaged in the 
butter, egg and poultry trade, they having succeeded to the busi- 
ness by purchase from B. F. Rosenberg, who had conducted the 
trade for about a dozen years with marked success financially, 
and retired with a competency. He, however, can do a full day's 
work talking politics and religion. 

Industrial Rcviciv. — Mr. Charles Spencer is an old resident 
of Bourbon, and as a tonsorial artist, stands high in his chosen 
profession, and enjoys a fine patronage. Row Schaefer is a 
baker and restaurateur that controls a large patronage. His 


obliging, cheery way of conducting business makes him friends 
that are sure to remember him in way of trade. Messrs. Rapp 
& Co. have succeeded the oldest meat market man in the county, 
Mr. George Kellers, who has long applied himself so indus- 
triously to business (and with his son, William, who has been 
born since his father's trade has been established, and brought 
up to the business so as to be a second nature to him) , has retired 
with a competency, as he so well deserved. Matchette & 
Whitaker, as druggists, are well known to northern Indiana, as 
for about a quarter of a century has the senior representative of 
this firm been engaged in general practice of medicine and the 
drug business. The specialties manufactured by this firm are 
shipped to almost every state and territory of the Union, and 
several foreign countries. They contemplate erecting large 
factories for the preparation of their most popular specialties ex- 
clusively. Messrs. Martin & Cooper are successors to Dr. 
Boman & Son, who so long conducted a successful drug busi- 
ness. This hrm is young, energetic, reliable, and are having a 
large trade as their merits entitle them to receive. 

The Bourbon Elevator company handles all the grain of this 
section, and controls much that really belongs to other stations. 
The grain storage capacity is all that could be desired, and in 
connection with grain shipment, handling lumber and other 
building material, this company controls the most extensive 
flouring mills between Fort Wayne and Chicago. Mr. George 
Ettinger has the superintendency. It is said that the railroad 
depot at Bourbon does a larger business than any other towns 
of the size of Bourbon in the state. The agent is and has been 
for over fifteen years, Mr. P. F. Griffin, a man who can and does 
do year in and year out, more work in the office than any other 
two agents on the road. His predecessors for a quarter of a 
century were Joseph M. Davis, John VV. Houghton, Daniel Mc- 
Donald, C. C. Humphrey, Matt Lew, William and Robert Er- 
win, John and Christ. Ringenberger, O. P. H. Smith, John 
Sworsland, H. Oisette, F. Fasser, David and John Beck, and 
E. Mendenhall, are extensive buyers and shippers of all kinds of 
live stock from Bourbon, and from their honorable method of 
dealing, have secured the confidence of the cattle raisers of the 
community and buy large lots of stock from far bej'ond 
their natural territory tributary to Bourbon. The Beck broth- 
ers conducted a general store in an early day for several years, 
afterward retiring to a fine farm. 

The first mill erected in Bourbon was one put up by Samuel 
Thomas and Nidig on the spot where W. J. Acker's mills and 
manufactories now occupy. J. W. Davis & Bro. operated ex- 
tensive mills successfully about this time. This was about 1850, 
but this first mill and several others that were erected on the 


same place were destroyed by fire. Samuel Carl and Coxen 
built a large saw-mill just northwest of Bourbon early in the fifties. 
Daniel Shively about that time built a large saw mill at Panama, 
which he ran for a time, disposing of itafter a few years to David 
Klingermann, and he, after making a mint of money with it, 
to Pritsch & Moneysmith, in 1870, who operated it for half a 
dozen years or longer, making quite a snug fortune for them 
both before disposing of it to J. J. Shively, who still owns it. 
Thomas Lee, in 1864, erected large mills near Panama, making 
a fortune there, as his industry and honesty surely entitled him 
to do. Within a very short time after the railroad was com- 
pleted through Bourbon, over twenty-five saw mills were in oper- 
ation within marketing distance of Bourbon, and thus rendered 
it one of the best lumber markets in the state. J. H. Porter, in 
1861, erected a large woolen mill and grist mill. The first flour- 
ing mills built were owned by Heller & Gallentine, and although 
small, had the reputation of making better flour than any other 
mill shipping to the Philadelphia markets. Their mill being de- 
stroyed b}' fire in 1863 the proprietors at once erected the " Pearl 
mills," now owned by the Bourbon Elevator company, which is 
conceded to be the largest mill between Ft. Wayne and Chi- 
cago. John Shively and Blair built the "Star mills" on Center 
street in 1875, that is now owned by Peter Nagle, who is one of 
the most experienced and best millers in the state. In 1865 
Deamer & Co. put in operation extensive planing mills on Main 
street, Bourbon, but they soon passed into S. Kavanaugh& Sons' 
hands, who added extensive furniture factories to the original 
concern. Thomas Lee, Minard & Company succeeding to the 
works large business was carried on, and finally an extensive 
boat-oar and butter-tub factory were added, the products being 
shipped all over the Union and into foreign countries. Samuel 
Young and C C. Humphries were interested in the boat-oars 
and butter tubs. A. F. Johnson finally purchasing the plant, by 
a boiler explosion the works were destroyed. Barnaby & 
Arnold erected an extensive lumber-working factory near the 
railroad depot in 1867, and conducted a large and successful busi- 
ness. W. J. Acker and Jacob Slough operated a similar factory 
with rare success until Mr. Slough was killed by the cars in 1871, 
when Mr. Acker succeeded to the business, and conducted it in 
connection with the saw mill business. Robert George & Sons 
put into operation a large furniture factory on South Main street, 
in 1867, and manufactured and shipped the products of their fac- 
tory to scores of states and territories. They now have retired 
from manufacturing and are engaged in the retail furniture 
business in a fine business block of their own in the center of 
town. Peter Knisely has an extensive factory for the making of 
axe handles, shipping into many states all over the Union, and 


into foreign countries, for over twenty years past. J. C. Mc- 
Crum, his larotlier, C. B., Hupp & Schron, Jolin Paschall, Henry 
Baugher, and Hines & Co., are all manufacturers of carriages 
and wagons that are sold all over the country, and have a rep- 
utation for honest work that few establishments can boast of. 
A. Belknap, as well as Adam Mot, conducts an extensive coop- 
erage establishment. The work turned out by these factories finds 
a ready market at all the extensive packing concerns of the 
larger cities, as nothing but "the best" is ever allowed to leave 
these manufactories. Neu & Davis and Babcock & Sons are 
both hardware dealers and manufacturers of roofing and metallic 
cornice that is in great demand all over the state. A large trade 
has been established. Stephenson & Son have but recently lo- 
cated in Bourbon in the hardware trade, but already control a 
large and growing trade from this and adjoining counties. Jos- 
eph Anstice is a large manufacturer of harness, saddlery, etc., 
and enjoys a large and increasing trade as everything in his line 
is Ai in every respect. His shipments are large and his retail 
trade excellent. Isaac Anderson carries on a foundry and ma- 
chine shop, and his business bids fair to soon outgrow his pres- 
ent facilities for manufacture. By industry and reputation for 
good work his factory has the control of large orders from dis- 
tant cities. The Leedy Lumber and Tile factory is a prosperous 

Fair Association. — The people of Bourbon township, and more 
especially the farming community, can well boast of the most 
creditable township fair in the Union, in fact in its display of 
agricultural products, fine blooded live stock, it is unexcelled by 
any of the county and district fairs, and in the exhibition of agri- 
cultural machinery, but few expositions can equal it. The large 
crowds of people in attendance, both from the immediate vicinity 
and from abroad, at the fairs for the past score or more of years has 
been simply immense, almost beyond belief. The grounds, imme- 
diately in the northern suburb of Bourbon, belonging to the 
fair company, are most beautifully located, finely improved 
and most admirably adapted for the purpose of an exposition 
grounds. This fair has done much both for the farming coun- 
try and the business men of Bourbon in advertising Bourbon 

Painters, Artists, etc. — Frank Caul, everybody knows Frank, 
the " champion painter," who for the past one-third of a century 
has been a familiar landmark of Bourbon, as his father was be- 
fore him. Frank is on deck always when fishing is on, or John 
Baxter or John Wolford, or the Zeblays have a fishing excursion 
to talk of. Everybody knows all these, and that Frank can't 
abide a dog-fish, or anything but "correct bait" for fishing. 
Johnny Johnson, Elmer Wilt, Mont. Fitcraft, and Capt. Ramsey, 


are all old citizens, and what would Bourbon be like if it had not 
been for their paint brushes? Echo answers, what! Messrs. 
Perry Greer and John Paschall, with Mrs. Rose Shirey, are 
artists, as proven by their worlc both portrait and scenic. 
But few painters of celebrity can show as beautiful work of the 
pencil and brush, as do these home artists. Bourbon is proud, 
as she well can be, of her artists. Mr. J. Henry Iden as a pho- 
tographic artist, is a most decided success, and his productions 
will bear comparison with the best work of the city photographers. 

Business Blocks. — Ketcham & Borton, and Greer Bros., 
erected a beautiful brick block on the west side of Main street 
in 1879, Peter Hahn a handsome building adjoining on the north, 
and Col. Sear, Jacob Witts, and Adam and George Mettz a large 
and substantial brick block that extended over the full block to 
the street on the north. In the rear part of this block is one of 
the prettiest little opera halls in northern Indiana. On the east 
side of Main street, S. E. O'Brien has as fine a business block as 
is in town, in which is the model bakery, established and success- 
fully conducted for years by Mr. Lampson, latterly being asso- 
ciated with Mr. Frank Patterson. Within a few months past 
Messrs. Mong & Schorn have succeeded to this business. Then 
the Brillhart & Davis brick block, next south, is a fine substantial 
block that is a credit to any town. It is occupied by Beldon 
Bros., as a meat market, and by Mr. Pat. Galvin & Bros., a 
saloon. An iron clad building has been erected by Thomas Lee 
on the spot where the Bendle building was destroyed by fire. 
This is a temporary building, soon to be replaced by a fine large 
brick block, arranged for mercantile purposes. The iron-clad is 
now occupied by Jacob Walnier as a saloon. Messrs. Wekster & 
Hogue are conducting an extensive bakery, restaurant and 
grocery, and have occupied their present quarters for some years. 

Railroads.— T\\(t Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago railway 
was built through Bourbon township, from east to west, in 1S52-3, 
and gave this section an outlet for its products, especially timber 
and lumber, which before that time was so little valued that even 
the finest timber in the world, such as poplar, walnut, oak, etc., were 
burned on the ground as worse than valueless. In fact, many farms 
in clearing were fenced with rails made from the finest walnut ever 
seen. This timber, if it were on the lands to day, as before this 
railroad was built, would be ten times more valuable than the 
farms where it grew are to-day, with all improvements. Surveys 
for the Michigan, Indiana & St. Louis railroad have recently 
been made through Bourbon, and already part of the work has 
been done in the building of it. Surveys have also been com- 
pleted through Bourbon for the Indiana Pacific railroad, of 
which road Col. William Sear is president, and also surveys of 
the New York, Ft. Wayne & Chicago railroad, Col. John Lee, of 


Crawfordsville, president, which passes through Bourbon. All 
these roads are to be constructed at the earliest date practicable. 
When completed they will render Bourbon a railroad center and 
a city of importance. 

The town of Bourbon is well known all over the country as 
one of the best business points in the state, carries larger stocks 
of every line of merchandise; has the liveliest, wide-awake busi- 
ness men of any town in the state. The township has a larger 
body of perfect farming lands, Is better cultivated, with better 
Improvements, with more prosperous farmers than the average 
township In the northwest. Bourbon is proud of the country 
surrounding it ; proud of the farming community ; proud of the pros- 
perity of the farmers about It; as equal, if not surpassing, those 
of an}' part of the county. Bourbon township is proud of their 
town of Bourbon; proud of the fine business establishments, 
second to none; proud of the business men whom they patronize; 
proud of public spirit and energy of Bourbon people; proud of the 
prosperit}' of their town; proud of the town that has aided to 
make them all more prosperous. Each is proud of the other, and 
that mutual pride and confidence has much to do with the up- 
building of the town and the community. They see that what is 
for the benefit of one Is for the benefit of the other; what Is to 
the injury of town is sure to be the Injury of the country; and 
what militates against the prosperity of the country injures the 
town. This is the reason the town and the country are growing 
together, in wealth, mutuall}' happy that their lot was cast in such 
a grand old township as is Bourbon, and firmly believe that but 
few spots In the Union are so favored in all respects as Is old 
Bourbon; the town and country striving in unison for the welfare 
of all. Never a failure of crops, no cyclones to blow all their 
possessions to the four winds; one of the most health)' regions 
in the Union. Never 3'et a desolating epidemic. The flouring 
mill visited thousands of times, for one call on the doctors; sea- 
sons alwa3's as favorable as the most favored; taxes light, com- 
pared with other localities, and fair prices received for all the 
produce of the farm or the factory. Why should not Bourbons 
rejoice that they are domiciled and prosperous in glorious old 

William J. Acker, lumber dealer of Bourbon, was born in 
Rensselaer county, N. Y., in 1836. His father, William Acker, 
was a native of the same state, and a descendant of one of the 
oldest families of New York. At the age of seventeen, William J. 
Acker accepted a position as section foreman on the Albany and 
Boston Railroad, which he retained four years, and then took a 
tour through the western states, going first to Iowa and Illinois, 
and finally locating in the city of F"ort Wayne, Ind. After a short . 
residence there he came to Bourbon, Marshall county, where he 


soon became interested in the lumber business, which he has fol- 
lowed continuously ever since. On the 15th of August, 1S61, 
Marcia A., daughter of John Z. Grant, became his wife, a union 
blessed with the birth of four children, viz.: Frank, Charles, 
Otis and Grace. Mr. Acker belongs to the Odd Fellows' fra- 
ternity, and the Presbyterian church holds his religious creed. 

Edwin S. Barber, son of Milo and Miranda (Butler) Barber, 
was born in Kosciusko county in the year 1851. The father came 
to Kosciusco county about fifty years ago, and was one of the 
very early settlers of that part of the state. He is still living in 
Seward township of that county, being eighty-seven years of age 
and still hale and hearty. His brother, M. F. Barber, was one of 
the first settlers of Fort Wayne, in which city he taught school 
when a young man, and there married Jane Suttenfield, the first 
white child born in Fort Wayne. He afterward became one of 
the largest landowners in Bourbon township, having at one time 
been possessor of 1,100 acres. A number of members of the 
Barber family are scattered throughout the United States, all of 
whom are noted for their longevity. Milo and Miranda Barber 
had a family of nine children, seven boys and two girls, the three 
oldest of whom were born in New York, in which state the par- 
ents were married. At the age of twenty the subject of this men- 
tion began business for himself as a fur dealer, having previous 
to that time worked at various occupations in different parts of 
the countr}'. He traveled quite extensively throughout the 
western states and territories, returning from California in the 
year 1873- In 1877 he was united in marriage to Miss Ann G. 
Bailey, of Rush county, the daughter of George W. Bailey, who 
died when Mrs. Barber was nine years old. Mr. Barber moved 
to his present farm in April, 1877, and has resided upon the same 
ever since. Besides making many valuable improvements, Mr. 
Barber purchased land adjacent to his original farm and is now 
the owner of 136 acres. His improvements are all first-class and 
his residence, which was built in 1SS8, is one of the best structures 
of its kind in the township. His large barn was built in 1889 
to replace the one destroyed by fire the previous year, the loss 
of which amounted to $2,000. Mr. Barber is a republican, but 
has never been actively engaged in politics beyond using honor- 
able means for his party's success. Maud R., Grafton E., 
Perry O., Elsie A., Harrison R., and an infant not named are the 
children born to Mr. and Mrs. Barber. The church affiliation of 
the family is with the United Brethren, with which they have 
been identified for seven years. 

Isaac E. Bell, although not an old resident of Marshall 
county, has passed so many years of his life in the adjoining 
county of Kosciusko, that his extensive acquaintance in Marshall 
fairly entitles him to recognition in this work. Mr. Bell was 


born in Knox county, Ohio, 1844. His father, Benjamin Bell, 
born in 181 2, was for many years a minister of the Disciples 
church, but like nearl}? all the preachers of his time he owned a 
farm and tilled the soil for a living, his service as a minister 
being gratuitous as the natural debt due the Master. His farm 
lay in Knox county, Ohio, in which part of the state his family 
of twelve children were raised. The mother of our subject 
whose maiden name was Mary Moore, was a native of New 
Jersey. While little is known of dates in regard to the Moore 
family, it is as a matter of family tradition that they were among 
the earliest settlers of New England. Mrs. Bell died in 1S60. 
and Mr. Bell was called to his reward in 1874. Of their family 
five are now living: James M. is a farmer in Knox county, Ohio; 
Susan is the wife of Lewis Eley, a well-known farmer and mill 
operator at Bloomburg, Ind.; Charles H., is a prominent busi- 
ness man of Geneva, this state, and Samuel E. is a resident of 
Coshocton county, Ohio. Isaac E. Bell was raised a farmer. His 
early education was limited to the district schools, but his father 
being educated to a degree beyond the average farmer of his 
day impressed the value of intellectual culture upon his family 
so that they are all inclined to look upon education as one of the 
necessities of life. Mr. Bell acquired land in Kosciusko county, 
near the Marshall line, sometime in the sixties, and for over 
twenty years has been closely identified with the agricultural in- 
terests of the latter cou.ity. In 18S9 he moved to Bourbon and 
engaged in the livery business in partnership with S. E. O'Brien, 
whose interest he subsequently purchased and is now the sole 
proprietor. Mr. Bell possesses fine business qualifications and is 
considered a good man for the town. He finds time to devote 
to social interests, being an active member of the Masonic 
fraternity, which order he joined in 1867. While not an aggres- 
sive politician Mr. Bell has in a quiet way wielded considerable 
influence in behalf of the democratic part}^ He was married 
in 1870 to Harriet E. Sarber, daughter of Christian Sarber. 
They have seven children living, viz.: Mary L., William O., 
Susan B., Maggie M., Clyde C, Grover E. and Vaughn. 

Ervin Dillenius, M. D., a prominent and skilful physician of 
Bourbon, was born in Stuttgart, Germany, in 1854. His father, 
Charles Dillenius, was a native of Germany, in which country he 
held many distinguished positions, being somewhat like. unto our 
secretary of interior, having the directorship of public improve- 
ments and works. He was a mason of high rank, and recently 
died. Dr. Dillenius, at an early age, was placed in school, and 
after gaining a high school education in his native city, he com- 
pleted a liberal scholastic education in college and then entered 
the universit}' Theibig and Heidelburg, graduating in medicines 
in 1876. In 1S70-71, he left the class room and quitted his studies 


to become a volunteer from his native country in the Franco- 
Prussian war, and acted as surgeon. He received a wound at the 
renowned battle of Sedan, and in honor of hisgallant service in this 
war, he carries a medal of honor presented to him. After he gradu- 
ated in medicines in 1878-79, the doctor, for two years practiced in 
the hospital of Vienna, and here gained much experience to fit him 
for his chosen profession. In iSSo, he emigrated to America, and 
for a year each, practiced first in New York city and then in Bal- 
timore. He then made an extended trip through the " Great 
West," and practiced for a while in Washington territory, but in 
1884, he came from the west to Indiana and located at Plymouth, 
where he practiced for about one year, when he located at Bour- 
bon, where he has continued an active and successful practice. 
He is familiarly known as and called the " Old German Doctor," 
and enjoys the esteem and confidence of a wide acquaintance. 
He is a member of the American Medical association, and ranks 
among the ablest physicians of the county. He is an honored 
member of the Masonic fraternity, and has been for many years 
a member of the I. O. O. F., and is also a member of the Im- 
proved Order of Red Men. The doctor is a congenial spirit and 
of quick perception and quick decision, and a liberal and good 
natured soul. 

Dr. J. W. Eidson, a practicing physician of Bourbon, was 
born in Fulton county, Ind., in 1854, the son of B. A. and Sarah 
(Decker) Eidson. Paternally the doctor is descended from 
German ancestry, and on the mother's side from an old Ken- 
tuck}' family. The doctor's early life was spent on a farm, and 
after obtaining a good education in the common schools and the 
normal college of Valparaiso he engaged in teaching, which he 
followed for eight years in the counties of Fulton and Kosciusko. 
In the meantime he began the study of medicine, and after com- 
pleting a professional course in the medical college in Indian- 
apolis, which he entered in i88i,and from which he graduated 
in 1884, began the practice of the same in Bourbon. Since lo- 
cating here, he has met with gratifying success and is classed 
with the rising physicians of Marshall county. The doctor has 
been active in politics, and in 1888 was elected on the democratic 
ticket as representative from Marshall county in the state legis- 
lature. He discharged the duties of that honorable position 
with credit to himself and satisfaction to his constituents, and 
proved himself to be a well qualified member of that body. 
The doctor was married in 1878, to Minerva Ball, of Fulton 
county, the daughter of P. Ball. 

Francis Marion Elliot, whose life is here briefl}' sketched, is 
eldest of a family of nine children. Alexander W., his father, 
emigrated with his parents, Jesse and Rachel Elliot, from North 
Carolina to Preble county, Ohio, when he was about ten years 


old. Alexander W. was brought up on the farm, and at an early 
age had to provide for himself. August 17, 1S37, he was married 
to Rebecca Parker, who was born and reared in Preble county, 
Ohio. In the fall of 184S the father with his young family, emi- 
grated to Fulton county, Ind., and settled on a piece of govern- 
ment land, which he had entered several 3'ears previously. For 
ten years succeeding this, the time of the lad was divided between 
assisting his father on the farm in the summer, and going to 
" district " school in the winter. His desire to attend and take 
a thorough collegiate course of education, kept him busy plan- 
ning and building air castles. In these plans and desires, his 
mother entered with all her sympathetic heart, but the father 
needing his help on the farm, which was then barely large enough 
to give subsistence to his large and growing family, did not take 
kindly to the idea. The spring following the son's nineteenth 
year, his father announced to him that he had determined to permit 
the young man to have his liberty the coming fall, on two con- 
ditions, viz.: First, that he should work faithfully at home until 
September ist, and secondly, that he should then go to school, 
but not ask him for any assistance. The first part of the con- 
dition could be easily fulfilled, but how about the second one ? 
Then, as now, it required means to go to school, " but where there 
is a will there is a way." To the boy who is determined to win 
in the race there is alwaj^s a way. A cow and a pig which he had 
acquired through his father, were sold, and the proceeds applied 
to the expenses of his first term in the Logansport seminary. 
That ended, and money gone, a country school was looked up 
and engaged, and soon the smooth-faced boy was the school- 
master, in Buck's school-house. Liberty township, Fulton county, 
Ind. By boarding around, sixty-five days' work rewarded him 
$60. This was all he saved for the further prosecution of his 
studies. He entered Hanover college in the sophomore year. 
A call for volunteers being made by the government, he enlisted 
as a private in Company G, Eighty-sixth regiment Indiana 
volunteers of the Union arm}', in August, 1S62. But the exposure 
being too great for him, he broke down, and was discharged 
February, 1863, on the ground of disability. This arrested his 
further studies in college. Early in his academical course, closely 
following the death of his mother, he had devoted himself to the 
gospel ministry. Soon after his enlistment in the army, his mar- 
riage with Miss Mary J. Fisher, living at Frankfort, Ind., was 
consummated. Upon returning from the army, he, with his wife, 
engaged in school work at Clarkshill, Tippecanoe county, Ind., 
where he remained until August, 1865. Here his oldest son, Harry 
Labarer, wks born August 7, 1S64. His first great sorrow came 
to him May 12, 1865, in the death of his beautiful wife. In Sep- 
tember of that year, he took charge of the high school at Ross- 


ville, Ind., where he remained for one year, at the end of which 
time, having been licensed to preach the gospel, he went to the 
Western Theological seminary, at Alleghany, Penn., to finish his 
theological studies. Spending one year there he returned and 
took charge of the Presbyterian church of Union Mills, Ind., 
in Maj', 1867. His marriage to Permealia McKee, of Tippecanoe 
county, Ind., occurred July ti, 1867. His supply of the Union 
Mills church resulted in a call to its pastorate, accepting this 
call, he was ordained and installed May, 1868. Receiving a call 
to the church at Kokomo, Ind., he resigned his first charge and 
accepted this call; this pastorate not proving satisfactory, he re- 
signed and accepted a call to the First Presbyterian church at 
Rochester, Ind., in September, 1S71, where he settled and re- 
mained until October, 1876. From this field he removed to 
Pierceton, Ind., and took charge of that church in connection 
with the Presbyterian church of Bourbon, Ind. This pastorate 
lasted from September, 1876, till October, 18S2. 'While serving 
this field the pastor was called to the Presbyterian missionary 
work of Vincennes presbytery, but the presbytery of Ft. Wayne, 
under whose jurisdiction he was working, refused to dissolve the 
pastoral relations, hence he was continued in this field of labor. 
Subsequently he received and accepted a call to the church at 
Montague, Mich., entering upon his work, November, 1882. He 
remained upon this field until November, 1885. Finding his 
throat giving down in consequence of the heavy lake atmosphere, 
he resigned and accepted work in Perry, Iowa. At the close of 
this supply he accepted the supply of the Menlo and Panora 
churches, and the principalship of the Guthrie county high school. 
At the end of one year's service in this school, he was proffered 
the chair of languages in the Dexter normal college, at Dexter, 
Iowa, m which field he supplied the pulpit and took the pastoral 
oversight of the Presbyterian church, in connection with his du- 
ties in the college. But he found the labor and responsibilities 
imequally matched against his physical strength. A unanimous 
call coming to him both from the old church with which he united 
when a boy, and the church of Bourbon, Ind., over which he had 
formerly presided, he accepted and commenced work in that field 
October 15, 1890. 

William H. Foulke, a prominent citizen of Bourbon town- 
ship and native of Bucks county, Penn., was born in the year 
1840, the son of Casper J. and Susan Foulke, who are well- 
known residents of Warsaw, this state, to which place they 
moved in 1862. The subject came to Kosciusko county in 1863, 
and the same year entered the army, enlisting in Company G, 
One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Indiana volunteer infantry, 
with which he served from its organization until mustered out at 
the close of the war. On leaving the army he returned to Kos- 


ciusko county, where he was afterward married to Susanah, 
daughter of the late Rev. John S. Todd, who was a well-known 
minister during the early history of Marshall count}'. Mr. 
Foulke followed the pursuit of agriculture in Kosciusko county 
until 1873, at which time he became a resident of Bourbon town- 
ship, locating upon his present farm four miles north of Bourbon. 
Mr. and Mrs. Foulke are members of the Methodist church, be- 
longing to the congregation worshiping at Foster chapel. They 
have a family of seven children, all of whom reside with their 
parents except the oldest, who is the wife of William Rosebrook. 
Politically Mr. Foulke is a republican, and fraternally a member 
of the G. A. R. 

William E. Gay, whose sketch is herewith presented, is a na- 
tive of Ohio, and the son of Easty and Esther Gay, who were 
married in the state of Massachusetts. They subsequently 
moved to Cuyahoga county, Ohio, where they lived until the 
death of the father in 1S34, the subject being at that time but 
three weeks old. Mrs. Gay subsequently went to Portage county, 
Ohio, William being but four years old at that time. Mrs. Gay 
afterward married Samuel Bradner, in iS42,with whom she lived 
until her death, which occurred in Wood county, Ohio, in 1862. 
William Gay's residence in Indiana dated from November i, 1852, 
and his residence in Marshall county from the year following, 
and was here married in December, 1853, to Mary J. Dennison, 
daughter of Joseph Dennison, who entered land in Bourbon 
township in 1849, the same on which the subject resides. Mr. 
Gay lived in Sandusky county, Ohio, from 1S56 to i860, when he 
again became a resident of Bourbon township, purchasing his 
present farm in 1877. He served in the late civil war, belonging 
to Company F, Seventy-fourth Indiana volunteer infantr}', with 
the rank of wagoner, enlisting in August, 1862, and serving until 
the close of the war, in 1865. Mr. and Mrs. Gay have one child 
living, namely: Orris, who resides in this township, and who mar- 
ried Miss Catherine Ruby. The father of Mrs. Gaj^ was born in 
Maryland, near Emmetsburg, January i, iSoo, commencing life 
with the present century, and lived to be over eighty-five years 
old. He became a resident of Marshall county in 1850, moving 
here from Ohio. His family consisted of six children, two sons 
and four daughters, all living but one. Mr. Gay is a republican 
in politics, a member of the I. O. O. F., and formerly belonged 
to the G. A. R., and was appointed and served as United States 
census enumerator for the township of Bourbon in the year 1890. 

James Guy was born in Kosciusko county, Ind., January 30, 
1840, and is the son of Lewis Guy, who came to that county in the 
year 1835. Lewis Guy was born in Augusta county, Va., on Bull 
Run, in the year 1800, and resided there until the age of eighteen, 
at which time he went to Ohio, where he afterward married 


Mary Fleshman, who was born in Gallia county, that state, in 
1805. They had a family of twelve children, and died in the years 
1S51 and 18S3, respectively. The Guy family has been repre- 
sented in Kosciusko and Marshall counties by numerous descend- 
ants, over fift3^ of the name being buried in the old Galveston 
graveyard. James Guy was reared in his native county and has 
always lived within ten miles of his birth place. He was ten 
years of age when his father died, after which he remained with 
his mother, looking after her interests until his twenty-sixth year 
when he was married to Esther A. Hanold, a native of Stark 
county, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Guy began housekeeping in Perry 
township, Kosciusko county, where they lived until 1875, at which 
time they came to Marshall county and purchased a farm of forty 
acres in the southeast corner of Bourbon township. He has 
added to his original purchase at intervals, until his farm at this 
time numbers 200 acres, upon which are many valuable improve- 
ments. He is a thrifty and enterprising farmer, and ranks among 
the best citizens of the community in which he resides. The 
family of Mr. and Mrs. Guy consists of the following children, 
viz.: James, Gertrude, Clifford and Thomas. 

Peter Hahn, a prominent farmer of Bourbon township, was 
born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, December 4, 1845, being one of 
fifteen children. His parents were William and Mary E. (Bower) 
Hahn, both natives of Germany, who emigrated to America in 
1840, locating in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, where they afterward 
owned good property and followed farming, but before coming 
to this country the head of the family was a weaver by trade. 
Mr. Hahn removed to Marshall county in 1849 and located in 
Bourbon. He died in 1859, and his wife survived him until 1881, 
when she died at the age of sixty-five. Both were members of 
the German Reformed church. Their son, who is the subject of 
this sketch, was in his fourth year when his parents arrived in 
Marshall county. He was reared on the farm and received 
in the common schools an ordinary education, which he has 
added to by his own efforts to such an extent as to be well versed 
on general topics. At the age of sixteen years he began an appren- 
ticeship to the shoemaker's trade, and afterward did journeyman 
work in the same business for several years. He opened a shop 
in Panama in 1S68, and one in Bourbon in 1872. He continued 
the business at thelatter place for two years, when he abandoned 
his trade on account of poor health. For the succeeding four 
years he tried several different kinds of business, such as pub- 
lishing a newspaper and selling agricultural implements, then 
finally leased land, and settled clown to farming, at which he has 
since continued, and now owns a good home. He is an active 
partisan in the democratic ranks and acted as marshal of Bour- 
bon one term. He was married in 1871 to Miss Margaret E. 


Dinkeldein, then of Kosciusco county, but born in Crawford 
count}', Ohio, in 1852. She was the daughter of Jacob and Ger- 
trude (Reichart) Dinkeldein, both natives of Germany. The 
result of this union was nine children, eight of whom are living, 
viz.: George, William, Minnie, Cora, Evelyn, Frederick, Ellen 
and Francis. Mr. Hahn and wife are members of the German 
Reformed church, and are highly esteemed wherever known. 
Mr. Hahn is quite prominent and popular as a democratic poli- 
tician, and at this writing (the summer of 1890) is a candidate 
for auditor of the county. 

John H. Iden, photographer, son of Samuel and Tabitha 
(Edwards) Iden, was born in Owen county, Ind., in the year 
1847, and came to Marshall county with his parents in 1859, 
since which time he has been a resident of Bourbon township. 
His youthful years were spent on his father's farm, which he 
assisted in clearing and developing and he remained under the 
parental roof until attaining his majority, when he began learn- 
ing the science of photography. He soon acquired skill in this 
calling, and by long experience is now one of the most expert 
artists in the county, ranking with the best in the state. He has 
a fine gallery in Bourbon and is in the enjoyment of a very 
lucrative business. He was married in 1875 to Luretta Neiman, 
whose parents reside in Kosciusko county. Mr. and Mrs. Iden 
have two children: Clarence A. and Nellie. 

Samuel Iden is a native of Ohio, born In Carroll county in the 
year 1820. His parents, George and Matilda Iden, were natives 
of Virginia, where they were married, and they became residents 
of Ohio about the year 1S15. They resided in Carroll county, 
that state, until their respective deaths, the father dying in 1850, 
and the mother in 1886, the latter having reached the advanced 
age of ninety-six years. Their family consisted of si.x boys and 
six girls, two of whom died in infancy. The rest of the family 
grew up and scattered to various parts of the country, all being 
farmers except the youngest. The early life of our subject was 
spent on a farm, and in 1840 he was married to Tabitha Edwards 
whose parents moved from Virginia to Ohio as early as the year 
1805. After his marriage Mr. Iden began farming for himself in 
his native county, where he remained until 1844, when he re- 
moved to Owen county, Ind., which at that time was sparselj' set- 
tled, and where he went through the usual pioneer experiences. 
He moved to Marshall county In 1859, settling In Bourbon town- 
ship, where he has since resided in the pursuit of his chosen call- 
ing, farming. Mr. and Mrs. Iden have had five children: Lu- 
cinda, widow of Jacob Mong; George W.; John Henry; Frances M., 
wife of William Sparrow, and Hannah, wife of George Schram. 
The family are nearlj^ all members of the Disciples church, and 
Mr. Iden Is a democrat. George Washington Iden, the eldest 



son, was married to Evaline Burch, and moved to Marshall 
county, Iowa, in the year 1876, where they still reside. 

S. S. Keller, a native of Cumberland county, Penn., was born 
June 6th, 1849, and is a son of Daniel and M. Catherine (Kline) 
Keller, who are still living in the above county and state. Mr. 
and Mrs. Keller have had ten children, the subject of this sketch 
being the onl}' representative of this family in Indiana. He was 
reared on a farm, and in the spring of 1S71 came to Bourbon, at 
which place he attended school one year and subsequently at- 
tended two years at Earlham college at Richmond. He engaged 
in farming on the place where he now lives in 1875, ^t which 
time his farm consisted of 160 acres, but which now numbers 200 
acres, the greater part of which is under a successful state of cul- 
tivation. Mr. Keller is a successful farmer, and also pays consid- 
erable attention to the breeding of fine stock, principally Dur- 
ham and Jersej- cattle, being one of the well informed stockmen 
of the county. He taught school in Bourbon township two 
terms and was quite successful as an instructor. He is a republi- 
can in politics, but has never been an aspirant for office, preferr- 
ing to give his entire attention to his farming interests. Mr. and 
Mrs. Keller are members of the German Baptist church of 
Bourbon. Mr. Keller and Ellen E. Bland, daughter of Alex- 
ander Bland of this county, were united in marriage in the sum- 
mer of 1872, and they have a family of six children whose names 
are as follows: Arthur M., Vernon C, Grace M., Herbert A., 
Bessie A. and Mabel C. The Keller family came originally 
from Switzerland and were among the early settlers of Penn 

A. Kinsej' is a son of Christian Kinsey, a native of Switzer- 
land, who came to the United States in 1847, settling in Crawford 
county, Ohio, where the family remained until their removal to 
Marshall county, Ind., in 1853. The father died in 1867, and the 
mother a year previous. They had a family of ten children, 
four of whom are at this time prominent residents of Marshall 
county. Al Kinsey was born in Switzerland in 1846, being about 
one and a half years old when his parents came to this country. 
He remained under the parental roof until twenty-one years of 
age, at which time he engaged in farming, as a renter, and in 
1875 bought his present place, which he cleared and developed, 
and upon which are many valuable improvements. He was mar- 
ried August, 1865, to Nancy Adamson, who has borne him six 
children, four sons and two daughters. Mr. Kinsey is a repub- 
lican in politics and a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
while his wife belongs to the United Brethren church. 

John K. Lawrence, a prominent citizen of Bourbon, and ex- 
county treasurer, is a native of Ohio, born in Wayne county, 
that state, in the year 1842. His parents, Philip and Eliza Law- 
20— B. 


rence, located in Auglaize county, Ohio, in 1843, ^^id still reside 
there upon a farm. They were both born in the year 1S16, in 
the state of Pennsylvania. John K. Lawrence passed his early 
life in Auglaize county, and was a resident of the same until 1S63, 
at which time he entered the army, enlisting in Company E, 
One Hundred and Eighteenth Ohio infantry, with which he 
served gallantly until the close of the war. In 1868 he came tn 
Kosciusko county, Ind., where he was engaged in mertantile pur- 
suits until 1872, at which time he came to Bourbon, and also en- 
gaged in merchandising. In 1S82 he was elected county treasurer, 
re-elected in 18S4, and earned the reputation of being an able 
and painstaking public servant. He has always been a democrat 
in politics and is recognized as one of the standard bearers of 
his party in this county. In the fall of 1868 he was united in 
marriage to Miss Margaret Upton, of Mercer county, Ohio, to 
which union three children have been born: Winnie Z., Mary 
and Dora. 

A. C. Matchette, M. D., a distinguished physician and surgeon 
of northern Indiana, was born in Wayne county, this state, 
August 24th, 1S37, and is the son of Dr. William J. and Eliza 
(Wasson) ^latchette, natives of Virginia. The family came to 
Indiana in 1842 and located in Goshen, in the high school of 
which city the doctor received his early educational training, and 
later pursued his studies in the Northwestern university at Chi- 
cago. He learned the drug trade with his father in Goshen, 
under whose instruction he also commenced the study of medi- 
cine, assisted in the latter by his brother, W. C. Matchette, a 
prominent physician of that place. He subsequently pursued 
his professional reading under the able instruction of Profs. H. A. 
Johnson and Edward Andrews, of Chicago, and graduated with 
honor from the medical college of that city in March, 1S60. The 
doctor was almost wedded to clinical work, spending every avail- 
able hour in the wards of the United States Marine hospital, 
Mercy hospital, St. Luke's and others, being awarded the posi- 
tion of interne in the two former and chief of the college dis- 
pensary over the claims of many other candidates, although he 
himself had not been a candidate for the hospital appointments. 
The doctor was tendered a position in the nav}' in 1S61, which he 
declined for an appointment as surgeon in the United .States 
army, in which capacity- he served during the war of the rebellion, 
leaving the service with the rank of surgeon in chief of artillery 
of division of west Tennessee, including west Tennessee, Mis- 
sissippi and Arkansas. During his military service he was 
elected president of the military surgical association of the de- 
partment of the Mississippi, with headquarters at Memphis. 
After the close of the war he engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession with his brother, W. C. Matchette, at Bourbon, Ind., 


c::^(^, (h^a^sAe^K^ <h^ 


where with the exception of two years spent in Chicago, he has 
since resided. He went to Chicago in 1866 and engaged in the 
drug business, giving especial attention to the manufacture and 
wholesahng of drugs and perfumery, in which he met with very 
flattering success. He returned to Bourbon in 1868, and resumed 
the practice which he has since carried on in connection with the 
drug business, his professional life in this town extending over a 
period of twenty-hve years. Duriug this time he has built up 
an immense practice, one of the most extensive in northern Indi- 
ana, and to such an^extent has his ability been recognized that he 
frequently sends prescriptions to all parts of the Union besides 
several European countries. In 1886 he purchased a large sani- 
tarium at Detroit, Mich., which had a capacity for 500 patients 
and conducted the same for several years. This institution was 
supplied with a complete system of baths, mineral water, electric, 
Russian, Turkish, etc., and was well patronized during the time 
the doctor remained in charge. The doctor's practice is both 
general and special, and in the latter he has frequently been 
called to attend difficult cases in distant states several times as 
far remote as California. He has written much for the public, 
and is well-known as a contributor to many of the leading 
medical journals of this country and Europe. He has also 
traveled quite extensively and is a man of broad and liberal 
views and upon all the leading questions of the day he has de- 
cided opinions which he does not hesitate to express. The doc- 
tor has but little taste for public life although he has frequently 
been tendered official positions from that of town, county and 
state office up to that of representative in the congress of the 
United States, all of which he has seen fit to decline. He is not 
a politician in the strict sense of that term, being bound to no 
particular party, preferring to be governed by careful judgment 
of candidates and political measures in the exercise of the elec- 
tive franchise. He is a Mason, Odd Fellow, Red Man, A. O. 
U. W. and also belongs to the G. A. R., in all of which fraterni- 
ties he has been an active worker and leading spirit. The doctor 
is not a member of the church, his religion being that Christi- 
anity which manifests itself in the every day actions of life rather 
than ostentatious service in the sanctuary once a week. He is a 
close reader of religious literature, and while not taking much 
interest in public preaching, reads all of the published sermons 
of the leading divines of the country. The doctor is now devot- 
ing considerable attention to the manufacture of specialties, used 
in his own practice for the last thirty years, which have gained a 
great reputation among his own patrons and the public generally 
for the cure of certain diseases. As a public-spirited citizen the 
doctor has been an earnest advocate of all movements having 
for their object the material advancement of the town, and 


especially has he been interested in behalf of railroads and 
other improvements that would redound to the benefit of the 
country at large. In addition to his extensive practice he is at 
this time connected with L. H. Whittaker in one of the largest 
and best stocked drug houses in the northern part of the state. 
He was married in 1866 to Miss Marie Louise C. Curran, second 
daughter of Rev. R. A. Curran, of Huntington, Ind., a former 
resident of Trenton, N. J., a union blessed with the birth of one 
child, Richard O. 

Ignatius Mattingly, a well-known newspaper man of Mar- 
shall county, is a native of the eastern shore of Maryland, where 
he was born in 1811. In the fall of 1812 his parents emigrated to 
Kentucky and settled at Richmond, in Madison county. At an 
early age young Mattingly entered a printing office belonging to 
his brother and learned to set type. In 1831 he was married, and 
shortly afterward went to Illinois to seek his fortune. There he 
taught a winter term of school, and in the spring removed to Vin- 
cennes, Ind. He secured a situation on the J'vicciiiics Su)i, 
then edited by the venerable Elihu Stout. Mr. Mattingly re- 
mained there until 1836, when he went to Corydon, Ind., and 
commenced the publication of the JVcckly Investigator. At first 
neutral, the paper finally came out for the whig party and be- 
came a zealous and influential champion of that cause. After 
about three years, Mr. Mattingly sold his paper, and subsequently 
bought a half interest in the New Albany Daily and ]\^cckly 
Gazette. This venture proved a losing one, and later on Mr. Mat- 
tingly returned to Corydon a poorer but wiser man. Subse- 
quently here-purchased the Gazette, and continued its publication 
for eight years, when he sold out to a j'oung lawyer of New Al- 
bany, by the name of T. C. .Slaughter. Thinking he had enough 
of that costly and fascinating, but unremunerative work known 
as "printing a paper," Mr. Mattingly embarked in the mercantile 
business. But, like many others who have once got printer's ink 
on their fingers, Mr. Mattingly found it difficult to keep out of 
the seductive pursuit, and moved to Plymouth, Ind., where he 
bought a paper called the Banner. He changed the name to 
the Marshall County Republiean, and issued the first number the 
week before the state election in 1856. The Republican com- 
menced its career just as that young political giant known as the 
republican party, after achieving some notable local victories 
was girding its loins for a much mightier struggle which was des- 
tined to result in a national victory of the greatest import and 
inaugurate the most remarkable period in the history of North 
America. It was a good time to commence the publication of a 
republican paper in a northern state, and Mr. Mattingly soon 
placed his journal on a sound financial basis, and made it one of 
the best county papers in the state. In 1868 he sold the Republi- 


can to Mr. John S. Bender, and tried the lumber business for a 
year or two. But he could not long keep his fingers out of the 
ink, so in 1871 we find the veteran editor again on the tripod and 
publishing the Bonrbon County Mirrov, of which he still has 
charge at the date of this sketch. Though he has in his time 
helped many others to political prominence and positions of 
value, Mr. Mattingly has, himself, never held any ofifice. It is 
the mission of the editor to make great men out of very small 
material and to reap abundantly of the hard knocks of politics, 
while experiencing few or none of its rewards or riches. Mr. 
Mattingly, we believe, enjoys the title of "oldest editor in the 
state," and those who have known him long agree in saying that 
he has so discharged the duties of editor as to reflect credit both 
upon himself and his profession. 

William Myers is a native of Elkhart county, Ind., and dates his 
birth from the year 1847. He is a son of David and Catherine 
Myers, who moved to Indiana a number of years ago from Ohio, 
settling in Elkhart count}'. His paternal ancestors were natives 
of Germany, from which country they came to the United States 
in an early day. The name of the subject's mother previous to 
her marriage was Catherine Bonner. She died when William was 
quite young. His father afterward re-married and raised a second 
family of five children. William Myers is one of a famil3'of four 
children, three sons and one daughter. His early life, similar to 
that of the majority of country boys, was uneventful, having been 
passed 'mid the rugged duties of the farm, with a few months at- 
tendance each year in the common schools, where he obtained 
his education. In 1S72 he was united in marriage to Sarah Foust, 
daughter of Henry F'oust, of Sommerset county, Penn., and in 
1874 he moved to Marshall county, and purchased his present 
home place in the western part of Bourbon township. Mr 
Myers is a successful farmer, and socially is well respected by his 
neighbors and friends. Politically he is a republican, but has 
never taken any active part in politics. He and wife are both 
members of the German Baptist church, in which he is also a 
minister, having been elected as such in 1882. Mr. and Mrs. 
Myers have a family consisting of the following children: Mil- 
lard, Carrie, Stella, Nettie and Calvin. 

James O. Parks, lawyer and promment citizen of Bourbon, 
was born March 20th, 1S13. His parents, natives of Maryland 
and Virginia, moved to Bourbon county, Ky., when he was quite 
a young child. The family consisted of eight brothers and two 
sisters, all of whom lived to become heads of families. The 
mother of Mr. Parks was a woman of unusual ability. To a well 
developed physical organization were added rare moral and in- 
tellectual endowments, and she was well informed upon all the 
questions of the day, and familiar with the standard literature of 


the period in which she lived. Her energy of character and in- 
tegritj' have been fully reproduced in the subject of this sketch, 
who for a number of years has ranked with the intelligent citi- 
zens of Marshall county. His early education was obtained un- 
der many difficulties, and owing to circumstances over which he 
had no control he was unable to attend school after his four- 
teenth year. In 1827 he came with his father's family to Rush 
county, Ind., and was a resident of that part of the state until 
1S35, at which time he became a resident of Marshall county. 
In the meantime he had become proficient in the science of sur- 
veying and civil engineering, and for fifteen years was a special 
agent of the general government in looking up illegal claims, 
during which time he also followed surveying in this and other 
counties. In 1839 his father died, after which James was left to 
manage the large estate. In 1844 he was elected justice of the 
peace, the duties of which he discharged for three years, when 
he resigned in order to make the race for the legislature, to which 
he was elected as representative of Marshall county in 1S47. 
He was re-elected in 1S48, and in 1852 was admitted to the bar 
of Marshall county, and began the practice of his profession, 
which has extended over a period of twenty-seven years. As a 
lawyer Mr. Parks has been painstaking, and he has the reputa- 
tion of a safe and reliable counselor. In i860 he went to the 
Virgin islands on a private mission to settle an estate involving 
a considerable amount of capital. This was the only extensive 
trip ever taken outside of the United States, though he has 
traveled extensively over various parts of this country. Mr. 
Parks was married in 1836, to Miss Susie Dinwiddle, to which 
union two sons and two daughters have been born. 

Sinclair D. Parks, oldest son of James O. Parks, was born in 
Kosciusko county, Ind., in the year 1837, and came with his par- 
ents to Bourbon township at the age of one year. With short 
intermissions he has been a resident of the above mentioned 
township ever since, and is classed among its best known and 
most intelligent citizens. He was raised a farmer, to which use- 
ful calling he has since given his attention, and in which he has 
been very successful. His early scholastic training was of a lim- 
ited character, but his father, a man of superior intelligence, di- 
rected his studies at home, and afterward sent him to the acad- 
emy at Waveland, in which he obtained a good literary educa- 
tion. Subsequently he took up the study of law, and in order to 
become proficient in the same he entered the law department in 
the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, from which he 
graduated, and then began the practice of his profession in the 
town of Bourbon where he has sice resided. He has a good 
business and practices in the courts of Marshall and adjoining 
counties, in all of which he sustains the reputation of a sound 


lawyer and successful practitioner. He inherits in a marked de- 
gree the strong mental qualities so abundantly possessed by his 
father, and has succeeded his parent in a great measure to the 
well deserved confidence of the people. To Mr. and Mrs. Parks, 
whose maiden name was Maria A. Nolan, were born three child- 
ren: Orison, Early and Claud, all of whom are deceased. In 
connection with the legal profession, Mr. Parks, as already 
stated, gives considerable attention to agricultural pursuits, being 
at this time proprietor of a fine farm of 120 acres a short dis- 
tance north of Bourbon. He is a republican in politics, and as 
such has rendered his party valuable services in Marshall 

Martin Reed, retired, was born in Erie county, N. Y., Feb- 
ruary 15, 1827, son of Benjamin and Lucy Maria (Strieker) Reed, 
who left York state about the year 1834, and moved to Detroit, 
Mich. The family subsequently moved to Marshal county, Ind., 
and settled on a farm in the southern part of Bourbon township, 
which he purchased from the government. The family were 
among the early settlers of this part of the county, and Mr. 
Reed became one of the leading citizens of Bourbon township. 
The mother died in this township April g, 1865, and the father 
afterward moved to Kansas, thence to Missouri, where his death 
occurred February, 1S78. He served in the war of 1812, as did 
also his father, who was killed in that struggle. The following 
are the names of the children born to Benjamin and Lucy M. 
Reed: Betsy Ann (deceased), Israel, Mrs. Lucinda Merrill, 
Laura (deceased), Martin, Richard (deceased), Mrs. Eliza Jane 
Grant, William H. H. C, Mrs. Candas A. Keller. Martin Reed 
came to Marshall county when the country was new, and grew to 
manhood amid the stirring scenes of pioneer life, attending the 
indifferent schools of that period as circumstances would permit. 
He helped to clear the homestead farm and has always followed 
farming, in which he has met with well deserved success. In an 
early day he ran an ashery with his father, which produced much 
of the saleratus used by the pioneers of the community. April 9, 
1848, he married Miss Emeline Towns, daughter of Elijah T.and 
Roxana (Bassett) Towns, who were natives of Canada and early 
settlers of New York. After his marriage, Mr. Reed located on 
eighty acres of land, in section 29, Bourbon township, upon which 
he lived for a few years, and then moved to Iowa, settling in 
Black Hawk county, that state, which was his home until 1861, 
when he returned to Marshall county. He followed farming 
quite successfully in Bourbon township until 1883, when he re- 
tired from active life, and is now spending his declining years in 
the town of Bourbon. Eight children have been born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Reed, viz.: Margaret, wife of Wayne Jordan, who has six 
children; Charles W., resident of Center township, married Mary 


Brinard, and has four children; Albert M., married Elizabet 
Payne, has a family of two children; Elijah M., of Bourbon, 
married Sophronia Petchor, has two children; OUie, wife of 
Milton Martin, has three children; Richard, who resides at home; 
William, of Bourbon, who married Miss Dora Klingaman; 
Melvin, also of Bourbon, who married Emma Reddick, has one 

George Ridenour is a native of Franklin county, Ohio, and 
fourth child of George and Mary (Sterrett) Ridenour. His an- 
cestors, both paternal and maternal, figured prominently in the 
early history of the country, his grandfathers having served with 
distinction in the war of the revolution. F. Sterrett, his moth- 
er's father, served on the body guard of Washington, with whom 
he was a close personal friend. The father of the subject was 
born in Maryland in the j'ear 1785, and resided in that state until 
the age of twelve or fourteen years, when he accompanied his 
parents to Pennsylvania. In the year 1S06 he moved to the neigh- 
borhood of Chillicothe, Ohio, where he lived four jears, and 
later became a resident of Franklin count}', that state, where he 
passed through all the hardships and dangers incident to that 
trying period. He was never molested bj-the Indians who made 
life so unpleasant to the settlers in that part of Ohio. George 
Ridenour was born in the year iSsg, and lived upon his father's 
farm until the age of twenty, at which time he entered upon an 
apprenticeship to learn the blacksmith trade, which he followed 
with a good degree of success for over thirt}- years. He resided 
in his native county for fifteen years, and was there married 
May iS, 1S54, to Sarah Staley. In 1S61 he moved to Miami 
county, Ind., and followed his trade in the villages of Chilli and 
Paw-Paw until 1S63, when he came to Marshall county, locating 
in Bourbon township on the place where he is now residing. His 
first acquisition of land was forty acres, to which he has added 
from time to time until he now owns 240 acres situated three 
miles east of the town of Bourbon. Since engaging in agricul- 
ture Mr. Ridenour has been very successful, his farm and im- 
provements ranking among the best in Marshall county. He is 
a self-made man, and his success in life is due to his own unaided 
abilities. He was appointed drainage commissioner in 18S1, and 
held the ofifice for five years, during which time he became well 
acquainted with the topography and resources of the county, 
which he considers the best tract of land in the state, his thor- 
ough knowledge making his opinion valuable. Mr. and Mrs. 
Ridenour are both members of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
in which they were reared from childhood. They have a family 
of four children: Louis G., HenryS., Reuben Monroe and John F. 
Mr. Ridenour is a member of the I. O. O. F., belonging to lodge 
No. 262, at Etna Green. 


William H. Sickman, whose sketch is herewith presented, is 
a native of Wayne county, Ohio, and a descendant of an old 
and well-known German family, a number of representatives of 
which are living in various parts of Indiana. The family origin- 
ally settled in Pennsylvania, from which they subsequently mi- 
grated westward, locating in several states, principally Ohio. 
His father, John J. Sickman, was born in that state, in 1821, mar- 
ried in Stark county, Ohio, Miss Elizabeth Kinne}', and came to 
Indiana in 1S49, settling in Pulaski county, where he engaged in 
farming. William H.. Sickman was born in 1849, and was six 
months of age when the family moved to this state. He was 
raised on a farm in Pulaski county, received his rudimentary 
education in the common schools, and subsequently graduated 
from the Valparaiso college with a professional training as a 
teacher. He taught for some time after completing his educa- 
tion, six years as principal of the high schools of Rochester, 
where he earned the reputation of a painstaking and first-class 
instructor. In the meantime he began the study of law with 
William E. Talcott, of Valparaiso, Ind., under whose instruction 
he continued the greater part of two j'ears, and on severing his 
connection with the Rochester schools, engaged in the practice 
of his profession in that city, where he soon took high rank 
among his legal brethren of the bar. After continuing the prac- 
tice for some time and obtaining a lucrative clientage, he was 
compelled to withdraw from the profession on account of im- 
paired health, after which he engaged in farming, and in 1888 
moved to his present place, consisting of 200 acres, a short dis- 
tance east of Bourbon. Mr. Sickman was married in 1880, to 
Clara Sturgeon, daughter of Enoch Sturgeon, a well-known law- 
yer of Rochester, now deceased. Three children have been 
born to this marriage: Ethel, Ruth and Mary. 

Among the successful farmers of Bourbon township few rank 
as high as John Swoverland, who was born in Richland- county, 
Ohio, in the year 1837. His parents were Christian and Bar- 
bara (King) Swoverland, natives respectively of Pennsylvania 
and Germany. They settled in Ohio in the year 1828, at which 
time Christian Swoverland was twenty-eight years of age. The 
subject of this sketch is one of the family of ten children, nine of 
whom are still living, one sister, the wife of John Redinger, being 
a resident of Bourbon township. Mr. Swoverland began life for 
himself at the age of twenty-one as a farmer in Miami county, 
this state, where he lived for four years, and later moved to 
Marshall county, purchasing land in Bourbon township, where 
he now owns 407 acres all in one body. He is one of the largest 
land owners in the county, and upon 'his fine farm are many 
valuable improvements, among which is an elegant brick resi- 
dence erected in 1881, a commodious barn erected in 1873, and 


Other buildings, all of which are constructed in the latest style of 
modern architecture. Mr. Swoverland possesses fine business 
ability, and as a farmer, has met with success such as few attain. 
He was married in 1S67 in Miami county, to Nancy Jackson, who 
has borne him five children, viz.: Marida, Matt, Mark, Gail and 
Pearl. Mr. Swoverland served in the late war in Company H, 
Eighty-seventh Indiana infantry, enlisting in 1863, and was with 
his regiment for a period of seven months. In his younger days 
he had but little means of obtaining an education, but has given 
his family all the opportunities possible in this direction. 

William M. Thompson was born in the year 1831, in Sanga- 
mon county. 111., and is the son of John L. and Sarah (Van Sickle) 
Thompson, natives of Kentucky and Germany respectively. The 
parents were early settlers of Illinois, moving to that state about 
1822, and later came to Indiana, locating in Madison county where 
they resided until 1834, at which time they became residents of 
Marshall county, locating near Wolf Creek Mill, Greene town- 
ship. John L. Thompson was elected sheriff in 1852, and moved 
to Plymouth, in which city he died before the expiration of his 
second term of office. The subject was at this time already work- 
ing for himself, having been married in 1853, in January of which 
year he moved to the present site of Bourbon and built the first 
business house in the town. It was a hewed log structure and 
stood near the marble shop where until quite recently, Mr. 
Thompson was in business. At the end of the first year his build- 
ing and stock were completely destroyed by fire, after which he 
went to Plymouth, where for eighteen months he clerked in the 
mercantile establishment of W. G. Pomeroy & Co. Returning to 
Bourbon, Mr. Thompson again engaged in the dry goods trade, 
which he conducted about two years meeting with good success. 
He afterward lived on a farm, and seven years ago moved to 
Bourbon, where he has since resided. He has been trustee of 
Bourbon township since 1888, and has proved a faithful and effi- 
cient officer. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, a re- 
publican in politics and is one of the thrifty and enterprising cit- 
izens of Marshall county. Mrs. Thompson's maiden name was 
Eliza M. Greer, whose father, John Greer, is mentioned elsewhere 
in this volume. Mr. and Mrs. Thompson had four children only 
one of whom, Hosea Sherman, born in 1873, is now living. 






HIRTEEN miles northeast from Plymouth, the county 
seat of Marshall county, upon the north fork of the 
Yellow river, on a kind of plateau, and in German 
township, is located the town of Bremen. It was first 
called New Bremen, the name being given by George 
Pomeroy and Joseph Geiselman, who thought the name 
appropriate, as it was of German origin, and a large 
portion of the early settlers were a German-speaking 
people. However, the name " Bremen" is somewhat misleading 
to many, perhaps, from the fact that Bremen, in Europe, is a 
renowned German seaport and city; and the early settlers of our 
town and its neighborhooc, after the Pottawatomies and Miami 
Indians were here, consisted of emigrants from Alsace, France 
(now Germany), from Switzerland, and from Bavaria; and if a 
name had been given the town with the intent to indicate the 
nationality of its settlers and founders, the place might have 
been named Strasburg, Karlsruhe or Berne. 

Bremen is a little more than half a century in age, or 
growth, the first settlements being made about 1836, and between 
that date and 1848, settlement was made b}^ several families, 
among whom there were these: Hardzog, Heim, Weis, Beyler, 
Koontz, Yockey, Ringle and others who preempted government 
lands in the vicinity, and here in the wilderness established their 
homes and began the rugged toil of pioneers. Other families 
soon came in, and ere long a village was formed. In 1846 a post- 
office was established and named Brothersville, in honor of 
David Brothers, the first postmaster, and on whose premises the 
office was held by him two years. In 1848 George Pomeroy and 
John Bush bought of Mr. Brothers one acre of land. Mr. Bush 
took the east half and on it built a log cabin, where for two years 
he resided and followed the cooper's trade, and then sold his pos- 
sessions to John Parker, a Quaker by faith, and a shoemaker by 
trade. Thus Mr. Parker became the first shoemaker of the 


place; and he was succeeded by Philip Kenager, who to this date, 
August, iSqo, still occupies the old log cabin, now antiquated and 
delapidated, and which, like its inmate, must soon give way to 
the march of time and be no more. 

Mr. Pomeroy erected upon his half acre a crude frame, in 
which he kept the first store, it being a variety store, and here 
he held the postoffice, which, in 1848, had been changed in name 
from Brothersville to New Bremen. Mr. Pomeroy was the first 
notary public of the place. About this time, 1848. Joseph Geis- 
leman purchased of Peter Heim, a lot, and here, where now is 
the business house of J. R. Deidrich & Co., Mr. Geisleman 
erected a log blacksmith shop, the first of the village, and here fol- 
lowed his trade of blacksmithing. Two years later he built the 
first frame dwelling of Bremen. In 1S51 Gottleib Amacher built 
a log cabin and became the first tailor; subsequently he sold his 
possessions to Joseph Biehl, who opened up a bakery and saloon. 
This building has been " sided up" and repaired, and is still 
owned by the Biehl family. Ben Shane had built a log cabin, 
which in the early fifties, John Soice, coming from Starke county, 
Ohio, purchased and converted into the first harness shop. 

We have described nearly all there was of the village up to 
about 1851. October 21 of that year the first platting and laying 
out of the place was done by George Beyler, who laid-out and 
regularly surveyed forty-eight lots, and from this time on the 
town was called Bremen; the name of the postoffice being 
changed from New Bremen to the simple name of Bremen, 
which has ever continued unchanged. Thereafter the town con- 
tinued to grow but slowly, as the word " boom " was then un- 
known. Since the original platting of the town there have been 
made the following additions: Deidrich's, Heim's, Ringle's, 
Bauer's, first and second; Foltz's, first and continued; J. D. 
Mast's, Luther R. Martin's, Daniel Ringle's, first, second and 
third; Koontz's, Wanner's and John P. Huff's. 

The town was not incorporated until at the March term, 1871, 
by the board of commissioners. As a corporation it was divided 
into six districts, the officers being a clerk and treasurer, a mar- 
shal, an assessor, and six trustees. In 1872 the town was re-dis- 
tricted, and the number of trustees reduced to three, the other 
offices remaining the same as before. Subsequently other changes 
were made by re-districting, but at present ( iSqo), there are four 
districts, giving four wards, each represented by a trustee; and 
the office of clerk and treasurer made separate. The adminis- 
tration of the affairs of the town by the officials, all along, has 
been praiseworthy. The prosperity of the town has been 
established and maintained, the corporation now being clear of 
debt, with money in the treasury. Many and valuable improve- 
ments have been made in the way of streets, pavements, public 


buildings, etc., and the people may justly boast of their progres- 
sive, prosperous and well regulated town and homes, blessed 
with excellent schools, churches, and such other organizations 
necessary to the best of society. In regard to commerce and 
industries Bremen ranks high among the towns of Marshall 
county, and as evidence for the truth of this statement the fol- 
lowing review is made in this connection. 

I iidjist rial Review. — In 1852, Jacob Keifer came here from 
Mishawaka, Ind., and bought lot No. 2, in Helm's addition, and 
started thereon the first wagon shop in the village. In January, 
1854, John Diederich, Sr., moved with his family to the place and 
erected a building which was the first cabinet shop in the town. 
The building erected was a frame and built of lumber. Chris- 
tian Seller, Jr., then an apprentice at the cabinet trade, hauled 
from what was called the Keyser saw-mill, on the ridge, about 
the first in this section of the country, if not the first. Mr. Died- 
erich remained in the furniture and undertaking business till 
1866, when he sold his stock and tools to William Keifer and 
Michael Holdered, and went exclusively into the grocery and dry 
goods business. In the spring of the year 1854, Daniel Ringle, Sr., 
Daniel Ringle, Jr. and William Ringle built the first saw-mill on 
the ground where Carbiner & Huff's mill now stands. It was an 
upright saw, and was more noted for its heavy frame work and 
clumsy construction, than for the good work it did, until the firm 
of Montgomery & Engleston put in new machinery and circular 
saws, when it began to run more systematically. May 28, of 
1874, it burned to the ground and a better mill has now taken its 

In the year 1856 the Biehl brothers came from Pittsburgh, 
Penn., and started a tannery just east of town, where now (1890) 
the old dilapidated building may be seen. The three brothers 
were Charles, Joseph and John F. Biehl, and apparently they 
did a good business till 1857, when Charles sickened and died. 
John F. Biehl then became sole proprietor of the business, which 
he continued with little evidence of success till 1869. In this 
connection it ma}^ be stated that the father of the Biehl family 
had for many years been an itinerant doctor, and about 1854 
opened up in a log cabin the first drug store of Bremen. This 
early physician and druggist was found, on the 8th of January, 
1857, frozen to death in his room, and superstitious people long 
afterward believed the house to be haunted. 

In March, 1856, Christian Schilt, who had been in partnership 
with the Rumley Bros., in the foundry business at La Porte, re- 
moved to the vicinity of Bremen, and for one year farmed the 
old McCalf farm. He was a good machinist, and the people 
clamoring for a grist-mill (the nearest mill being at Plymouth, 
but most of the farmers ffoins: to South Bend or Mishawaka to 


get their grain ground), Mr. Schilt with Samuel Schmachten- 
berger, erected in 1S57, the first grist-mill at Bremen. The 
farmers and citizens of the vicinity rendered them much aid in 
furnishing timber, lumber and work, because it was considered 
an improvement of much importance, and such encouragement 
was given as is necessary to make a town prosperous. In 1858 
Jacob Schilt moved here with his family from Stark county, 
Ohio, and purchased Mr. Schmachtenberger's interest in the 
mill. The Schilt brothers operated the mill till 1863, when, by 
mutual agreement, they dissolved partnership, and Christ Schilt 
became the sole proprietor, remaining as such till his death oc- 
curred on August 21, 1874. The mill has now passed into the 
hands of William F. Schilt, his son, who has improved and made 
the mill one of the roller process. At the present date (1S90) 
there are two flouring mills in Bremen, the second one being op- 
erated by the Bremen Milling company, which was erected by 
A. J. Knobloch & Co., in 1875, and is also of the roller process. 
The two mills are considered valuable enterprises, and as they 
have a productive surrounding, an agricultural region, from 
which to draw trade, their prosperity is assured. 

In the year 1853 John Koontz erected the second blacksmith 
shop of Bremen, but in 1855 the shop was converted into a 
grocery store, and then Mr. Koontz erected his present shop, 
and while aU other veterans in his profession have laid down 
their hammers, John Koontz maj^ still be heard, 

" Week in, week out, from morn till night, 
With measured beat and slow," 

pounding his anvil, and deserves great credit for the continua- 
tion of his trade these many years. In the spring of 1854, the 
Prottsman family removed from Goshen to Bremen, and for a 
time ran a general store, but subsequently erected a building on 
the present site of the American house, and here kept the first 
regular hotel of Bremen; but in 1859, the family not being suc- 
cessful in their undertakings, removed to La Porte county. 
Among the early tavern or hotel keepers of Bremen were the 
following: George Pomeroy (who kept really the first inn of the 
place), John Prottsman (as referred to above), John Bauer, Jr., 
and others. 

Bremen now has two hotels, namely: the Garver house and 
American house, and both houses are under a prosperous man- 

In 1865 Jacob Knobloch erected in Bremen a large and 
commodious hotel, which was the pride of the town. It was 
known as the Knobloch house, and Air. Knobloch operated it till 
1869, when his death occurred, and about this time Mr. E. J. 
Thompson, Mr. Knobloch's son-in-law, assumed control of the 



house, which was thereafter known as the Thompson house. 
Subsequently H. M. Garver became the occupant and manager, 
but in 1879 the building was consumed in flames. 

In 1S66, Jacob Walter, in connection with William Huff, Sr., 
and August Mentzel, erected in Bremen, the first planing mill. 
About two years later Mr. Walter became sole proprietor of the 
mills, and under his management the mill was prosperous, con- 
tinuing to be operated until his death occurred, in 1889, since 
which time the mills have been somewhat idle. 

Perhaps the most important industry established in Bremen 
is the Bent-wood factory, owned and operated by John J. 
Wright. Mr. Wright came to Bremen in 1869, in which year he 
erected his factory, which he has since continued to operate, 
manufacturing such as bent-wood material for the building of 
carriages, houses, fencing, etc. This factory affords employment 
for more workmen than any or perhaps all other enterprises of 
the place, and is of no little importance as an enterprise. Soon 
after the establishment of this factory there followed, in 1872, 
the institution of the Bremen Woolen Mills, by George and 
Peter Weyrough, two brothers. The mills were erected just 
east of town and seemed to prosper and did continue in opera- 
tion for some eight or ten years, since when for some cause best 
known to its proprietors, operation has been suspended, but evi- 
dently the suspension has not been due to the want of facilities, in 
the way of raw material, etc., necessary to supply and make 
prosperous such an industry. 

In 1S79 the Bremen Pump Company was organized, and a 
pump factory erected on or near the B. & O. railway at Bremen, 
and for a time it appeared a valuable and successful enterprise 
would continue, but adversity befell the attempt, and the project 
was abandoned, and subsequently the flames reduced the factory 
to ashes. 

The only exclusively planing and shingle mills of Bremen 
were built about 1882, by Knoepfle & Vollmer, who have been 
successful in their enterprise. About 1878-9 A. Hadwin began 
the operation, upon a small scale, of a machine shop in the place, 
and continued the same till about 1886, when William May, the 
present proprietor, bought out Mr. Hadwin. It is now known 
as the Bremen Machine works, and is intended for doing re- 
pairing of machinery more than anything else. Still it is a valu- 
able addition to the industries of the town. 

Burkhard & Hantz is the style of a firm now operating suc- 
cessfully a heading and stave factory, which was formerly known 
as the Michigan Heading and Stave factory. The same has 
been operated since about 1875, and the various changes in its 
management perhaps need not be recorded here in detail. 

Carbiner & Huff operate the only saw-mill of Bremen, and 


their enterprise deserves no little consideration as a valuable 
industry to the town. 

Since about 1884 the Schlossher Bros, have owned and oper- 
ated the Cottage Grove creamery, just south of Bremen, which 
is entitled to claim the enterprise as a valuable addition to its 
industries. The creamery was begun on a small scale and has 
increased in importance until it has reached large capacity, and 
gained a reputation along with that of the best creameries of our 
county, and all is due the enterprising proprietors who are 
founders, though young men. 

Until the completion of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad com- 
paratively little merchandising was done at Bremen, since then 
mercantile pursuits here have been varied in character, and as 
usual many failures have been observed. Still there are and 
have been several successful merchants who b)' their practical 
business qualification have been successful in establishing a fair 
market for the farmer, and Bremen has become perhaps more 
than an ordinary trading point for a town of its size. Perhaps 
the first merchant to achieve a marked success in merchandising 
was Jacob Schilt, who during the civil war, and thereafter, up to 
the time of his death, which occurred only a few j^ears ago, con- 
ducted an extensive business. He was progressive, enterprising 
and practical as a business man, and amassed considerable 
wealth in conducting a general merchandise business. He is re- 
membered as a representative business man, and a worthy citizen, 
moral, industrious and honest. 

To make detailed mention of the several merchants who have 
been, and of those who are now, engaged in business here, would 
doubtless consume too much space. At this date, 1S90, there 
are three prosperous dry goods stores, also carrying general 
merchandise; one is that of John J. Wright, managed by 
his son, W. D. Wright; one is that of George Helenlinger, 
and the third is that operated by J. R. Diedrich & Co. 
The following are proprietors of groceries: Jacob Bauer, Fred 
Ponader, George W. Sunderland and others. There are 
two hardware stores, the one controlled by John W. Steinick,the 
other by Weis & Ewalt. John Huff and John Miller each have 
furniture and undertaking establishments, and the two drug stores 
are separately operated by O. F. S. Miller and G. F. Wahl. The 
Garver house, with H. M. Garver, proprietor, and the American 
house, operated by Frank Walter, are the hotels. There are 
two harness shops, three shoe shops, several blacksmith shops, 
one tailor shop, two livery stables, one marble works, an elevator, 
a pickle factory, two millinery shops, two implement stores and 
many other business places. It is not intended here to give a 
complete business directory of Bremen, but only to present suffi- 
cient particulars to indicate the volumes of business done here. 


Prior to 1889, no regular bank had been established in Bremen. 
However, J. R. Diedrich & Co., since 1875, have conducted in 
their store a kind of exchange bank. In November of iSSo, the 
Union bank was established, and is the first and only bank of the 
town, doing an exclusivel}' banking business. This bank, though 
a private bank, controlled by an association of a number of stock- 
holders, transacts a lucrative business, and upon the plan of the 
Indiana State banks. However, it is not a state bank. At pres- 
ent (August, 1S90), L. C. Curtiss is president and H. G. Hess, 

Rai'lroads. — Bremen is lo,cated on the line of the Baltimore & 
Ohio railway, and though this is the only railway touching the 
place, still it gives to the town an outlet to the east and to Chi- 
cago and the west, that presents splendid shipping facilities. In 
1872 this railroad was proposed, and the progressive and liberal 
citizens of Bremen and vicinity, gave valuable subsidies, including 
right-of-way, and gratuitous donations. In this same year the 
survey was made, and two years later (in 1S74), the road was 
completed, and the first train passed the observation of the 
Bremen citizens, through their own town and home. The rail- 
road is recognized as one of the best in the country, and such is 
its splendid system of management, that since 1874 the people of 
Bremen and German township have enjoyed excellent railway 
facilities which have enabled them to find a market with more 
ease than that accompanying the prior way of hauling by wagon 
and team, over long roads to, perhaps, Plymouth and South 
Bend, which cities then afforded the principal markets for the 
farmers. Few other towns no larger than Bremen, afford any 
greater traffic for railroads, as from here are shipped large quan- 
tities of wheat, corn, oats and other grains, live stock, timber and 
lumber, the last two commodities being those that have greatly 
added to the wealth of this section. 

The growth of Bremen in population has been steady; the 
percentage of increase during the past decade of years has been 
very small and scarcely perceptible. According to reliable au- 
thority the actual population in 1890 is, in round numbers, 1,100, 
however, 1,500, and even by some 1,800, has long been claimed 
as the population, but it is well known how often our town and 
city populations are over-estimated. Among the people of Bre- 
men and vicinity there are representatives from nearly all the 
eastern states, and, perhaps New York and Ohio are best rep- 
resented. There is, perhaps, no other county that is better rep- 
resented than Stark county, Ohio, among the early settlers, for 
many of them came from that county. Most of the foreign-born 
citizens have passed to their eternal home, and with chem there 
have passed away nearl}' all of the old settlers, and only a few 
who participated in the early settling of the place and township 
21— B. 


are left to tell the story of progress presented along the march 
of time. Among the population that people this town and town- 
ship there are lineal descendants of not a few nationalities. 
There are represented the German, the English, the Swiss, the 
Polish, the Scotch, the Irish, and others, but the most predomi- 
nant is, evidently, the German. 

In an early da^' the settlement of Bremen and German town- 
ship was made by a hardy and sturdy people, largely German 
and Swiss. The}' took up their habitation in the wilderness of 
dense forests; built their log cabin homes, and began the earnest 
and rugged battle of life as pioneers. Hard toil was the dailj^ 
lesson; many were their trials and privations. Clearing and 
chopping, cultivating the soil In a rude way were labors of the 
father and sons. The mother and daughters, too, had their irk- 
some duties, but amid all it is questionable if these early settlers 
did not live a more contented life than their seemingly more 
prosperous descendants. Contented with their lot and duty 
these pioneers struggled hard in the improvement of their farms 
and homes, and we of to-day are indebted to them for our mag- 
nificent country with its most excellent farms, and homes which 
make a paradise in comparison with what our forefathers had. 
These early settlers were not unmindful of the necessity of 
church, and early began to establish churches. 

Religions Denominations. — The religious denominations that 
have maintained an existence in Bremen are Lutheran, Allbright 
(later Evangelical association) , Presbyterian (or German Re- 
form), United Brethren, Congregational, Catholic and Metho- 
dist Episcopal. The Lutheran was the first to be established, 
which was in 1845, by Rev. G. K. Schuster, a Bavarian. The 
church has ever been prosperous and has increased in member- 
ship until more families of Bremen and vicinity are now repre- 
sented in its congregation than in any other church of the place. 
Among the early families of the church were the Bauer, Koontz, 
Hay, Gass, Keifer, Vollmer and others. Their first place of wor- 
ship was a log cabin on the north side of the Yellow river, now 
in the present limits of Bremen. In 1S55 a new place of worship 
was built on Mill street, and later, in about 1875, the present edi- 
fice was erected in the southeast portion of the town. It is a 
commodious frame, and adjacent to the same the church has a 
separate building in which is taught their parochial school, em- 
ploying regularly a teacher to educate their children in both 
English and German; the school is an adjunct of the church. 
The present pastor is Rev. C. H. Luecker, and the parochiaf 
school teacher is George Wamsgaus. 

The Evangelical association, as a congregation, was organized 
in the late forties by Rev. Peter Burgener, a Swiss, and among 
the early members there were represented several families in- 


eluding the following: Berger, Beyler, Heim, Weis, Gruber, 
Seller, F"entz and others. The first church house was built about 
one and a half miles northwest of Bremen about 1849 or 1850, 
and was a frame structure. This continued to be the place of 
worship until about the year 1S68, when the present elegant frame 
structure was built in Bremen, on Plymouth street. The church 
is in a prosperous state and has a fairly large membership. There 
have been several ministers in charge of the congregation, and 
the present pastor is Rev. Mr. Speichert, a descendant of Swiss 

The Presbyterian or German Reformed church, of Bremen, was 
organized, perhaps, about 1852, and the first minister of the gos- 
pel in the church was byname Rev. Miller, and among the more 
prominent members were the following families: Voegli, 
Koontz, Roth, Voegler, Snyder, Diedrich, Freese and others, 
many of which had broken off from the Lutheran church 
by reason of the strict orthodoxical discipline of that church. 
The first place of worship was a log cabin on the site of 
the present cemetery of Bremen. In 1859, on lot 6, of the 
original plat in Bremen, the first regular church was built, 
and here the congregation worshiped up to 1882, in which 
year their present attractive and large brick edifice was 
erected on Center street. For a decade of years. Rev. Philip 
Wagner preached for the congregation, and few others have 
preached for them, and at this writing Rev. Mej^er is acting pas- 
tor. The members are numerous and are zealous and active 
workers, and the prosperity of the church is assured. 

The United Brethren church has continued in Bremen since 
1853, the year in which the organization was made under Rev. 
S. W. Wells. Other ministers of this church have been the fol- 
lowing: J. S. Todd, Preston Wells, A. Richhart, H. Tack 
Fletcher Thomas, D. Williamson, M. Hutt, A. Reed, J. Surran, 
John Good, J. C. Larue, A. M. Cummins, Eph. Best, J. S. Todd, 
N. F. Surface and others, while the present pastor is Rev. J. W. 
Showley. This church had no well fixed place of worship till 
about 1862, when in unison with representatives from other 
churches there was built on the Bremen cemetery grounds, a 
Union church house, and here as well as other congregations, 
the United Brethren worshiped till about 1878-9, and then ac- 
complished the building of their present frame church house, in 
Bremen, where now a goodly number of members have a fixed 
place for worship. 

hi the fall of 1873 the first effective attempt was made that 
led to the organization of the Congregational church of Bremen. 
Messrs. Baldwin, Morris, Loney, Wright and their families held 
at their homes on the Sabbath appropriate services. Mr. J. J. 
Wright appropriated a part of his shop to a higher use, and on 



the second story of his shop there was fitted up and completed 
•a convenient room, which was comfortably and tastily furnished, 
and known as Congregational chapel. The Rev. Everts Kent, of 
Michigan City, was invited to preach here, and on April 12, 1874, 
a large congregation assembled and listened to the preaching of 
.the gospel according to the Congregational church faith. In the 
afternoon of that Sabbath the first communion service was held, 
:and the church was organized, Congregational in creed or faith, 
and the members consisted of J. J. Wright and wife; W. D. 
Wright, their son; Mr. and Mrs. Loney, Mr. and Mrs. Monroe, 
Mr. and Mrs. H. J. Macombe, and D. J. Baldwin. The number 
■of members has increased with a large percentage, and various 
pastors have preached for the congregation, and at this date, 
iSqg, Rev. D. Lee Sandburn is minister in charge. It has been 
about ten years since a regular church house was erected. The 
same was erected by means of donations, and is a convenient 
frame, well arranged and modern in architecture, and here this 
•denomination, now grateful for a place to worship their creator, 
meet in both church service and Sunday-school work, and con- 
stitute a zealous and prosperous society. 

There are few Catholics in Bremen, still they have a place of 
worship. A church house of frame was erected just west of the 
town in 1S74, Luther R. Martin, of Indianapolis, donating a lot 
for the site. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Bremen was organized 
;at an early date, and afterward the congregation purchased the 
Bremen Turnverein Germania hall and converted it into a de- 
sirable and commodious place of worship, and here they con- 
tinued to worship for a few years only, and subsequently the 
<:hurch membership grew weaker and smaller, and finally there 
was no class, and to-day there is no Methodist Episcopal church 
of Bremen. 

Schools. — Bremen is blessed, too, with most excellent schools. 
The first school building was erected in 1853, on lot number 5, 
which lot was donated to the township trustee by George Beyler. 
The building was a one-story frame, 22x30 feet, and the first 
:school in it was taught by George Pomeroy. 

Five years later the school population had increased so much 
that more school room was necessary. Accordingly, in 1S58, to 
the former building an addition of the same dimensions was 
made, and between the old and new a folding door was con- 
structed. The schools were under the supervision and instruc- 
tion of one teacher for a few years, perhaps until 1862 or 186^^ 
when two teachers were employed. Not until 1871 was it found 
necessary to extend the capacity of the school building. In this 
year the building was improved and made a two-story frame at 
.a cost for building and furniture of perhaps $4,500. In 1880 


another addition, two-story, was made, and now gives both suffi- 
cient capacity and convenience. The present school population 
of Bremen is 3S6. The first classification of the pupils was made 
in 1858. Now the school is a regular graded school with a high 
school department, and with a course of study adequate for giv- 
ing its pupils a liberal English education. For several years the 
schools have been under the superintendency of Prof. H. H. 
Miller, who is recognized as an able educator; and the superior- 
ity of the Bremen schools is due to his zealous efforts, assisted 
by three able assistant teachers. 

The people of Bremen are, and may well be, proud of their 
good schools, and there seems to be among the masses an earn- 
est desire to educate; and the surety that the schools ever will 
continue to be prosperous, well regulated, thorough and of 
splendid facilities to educate the youth, is evident from the 
manifested interest in them. 

Scarf Societies. — Among the secret societies of Bremen, the 
prevailing one, perhaps, is the Masonic. Bremen lodge. No. 414, 
F. & A. M., was organized on the 2nd of March, 1S69, under a 
dispensation, in which the following officers are named: Lewis 
Theobold, W. M.; Jacob Schilt, S. W.; Moses Keyser, J. W. A 
charter was granted and the lodge regularly organized, June 16, 
1870, by E. R. Shook, of Plymouth, deputy grand master. The 
following have served as masters: A. B. Younkman, Lewis. 
Theobold, A. B. Younkman, Charles H. Lehr, Moses Keyser, 
Charles H. Lehr, Daniel Fore, Charles H. Lehr, A. B. Younk- 
man, G. W. Moody, A. B. Younkman, up to i886,*when Christian 
Seller was elected; then A. B. Younkman, and the present master, 
John W. Braugher. The lodge is a prosperous one, and consists 
of a working membership of perhaps twenty-seven. 

Bremen lodge. No. 427, L O. O. F., was organized Novem- 
ber 20, 1873, with following charter members: A. C. Holtzen- 
dorff, Andrew Berger, John Bauer, Gottlieb Rosenbaum, Jacob 
Walter. This fraternity continued an existence up to about 1888, 
when for lack of energy and interest among the members, the 
lodge was discontinued and the charter surrendered. 

During 1872-3-4 the Grangers maintained an existence, but 
its fate was in common with many others of its kind in Indiana, 
and hence was of short duration. 

The Ancient Order of United Workmen organized a lodge 
here, and continued for a short period, covering perhaps two or 
three years, probably from 1882 to 1885, and was discontinued in 
the absence of prosperity. 

In September, i88q, there was organized, with a membership 
of eighteen, the Knights of Maccabees of the world, a secret 
society having perhaps, for its main purpose, mutual insurance of 


its members. The lodge is still continued, but not maintaining 
an active growth, as there are only fourteen members. 

The Hartzog post, No. 400, department of Indiana, G. A. R., 
was organized January i, 1SS5, with thirty-five charter members. 
The following have been the commanders: Adam Koontz, 
Joseph W. Hume, Jacob Kaufman, D. C. Smith, and now (1S90) 
Adam Koontz. The post contains an affiliating membership of 
about thirty-five, and is one of the most active in this section, 
and is attended with prosperity and evidence of a long con- 

Fire Department. — The fire department of Bremen was or- 
ganized and established September 8, 1S74, at which time there 
were issued bonds to the amount of $2,100 to purchase the neces- 
sary apparatus. However, the bonds have been redeemed and 
now the town is clear of debt. The town has a building for the 
fire department apparatus, which consists of an excellent hand 
engine, two hose carts and 1,200 feet of hose, and a hook 
and ladder wagon. At appropriate locations in the town 
there have been excavated sixteen cisterns, from which ample 
water may at any time be had for extinguishing fires. There 
are eighty-five members of the department, divided into four 
divisions: An engine company, a hook and ladder company and 
two hose companies. The following have been chiefs of the fire 
department: H. J. Macomber, 1874 to 1877; A. B. Younkman, 
1877 to 1879; H. H. Miller, 1879 to 1890. Hoosier Hook and 
Ladder Co. No. i was organized June 5, 1874, with Adam Hans 
foreman, and in 1890 the foreman is Edward Conrad. It is a 
most excellent company and took the first prize at the fireman's 
tournament at Bourbon, in September, 1877, running 300 yards, 
stacking ladder and putting man over top, time: thirty-four and 
a half seconds. The Union Engine company was organized 
October 15, 1874, with John Walter, foreman, and at the present, 
John Huff is the foreman. Union Hose company No. i was 
organized October 14, 1874, with Charles Glass as foreman, and 
the present foreman is Goetlieb Brenlin. Union Hose company 
No. 2 was organized June 13, 1878, and subsequentl}- disbanded 
and there was organized an expert hose company and is known 
as Hose company No. 4, with S. G. Lehr as present foreman. 
September 6, 1877, the engine and hose companies attended the 
firemen's tournament at Goshen, Ind., where they made the best 
time, running 100 yards, laying fifty feet of hose and throw- 
ing water fifty feet, in thirty-four and one-fourth seconds, 
receiving the first prize, amounting to $So. Hose company No. 4, 
in September of 1885, at a tournament at Michigan City, won first 
prize, receiving $100 and a water service. In August, 1887, at 
Plymouth, they received $50 and the championship of Indiana. 


The Union Engine Company No. i, in 1882, won the state 
championship as an engine company, and it was in iS85,at South 
Bend, that Messrs. Ed. Hickeman and Theo. Walter, as couplers 
from this fire department, took the world championship from 
Bret. The department is the best organized and drilled in 
Indiana, and is a most excellent department. 

The Bremen Cornet band is one of the best in Indiana, and 
was organized in 1S66. In 1S61 the first band of Bremen was 
organized with Peter Vogeli as leader, and Mr. Vogeli also be- 
came leader of the Cornet band and was its leader up to a recent 
date, in fact till ill health necessitated him to resign the leader- 
ship. The band consisted of nine members and nine pieces of 
music when organized. They had become skillful in music under 
its veteran musician and leader, and now consists of fourteen 
members, all of whom are good musicians. 

Akiospapcrs. — About 1872 the first newspaper published in 
Bremen was established and published by the Macomber Bros., 
and was known as the Broncn Clipper. It continued but a short 
time and was suspended. In 1876 Charles W. Sweeny published, 
in the interest of democracy, the Bremen Gazette, but it, too, was 
of short duration. About 1878, George and Lee Sunderland, 
brothers, established the Bremen Banner, a weekly issue. It was 
the first newspaper of any consequence, and gained a fair circu- 
lation, and was fairly well appreciated by the patrons. It was 
discontinued about 1888. Bremen now has a prosperous and 
fixed publication as a newspaper, and is known as the Bremen 
Enquirer. It was established in 1885 by Brook H. Bowman, who 
made the first issue of his paper November 17, 1S85. Each week, 
since this date, it has appeared as an eight column sheet, neat, 
newsy and ably edited by its founder, who has continued as 
editor and proprietor. It has gained a circulation of 800, and 
has an assured prosperity. It is neutral in politics, and aims and 
does give its many patrons the current news of interest. 

Pliysicians. — Among the early physicians of Bremen and Ger- 
man townships, there were Dr. Pollard and Dr. Moore, who prac- 
ticed here in the forties. In 1854, Dr. William Stange became 
the first resident physician of Bremen, and here he continued for 
rnany years, his death occurring about 1S87. In 1856, Dr. Chris- 
tian Seiler located at Bremen, and here continued an active and 
successful practice till his death occurred in 1883. He was a 
trusted family phj^sician of more than a local reputation as an 
able physician, and by his practice in the profession amassed a 
fortune, dying universally respected by all who knew him. Dr. 
Baird was also a well-known physician who practiced medicine 
and resided in Bremen from 1866 to 1S75, his death occurring in 
the latter year. In 1867, Dr. A. B. Younkman located in Bremen, 
and began the practice of medicine. He has continued an active 


and successful career as a physician and surgeon, and is one of 
the four phj-sicians now practicing at Bremen. More recently 
the other three physicians, namely, Drs. Wahl, Church and Her- 
ring, have located here at Bremen, and built up a practice. There 
is also in Bremen a skilled dentist, Dr. A D. Scott; and also an 
able veterinary surgeon, Chas. H. Gollatz. The following are 
physicians who located and practiced medicine in Bremen but a 
brief time: Drs. Deppler, Oults, Bishop and Moody. 

The legal profession is also represented in Bremen by a very 
able attorney, S. J. Hayes. Mr. Hayes has practiced law here 
several years, and is recognized as a man of strong legal mind 
and ability by not only the people in general, but by the members 
of his own profession. 

George Balsley, a representative farmer of German town- 
ship, was born in Marion county, Ohio, April iq, 1S40, and is a 
son of Jacob and Mary Ann (Hunselman) Balsley. The parents 
were native of Alsace, Germany, were married in Marion county, 
Ohio, and their union resulted in the birth of the following chil- 
dren: Sophina, Jacob C., John, George, Joseph, Sarah, Cath- 
erine, Mary and Charles. In the fall of 1847 the parents left 
Ohio, and came to Indiana, locating in German township, Mar- 
shall county, where their deaths subsequently' occurred. George 
Balsley was reared and educated on a farm, and remained with 
his parents till past twenty years of age, working at farm work. 
In 1S60 he went west and for a few months was in the gold mines 
of Pike's Peak, Colorado. He returned to this county, and in 
1861 married Mary Radabaugh, who became the mother of one 
child, namely, William W., after whose birth she was called away 
by death. In 1873 Mr. Balsley married for a second wife, Caro- 
line F"rie, who was born in Germany, March 28, 1850. To this 
marriage there have been born the following children: Minnie, 
Elizabeth, Elnora, James H., Clem S., Walter S., Harmon C, 
Cora Alice and Lee Roy. Mr. Balsley enlisted as a private in 
the F'ifteenth Indiana volunteer battery, September 13, 1862, and 
was discharged June 30, 1865. He was a brave and gallant 
soldier, and participated in many engagements, among which 
were the siege of Knoxville, Resaca, Atlanta Campaign, Frank- 
lin, Nashville and others. At the close of war Mr. Balsley re- 
turned to Marshall county, and has since mainly followed farm- 
ing in German township. In connection with farming he has 
spent eight years in saw-milling. He is a thrifty and successful 
farmer, and an industrious citizen. He is a member of the 
G. A. R., Hardzog post of Bremen; also of the Bremen lodge, 
No. 414, F. & A. Kl., and in politics he is a staunch republican. 

John Bauer, Jr., a native of Stark county, Ohio, was born 
September 14, 1836, and is a son of John and Margaret (Foltz) 
Bauer. The father was born in Alsace, Germany, in 1812, and 


the mother in Beirn, Germany, in 1814, and with their respective 
parents they emigrated to America, in about 1S33. They were 
married in Starke county, Ohio, about the year 1S34, and their 
union resulted in the birth of the following children: Elizabetii, 
John, Adam, Caroline, Jacob, George, William, Charles and 
Maggie. For ten years after their marriage they resided in Ohio, 
and in 1S44 emigrated to Indiana, and settled near Bremen, Mar- 
shall county. Here the mother died in i86r. The father mar- 
ried a second time in 1865, and now resides in Bremen, as one of 
its oldest and best citizens, whose life has been spent in farming. 
John Bauer, his son, was reared on a farm, and given a fair edu- 
cation in the German language, and also acquired a fair knowl- 
edge of the English branches. Farm work was his duty till he was 
about seventeen years old, when he learned blacksmithing, 
which he followed some eight or nine years. In 1859 he married 
Miss Margaret Walters, who was born in Marion county, Ohio, 
in 1S37, dying at Bremen in 1877. The above marriage was 
blessed b}^ the birth of four children, namely: William (de- 
ceased), Mary E., Lucinda and Annie. In 18S1 Mr. Bauer mai- 
ried for a second wife, Mary Eslinger, born in St. Joseph county, 
Ind., January 17, 1845. In 1S60 Mr. Bauer became a hotel 
proprietor in Bremen, where he kept hotel for about eighteen 
years. In 1874, he built the " American house," and operated it 
for one year, selling out in 1875. Later he was in the boot and 
shoe business for a short time. In the fall of 1884 he was ap- 
pointed postmaster for Bremen, and he held the office till in the 
fall of 1S88. He has held several positions of trust in the county 
and town, once serving a term as county coroner, and is at pres- 
ent one of the Bremen councilmen. He is a member of the 
Bremen lodge. No. 414, F. & A. M., and in politics a staunch 

Brook H. Bowman, editor and proprietor of the Bremen En- 
quirer, is a native of Albion, Ind., born May 31, 1863, and is the 
only surviving issue of the marriage of Simon and Cornelia 
(Baughman) Bowman. The father and mother were born in 
Ohio, and their marriage was consummated in Noble county, 
Ind. March 21, 1865, the father became a Union soldier, and 
later was made second lieutenant of Company I, One Hundred 
and Twenty-ninth Indiana infantry, with which he served until 
his death, which occurred at Nashville, Tenn., August iq, 1865. 
Subsequently, in 1867, his widow was wedded to O. H. York, 
whose death occurred at Lisbon, Ind., in 1876, and she, in 1878, 
became the wife of Henry M. Garver, with whom she now re- 
sides in Bremen. Our subject was educated in the public schools 
of Albion and Kendallville, of Noble county, where he was 
reared. When his mother married Mr. Garver, she brought her 
son with her to Bremen, at which time he was but fifteen years 


of age. He secured work in the printing office of the BrcDien 
Banner, and here learned the art of setting type. Here, as a 
printer, he worlved till in 18S4, when, with a partner, he located 
at Rome City, Ind., and founded and published the Clipper, till 
in i8S5,whenhe sold out his interest to his partner. Subse- 
quently, for a short time, he was engaged at work in the office of 
the Fort Wayne Daily Gazette. In the fall of ]S85, he returned 
to Bremen and began the publication of the Bremen Astonisher, 
now the Enquirer. His paper is an independent weekly, and has 
a circulation of about 700 copies. As an editor Mr. Bowman 
ranks well, and at his early age he achieved much success in his 
chosen avenue of life. He is a member of the K. O. T. M., of 
Bremen, and of the Sons of Veterans. 

D. M. Bowser, a representative farmer of German township, 
was born in Elkhart county, Ind., May 6, 1835, and is a son 
of Daniel and Sarah (Brombough) Bowser. The parents were 
perhaps both born in Pennsylvania, and in an early day, with 
their parents, came to M'ontgomery county, Ohio, where they 
were married. They had the following children: William, Philip, 
Henry, David M., Joseph and Eve, all except Joseph still live. 
In about 1833, the parents moved from Ohio to Elkhart county, 
Ind., where they settled, and later, removed to Kosciusko county, 
where the father died in 1849, aged forty-five years. The mother 
subsequently married a second time and lived in Elkhart county, 
where she died March i, 1868, aged sixty-three years. The 
parents were of a mixed descent, being that of the Scotch, 
English and German, and their church faith was that of the Ger- 
man Baptist. The father was a farmer by occupation. He lived 
in Elkhart county but a short time when he removed to Kosci- 
usko county, where David M., our subject, was reared up to the 
age of fifteen years. On the second marriage of his mother, he 
began the battle of life for himself, working as a hired hand on 
a farm, as a poor boy. In youth he gained a fair education for 
his day, in the country schools, learning to read, write and cipher. 
But through the avenue of books and papers, he has become con- 
versant on subjects of general interest. Later, for two or three 
years he farmed upon his own capital, and when the civil war 
broke out he was among the loyal and first to enlist. He an- 
swered to the first call in 1861, for a three months' service, and 
enlisted in a company that was not accepted because the call was 
filled when the}- had reached Indianapolis. Their captain was Gen. 
Haskill, and to his hesitancy may be credited their rejection. 
And November 21, 1861, he was enrolled at Goshen, Ind., as a 
private in Company M, Forty-first Indiana mounted volunteers 
for a term of three years, or during the war, and October 4, 1864, 
at Indianapolis, was discharged by reason of expiration of term 
of service as a sergeant of Capt. A. S. Mitchell. Record: Gal- 


latin, Tenn., Shiloh, Teiin., Carthage, Tenn. Then Forrest 
captured our subject and four others, who were carrying a dis- 
patch to Mitchell, then in pursuit of Morgan, and were held pris- 
oners for about seven months before they were paroled and 
exchanged. Then took part in the engagements at Buzzard 
Roost and siege of Atlanta. When he was discharged Mr. 
Bowser came back to Elkhart county, and in 1865, was married 
to Mary E. Allen, daughter of Avry and Mary A. (Stockmore) 
Allen. Mrs. Bowser was born in Fulton county, N. Y., Septem- 
ber 7, 1S40. The children are: Edward C, Allen A., Franklin U.; 
Charles, deceased; George E., Hattie M., and Orvil E. March 2, 
1868, Mr. and Mrs. Bowser removed from Goshen to Marshall 
count}' and settled on their present homestead in German town- 
ship where Mr. Bowser has since been engaged in farming. Of 
their children, Edward C. is married and is farming near his 
parents, and Allen A. is a typewriter for a business firm in 
Indianapolis, but once was a teacher. The other children are at 

Jacob Carbiener, a representative citizen of German town- 
ship, was born in Wayne county, Ohio, May 26, 1852. He is a 
son of George and Catherine (Siefer) Carbiener. The parents 
were born in Alsace, Germany, the father in 1S23, the mother in 
1826. In 1850 the father emigrated to America, and in 1851 the 
mother, both locating in Wayne county, Ohio, where, in 1851, 
they were united in marriage. To this marriage were born the 
following children: Mary, Jacob, George, Catherine, Elizabeth, 
Annie, Sarah, William and Matilda. In 1854 the parents re- 
moved from Ohio, and settled in St. Joseph county, Ind., 
where the mother died in 1869. When they settled in St. Joseph 
county, they located in the woods, and in an early day of the 
settlement of that county, and, clearing, chopping the heavy 
timbers, was the first work of the father, whose life occupation 
has been farming. The advantages then were poor for farming, 
but through trials and privations this pioneer and his family 
passed on to success and prosperity. The father still lives, and 
is a well known and respected citizen. He is a member of the 
German Presbyterian church, of which church the mother died a 
member. Jacob, their eldest son, the subject of this sketch, was 
reared on a farm, and acquired a fair common school education 
for his day. He was given poor advantages in youth to gain an 
education, for the schools of his day were poor, and in them 
were taught hardl}' more than reading, writing and arithmetic. 
However, through the means of books and papers, he has gained 
knowledge of subjects of general interest. He worked on the 
farm with his father till past twenty-one years of age, and then 
the struggle of life for himself, with no capital other than ambi- 
tion and a determination to succeed. In 1876 he married Susan- 


nah Link, who was born in Mohoning county, Ohio, July i, 
1S51. The marriage resulted in the birth of the following child- 
ren: Delbert, Gracie, Nora, Arthur and Earl. Soon after his 
marriage Mr. Carbiener settled down in life on a farm in German 
township. He followed agricultural pursuits for a few years, 
and then began saw-milling and lumbering. He still owns a 
farm, but has his farming done by hired help, his work and at- 
tention being turned to saw-milling and lumbering, in which he 
has been successful!}' engaged for over twelve years. At the 
present he and William H. Huff are operating a stationary saw- 
mill at Bremen, with an annual out-put of nearly one and a half 
million feet of lumber. He is one of the leading business men 
of Bremen, and is one of the representative citizens of the 
county. He is a self-made man; and although he began life 
poor, he has achieved success in his various undertakings, and 
grown prosperous. In politics he is a staunch democrat. In the 
spring of 1S90 he became the choice of his party, as their candi- 
date for township trustee, and in the April election was triumph- 
antly elected. He is a man of less than forty years, and at this 
early age has a bright prospect for a future career. 

Morgan Fink, proprietor of a meat market in Bremen, was 
born in Mahoning county, Ohio, October 14, 1845, ^"^1 is a son of 
Martin and Polly (Weaver) Fink. The following are the names 
of the children born to Martin and Polly Fink: Louis C., 
Amanda, Morgan, Eli, Ellen, Lorinda, Charles, Uretta, Eliza, 
and William. The parents settled in St. Joseph county, Ind., in 
1855, removing to Marshall county in 1857, and subsequently re- 
moved to Bremen, where the father followed merchandising for 
several years. He died in Bremen at an advanced age. He was 
an honest, thrifty, and progressive citizen, a leading democrat, 
and respected by all alike. His widow now resides in Bremen, 
and is one of its oldest citizens. Morgan Fink was raised on a 
farm and given a fair common school educetion. LIpon reaching 
his majority he began the battle of life for himself as a farmer 
on rented lands, consequently beginning with a very limited cap- 
ital, but by energy and enterprise he has become prosperous, and 
now enjoys a high rank in life. In 1866, he married Margaret 
Felnaggle, a native of Mahoning count}', Ohio, and unto the 
marriage there have been born three children, namely: Clayton 
(deceased), Florence and Pearl. Mr. Fmk farmed till in the 
spring of 1882, when he became a citizen of Bremen, where he 
has since been operating a meat market. 

Jacob Fries, Jr., a live and energetic citizen of Bremen, Ind., 
was born in Holmes county, Ohio, May 9, 1841, and is the eldest 
child of Jacob and Louisa (Huff) Fries. The father was born 
in Bavaria, Germany, January 12, 1812, and emigrated to the 
United States in 1833, locating in Holmes county, Ohio, where 


he married Louisa Huff, who was born in Germany in 1818, and 
who died in Bremen in 18S7. The parents came to German 
township in 1845, ^^d the father is one of the oldest citizens of 
Bremen. His life has been spent at the shoemakers' trade and 
farming. The subject of this sketch is his oldest son, and he 
was reared on a farm, receiving a fair education in both the En- 
glish and German languages. He worked with his father on the 
farm till he entered the army, September 10, iS6i,_ enlisting 
as a private in Company K, of the Twenty-ninth Indiana vol- 
unteer infantry. Among the principal engagements in which he 
participated were the battles of Shiloh, Corinth, Stone River, 
Liberty Gap, Chickamauga and others. At the last named battle 
he received a gun shot wound in the right shoulder, disabling 
him, and leading to his discharge at Indianapolis, May 4, 1864. 
After returning to Bremen, and recovering, he engaged in farm- 
ing, together with operating threshing machines up to 1879, when 
he began dealing in farm implements at Bremen, and has since 
continued in that business. At present he is a special salesman 
for the Whitley binder and mower machine company of Spring- 
field, Ohio. January 15, 1865, Mr. Fries was united in marriage 
with Annie Seller, born in Switzerland, March 19, 1843. Unto 
the above union have been born five children, namely: Flora, 
Ellen, Charlie, Maudie and Minnie. Mr. Fries is a representa- 
tive citizen, a democrat in politics, and a member of the Hard- 
zog G. A. R. post of Bremen. 

John P. Gass, proprietor of a meat market in Bremen, was 
born near Bremen on a farm, October 22, 1850, and is a son of 
John and Barbara E. (Ponadour) Gass. Both parents were born 
in Germany, the father in 1813, and the mother in 1815. The 
father died in German township, this county, in 1869, and the 
mother now lives in Bremen. They emigrated to America separ- 
ately, he about 1846, and she about 1847. They were married 
in 1847 in St. Joseph county, Ind., and immediately after their 
marriage settled in German township, where the father followed 
farming till he died. Unto their marriage were born the follow- 
ing children: Maggie, deceased; John P.; Jacob, deceased; Mary, 
deceased; Katy, deceased; Urva, deceased, and Charles. The 
parents reared their children in the Lutheran faith. John P., the 
subject of this sketch, was reared to farming and was given a fair 
common school education in thecountry schools, learning to read 
and write both the English and German languages. He re- 
mained under the parental roof till past twenty-one years of age, 
at which time he began the battle of life as a farmer. May 27, 
1871, he was united in marriage with Miss Sarah Foltz, daughter 
of John A. Foltz, an early settler of the county. Mrs. Gass was 
born in Carroll county, Ohio, December 13, 1S51, and her mar- 
riage with Mr. Gass has resulted in the birth of the following 


children: Oliver T., Charles U., William E., Ida R. and Earnest F. | 
Soon after his marriage Mr. Gass began farming on the old home I 
farm, and in 1S74 he engaged in carpentering, which he followed 1 
for eight )-ears. He then purchased his father's home farm, and 
there farmed until the spring of 1S89, since w-hen he has resided 
in Bremen, operating a meat market. He and wife are leading 
members of the German Lutheran church, and he is one of the 
prosperous and enterprising citizens, and enjoys the high esteem 
of all who know him. 

Henry M. Garver, a native of Elkhart county, Ind., was born I 
September 11, 1S40, the son of John S. and Mary (Stutzman) 
Garver. The parents were born in Ohio, and in an early day 
the father settled in Michigan, and the mother settled in Elk- 
hart county, Ind., and in the latter county the parents were united 
in marriage, which union has resulted in the birth of twelve 
children, two of whom are deceased. In 1855 the parents settled 
in Union township, Marshall county, where they still reside. The 
father, by occupation a farmer, is one of the most extensive land 
owners of the county, and is among the oldest and best respected 
citizens of the township in which he resides. Henry M. Garver 
was reared on a farm and was given a fair country school educa- 
tion for his day. He worked on the farm with his father till he 
was past twenty-three years of age, and then left the parental 
home and began a life for himself, choosing agriculture for his 
occupation. In 1861 he was united in marriage with Caroline 
Thomas, a native of Ohio, a union blessed with the birth of four 
children, namely: Melvin, Lizzie, John E. and Nettie; in 1876 
the mother's death occurred, and in 1S78 Mr. Garver married for 
a second wife, Mrs. Cornelia (York) Baughman. In 1S78 Mr. 
Garver removed from a farm in Green township to P.lj-mouth, 
where he lived but a short time, and in August, 1878, he located 
in Bremen, w^here he has since remained engaged in the hotel 
and livery business. He ran the Thompson house until Feb- 
ruary 4, 1880, when the house was burned down. This rnisfor- 
tune was a severe financial blow to Mr. Garver, but through 
energy and successful management he has almost recovered 
from his loss. He is now proprietor of the Garver house, of 
Bremen, and in connection with the hotel he has a well-stocked 
liver}^ stable. As a business man Mr. Garver is practical and 
judicious. As a citizen he is progressive and well-respected, and 
in politics he is a zealous and ardent worker in the democratic 
party. He is a member of the Bremen lodge. No. 414, F. & 
A. M., and belongs to the Bremen K. O. T. M. 

Edw. Geiselman was born in German township, Marshall 
county, September 22, 1866, and is a son of Josiah Geiselman, an 
early settler of the county. He was reared on a farm and ob- 
tained a common school education, which he completed In the 


Bremen schools. He left the farm at the age of sixteen years, 
and in Bremen learned the painter's trade. He visited Kansas 
for a short time and then returned to Bremen, and in January of 
1887, became proprietor of the Bremen Marble works, dealing 
in marble and granite monuments, headstones and building 
stones. As a stone cutter, Mr. Geiselman is a skillful workman, 
and his work consists in making all designs from the simplest to 
the most elaborate and beautiful, running from the cheapest to 
the most expensive. He is prepared to do any work desired of 
a stone mason. He is an enterprising, energetic young man, and 
practical in business affairs, and has established an increasing 
trade in Bremen and other places, and has two traveling sales- 
men employed. His annual sales will run from $4,000 to $6,000. 
He began with a very limited capital and is now a prosperous 
and responsible business man. In iSSg he was united in marriage 
to Miss Ida Wahl, of Bremen, and a daughter of Michael VVahl. 
Mr. and Mrs. Geiselman enjoy a high social standing and are 
well respected citizens. 

Josiah Geiselman was born in Stark county, Ohio, Decem- 
ber IQ, 1826, and is the oldest of the following children, born unto 
Michael and Eliza (Hufferd) Geiselman: Josiah, Elijah W., 
James D., Jacob H. and Malinda. The father was born in Penn- 
sylvania and the mother in Maryland, each of German descent. 
These parents were married in Stark county, Ohio, where they 
lived till in 1834, when the family removed to St. Joseph county, 
Ind., and settled in the wilderness. Here they continued to live 
for many years, the mother dying here. The father who was a 
blacksmith by trade and a farmer by occupation, in old age lived 
with our subject, at whose home he died. Josiah Geiselman was 
reared and educated on a farm, and learned of his father his first 
knowledge of blacksmithing. His mother died when he was only 
fourteen, and at this early age he began the struggle of life, be- 
coming his own support. He lived in Michigan, and worked at 
black^iithing for a while at first, then returned to St. Joseph 
county and finished learning his trade. In 1846 he located just 
east of what is now Bremen, in Marshall county, and followed his 
trade till in 1848, when he built the second building of the town 
of Bremen, where he followed his trade up to 1855, when he went 
to Iowa, returning in 1S60, working until 1864, in which year he 
abandoned blacksmithing and took up saw-milling, and since has 
been engaged in both saw-milling and farming, but of late years 
only farming. In 1866, he located on his present farm in German 
township, and where he now resides. In 1849, he married Mary 
Ringle, born in Stark county, Ohio, April 4, 1828; and the mar- 
riage gave issue to the birth of the following children: Eliza, 
John D., Nathan H., Edward, Jacob, Emaline, Cora E.and others 
that died in early life. Mr. and Mrs. Geiselman are members of 


the United Brethren church, and are among the oldest and best 
respected citizens of their township. 

Charles H. Gollatz, a veterinary surgeon, of Bremen, has had 
an extensive practice in this state elsewhere. He is well versed in 
his profession, and successfully treats diseases of horses and cattle. 
Mr. Gollatz was born in the kingdom of Prussia, Germany, 
March 12, 1849, and is a son of Charles and Wilhelmina (Brit- 
ziuietz) Gollatz, both natives of Germany, in which country they 
died, the father dying in the German army. There were but 
two children, namely: Mary and Charles H. In 1852, with an 
uncle, the children came to Canada, and later to Michigan, where 
Mary was married and now lives. At the age of fifteen years 
Charles H. went to New York city and followed canal boating 
for about three 3'ears. From New York city he went to Spring- 
field, Mass., and entered a veterinary hospital, and for two and a 
half years studied veterinary surgery. Then for a short time he 
was in Michigan, where he practiced his chosen profession, and 
in 1875 came to Indiana and located at Bremen, where he has since 
remained. He has had an increasing patronage in veterinary 
work, and through a wide experience and a close and continued 
study he has become skillful and successful in his profession. 
He supplies himself with the latest publications on surgery, and 
has a full equipment of instruments for the practice. He is a 
progressive and energetic man, self-made, and worthy of com- 
mendation. When a youth he was given a fair common school 
education in the schools of Canada, and at fifteen he began the 
struggle of life for himself, a poor boy. He has since achieved 
success in his various undertakings, and is one of Bremen's most 
worthy citizens. He married Mrs. Susan Phelps, ncc Condo, 
who was born April 7, 1847. 'The children are: Wilhelmina, 
Elsie, Charles H. and Jacob F. 

S. J. Hayes, attorney at law, of Bremen, was born in Craw- 
fordsville, Ind., January ig, 1S50. He is a son of Aaron L. and 
Mary (White) Hayes. The father and mother were natives of 
Montgomery county, Ohio, and their births occurred in the years 
1825 and 1827, repectively, both born of Scotch and Irish extrac- 
tion. The mother came to Montgomery county, Ind., with her 
parents as early as 1829, and the father became a resident of the 
same county in 1832. The marriage of Aaron L. and Mary 
Hayes was consummated in Crawfordsville, Ind., and their union 
resulted in the birth of si.x children, namel}': Elizabeth, Sam- 
uel J., Thomas B., Rosa, Jennie and May. The father was a 
farmer by occupation, which he followed till in 1856, since which 
time he has been a minister of the gospel in the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and is now a resident minister of Rankin, 111., 
where the mother died in April of 1890. Samuel J. Hayes, the 
immediate subject of this sketch, was given a fair common 


school education in the graded schools of Indiana and Illinois, 
and completed a classical course in the Illinois state university, 
at Champaign, which he attended three years. For two j'ears in 
Rankin, 111., he was engaged in merchandising, but his store be- 
ing burned out by accident, he then suspended merchandising, 
and then began the study of law, entering the law department 
at Ann Arbor, Mich., from which he graduated in 1876. Mr. 
Hayes then located at Buchanan, Mich., where he remained but 
a few months, and in 1S76 located in Bremen, Ind., where he has 
since remained, his law practice increasing each year. In 1876 
he was united in marriage with Miss Annie E. Clark, who was 
born in Buchanan, Mich., August 26, 1853. The marriage has 
been blessed by the birth of the following offspring: Clark, 
Dallas, May, Zeta and Harold. Mr. Hayes is in the true sense 
of the term a self-made man. He has practiced in this and sur- 
rounding counties, and is regarded as a man possessed of ability 
in his profession, and as having a good legal mind. He was 
once the republican candidate for prosecuting attorney of the 
41st Indiana district. He is and has been for several years town 
attorney of the town of Bremen. He is credited with being an 
honest and conscientious worker in the practice of law, and does 
whatever he performs with sincerity, and is a careful and judi- 
cious advocate, ranking among the ablest of his profession. He 
is a member of the Bremen lodge, No. 414, F. & A. M., and as 
a citizen he is progressive and enterprising. 

Jacob Heckaman, one of the oldest and earliest settlers of 
German township, was born in Lancaster county, Penn., August 7, 
1812, and is one of fourteen children born to Samuel and Mar- 
garet (Miller) Heckaman, who were natives of Pennsylvania, of 
German descent. In 1829 the parents removed from their native 
state to Ohio, and settled in Stark county, where they thereafter 
lived and died. The subject of this sketch was raised to farming 
and blacksmithing, and received a fair education in the German 
language. Owing to his parents being poor, he found it neces- 
sary to become his own supporter, and at an early age he worked 
at various kinds of work, but mainly at the blacksmith's trade, 
which, together with farming, he has followed up to within the 
last few years. In 1834 he was married to Elizabeth Shearer, 
who was born in Stark county, Ohio, September 19, 1814. The 
marriage resulted in the birth of the following children: John, 
Sarah Ann, Mary, Samuel, Emanuel, Rachel, Philip, William, 
Jacob, Margaret and Adam. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Heckaman settled down in life in the woods on a farm in Stark 
county, Ohio, where they lived till in 1839, when they came to 
Indiana, settling in German township, this county, in the spring 
of 1840, and here they have since continued long and useful 
lives. When they settled here the surrounding countrj- was a 
22— B. 


wilderness and the Indians were still numerous. They have lived 
in the county for over fifty years, and are among the oldest and 
best respected citizens. By hard toil, honesty and frugality, they 
have gained a good home, name, and character. They have 
been life-long members of the German Lutheran church, and 
they enjoy the esteem and confidence of all who know them. 

John Heckaman, the oldest son of Jacob Heckaman, was 
born in Stark county, Ohio, October 10, 1834, and was but five 
years old when brought to Marshall county by his parents. He 
was reared on the farm and gained a limited common school ed- 
ucation. In 1856 he was united in marriage with Catherine 
Wyraugh, born in Germany, April 23, 1836. Unto the marriage 
there have been born five children that have grown to years of 
maturity, viz.: George, Mary, Edward, John W., and Jacob H. 
Mr. Heckaman followed farming up to 1870, when he became a 
citizen of Bremen, where he lived for fifteen years, serving ten 
years as justice of the peace. In 1885 he removed out to his 
farm, in this township, where he now lives. He has held several 
minor township offices, and for the last several }'ears has been 
township assessor, and is the present incumbent. In politics he is 
a staunch democrat. October 14, 1864, he became a private in 
Company F, Forty-second Indiana infantry, being discharged by 
reason of close of war, June 20, 1865. 

James B. Huff, a representative farmer and leading citizen of 
German township, was born in said township, August 2, 1S56, 
and is a son of Philip Huff, an early and well-known settler of 
Marshall county. Our subject was born and reared on a farm, 
and given a fair education in the country schools. He worked on 
the farm with his father till he was past twenty-one years of age, 
and December 23, 1877, was united in marriage with Mary M. 
Heckaman, who w-as born in German township, November 2, 
1858, a union blessed with the birth of the following children: 
Nella M., Oliver C. (deceased), Cora E., Elvin and Alvin 
(twins and deceased), Earl E. and Bertha C. Farming has been 
Mr. Huff's occupation, and as a farmer he is one of the most 
practical and successful in the county. He owns a well improved 
farm, consisting of 200 acres situated in sections 6 and 5, of Ger- 
man township. He has never aspired to a public career, but has 
lived the life of a well-respected and independent farmer. His 
wife is a member of the German Lutheran church, and in poli- 
tics he is an unwavering democrat, and enjoys the esteem and 
confidence of his fellow townsmen. 

Melkous Heinke, a farmer by occupation, and a citizen of 
German township was born in Saxon, Germany, June 13, 1830. 
He is a son of Jacob and Sophia (Franklin) Heinke. Both the 
father and mother were natives of Saxon, Germany, and unto 
their marriage were born three children: Sophia, Melkous and 


Jacob. In 1S36 the parents and children emigrated to the United 
States, and for a short time lived in Buffalo, N. Y., where the 
father followed his trade of a wagon-maker. In the spring of 
1S37 the family settled in Stark county, Ohio, where the father 
continued up to 1S43, when he removed his family to St. Joseph 
county, Ind., where he settled in the woods and took up farming 
for an occupation. In this county the mother died in 1875, aged 
seventy-four years. In 1S82 the father removed alone to Kan- 
sas, where he died in 1885, aged eighty-three years. Melkous 
Heinke, the subject of this sketch, was raised and educated on a 
farm, and farming has been his occupation throughout life. He 
was married in 1S52 to Elizabeth Roth, who was born in Baden, 
Germany, April 5, 1S32, and unto their marriage there have been 
born four children that have reached maturity, namely: William, 
Philip, Mary and Sarah. Soon after his marriage Mr. Heinke 
settled down in life on his present farm in German township, and 
here he has lived the honest and industrious life of a successful 
farmer. He owns a well improved farm of 140 acres, and is one 
of the well respected citizens of his community. 

George Helmlinger, a prominent merchant of Bremen, was 
born in Stark county, Ohio, April 11, 1839, and is a son of Chris- 
tian and Margaret (Chlemmer) Helmlinger. The father was 
born in Alsace, Germany, in 1S04, and in his native schools 
gained a thorough education in both German and French, and 
for ten years taught both languages in Alsace. The mother was 
also born in Alsace, Germany. She died in St. Joseph county, 
where the father now resides. Unto Christian and Margaret 
Helmlinger there were born the following children: Sophia, 
Christian, Jacob, George, Philip and Louisa. The first two were 
born in Alsace, Germany, the others in the United States. In 1835 
the parents emigrated to America and settled in Stark county, 
Ohio, where they resided until 1841, when they removed to St. 
Joseph county, Ind. Since coming to the United States the 
father has followed farming for an occupation. He resides on 
the old homestead where he settled in 1841, and is one of the 
oldest pioneers of St. Joseph county. His parents in a few 
years after his coming to America, came also, and died in Indi- 
ana. Their only daughter married in Philadelphia and died 
there. George Helmlinger, the subject of this sketch, was 
reared on a farm and received a limited education in the early 
schools of Indiana. Under the instruction of his father he 
gained a fair education in the German language. He left the 
father's home, at the age of sixteen years, and began work at 
the shoemaker's trade, which he followed exclusively for a 
number of years. In 1863 he began merchandising, which he 
has since continued in St. Joseph, Elkhart and Marshall counties, 
and since 1872 has continuously been in business at Bremen. He 



began life a poor man, but by a practical business career he has 
grown prosperous and now has a lucrative trade established, doing 
an annual business of about $iS,ooo in general merchandise. 
In 1859, March 10, he was married unto Caroline Bauer, born in 
Stark county, Ohio, October 3, i84i,of German parentage. The 
marriage occurred in Bremen, and has resulted in the birth of 
five deceased and two living children. Those that live are 
William and Henry. Mr. and Mrs. Helmlinger are members of 
the German Lutheran church, a^d are among the leading and 
best respected families of Bremen. 

N. A. Herring, M. D., was born in Goshen, Ind., December 27, 
1856. His father, Frederick Herring, was born in Prussia, Ger- 
many, October 30, 181 2. The father grew to manhood in his 
native country, where he received a common school education, 
which was supplemented by a thorough course in classics, sciences 
and medicines, by attendance at the better academies and 
colleges of Germany. After completing his medical education 
Frederick Herring began the practice of his chosen profession 
in Germany, where he continued until May 13, 1S55, when he 
emigrated with his wife and six children to the United States, 
subsequently making a permanent settlement in Goshen, Elk- 
hart county, Ind., where he has continued an active and success- 
ful career as a physician. He is considered among the most able 
and skillful physicians of northern Indiana. His marriage was 
consummated in Germany with Amelia Wolf, a native of Prus- 
sia, born June 24, 1815, which union resulted in the birth of eight 
children, namely: Frederick A., Mollie, Milla, Christian J., 
John H., Paul, Nathaniel A. and Elizabeth; the first six being 
born in Germany; the last two in Goshen, Ind. Of the sons, one 
is a leading attorney of Chicago, 111., and two are practicing 
physicians. Nathaniel A., the immediate subject of this biogra- 
phy, is a resident physician of Bremen, Ind. He was reared 
in Goshen, where he received a high school education, and at- 
tended two terms at the Hillsdale college, of Michigan, subse- 
quently completing a special course in the Indiana State 
university, at Bloomington. In 1876 he began the study of medi- 
cine under the guidance of his father, and later began the prac- 
tice of his profession in Elkhart county. In 1S7S he entered the 
" Bennett Eclectic Medical college, of Chicago," where he com- 
pleted his medical education, graduating in 18S0. In the summer 
of 1880 he located at Bremen, where he has since continued an 
active and remunerative practice, with an increasing patronage. 
He is regarded as a successful practitioner, and ranks with the 
foremost of his profession in this county. In 1881 he was united 
in marriage with Miss Lucy E., daughter of John' J. Wright, 
a well-known citizen of Bremen. Mrs. Herring was born in 
Chicago, III., March 7, 1858, and her marriage with Mr. Herring 


has been blessed by the birth of one child, Freddie J. Dr. and 
Mrs. Herring are members of the Congregational church, and 
are among the leading people of Bremen. Dr. Herring Is a 
representative and progressive citizen, and is a recognized friend 
to churches, schools, public improvement, enterprise, and what- 
soever concerns the public welfare. 

John Huff, a furniture dealer and undertaker of Bremen, was 
born In Bucks township, Tuscarawas county, Ohio, October 27, 
1843. He Is the son of Francis tnd Margaret (Gass) Huff. The 
parents were born In Reinbeir, Germany, the father in 1S18, the 
mother In 1819. The father was a son of Francis and Elizabeth 
Huff, natives of Germany, and unto them there were born these 
children: Francis, Jacob, Elizabeth and Kasarlna. The parents 
emigrated to America In 1S36, and settled In Ohio. They died 
in Marshall county, and lie buried at Bremen. Their son, Fran- 
cis, was a farmer by occupation, and was married In Tuscarawas 
county, Ohio, where he lived and died, his death occurring In 
1872. His widow still resides on the old homestead. The mar- 
riage resulted In the birth of the following children: John, Eliza- 
beth (deceased), Charles, Kasarlna, Jacob, and Francis (de- 
ceased). John, the oldest, and the subject of this mention, was 
raised on a farm and ^Iven a limited education. Upon reaching 
his majority, he came to Bremen, Ind., where he has since re- 
sided. Up to 1880 he followed house carpentering. Since this 
date he has been engaged in the merchandising of furniture and 
in the undertaker's trade. In October, 1867, he was married to 
Christine Gass, who was born In Germany, March 12, 1843. The 
marriage has been blessed by the birth of two children, viz.: 
Elnora M. and Clayton E. Mr. and Mrs. Huff are members of 
the German Lutheran church, and are well respected. He is a 
prosperous businessman of Bremen, of whose popular fire depart- 
ment he is a member. In politics he Is a democrat. 

William Huff was born in Reinbeir, Germany, February 27, 
1832, and Is a son of Philip and Catherine (Lahm) Huff. The 
parents were born In Reinbeir, Germany, and were married in their 
native country, and In about 1835, emigrated to America and set- 
tled In Tuscarawas county, Ohio, and later In 1S51, located in 
German township, this county, where both died. Unto the mar- 
riage of the parents there were born ten children, namely, Louisa, 
Philip, Rebecca, Caroline, Charles, William, Frances, Jacob, 
Noah and Soloman. The first six were born in Germany, the 
others in the United States. The father was a farmer by occupa- 
tion, and both father and mother were members of the German 
Presbyterian church. The father died in 1873, aged eighty- 
two years, and the mother in 1878, aged seventy-eight years. 
Their son William was reared on a farm and given a common 
school education. He remained on the farm with his father till 


twent)' years of age, at which time he took up the carpenter's 
trade, and followed the same until the year 1867. Since then he 
has been engaged in saw-milling and lumbering, in which he has 
amassed considerable wealth. At present he and sons are inter- 
ested in an agricultural store in Bremen. Mr. Huff was married 
in 1S58, wedding Eliza Annis, born in Indiana, in 1838. The 
children that have been born unto the marriage are: Francette; 
Flora E., deceased; Eva, Clynton, Erven and F'rank A. Mr. 
Huff is a member of the Evangelical church, and his wife a mem- 
ber of the United Brethren church. In politics he is a staunch 
democrat, and has held several positions of honor and trust in 
the township. In 1880, he was elected trustee of German town- 
ship, and was re-elected in 1882. He served two terms and made 
a good officer. He is a representative and enterprising citizen, 
enjoying the esteem and confidence of his fellow townsmen. 

William H. Huff, a saw-mill operator and lumber dealer of 
Bremen, was born in Marshall county, Ind., March 16, 1S52, the 
son of Philip and Lydia (Keyser) Huff. The father was born 
in Reinbier, Germany, June 30, 1820, and was a son of Philip and 
Catherine (Lahm) Huff, natives also of the same country. They 
emigrated to America in about 1835, settling in Tuscarawas 
county, Ohio. Our subject's father came'with his parents, and 
January 23, 1845, i" the above county, was united in marriage 
with Lydia Keyser. To this marriage there were born the fol- 
lowing children: John P., deceased; Eliza, Elizabeth, William, 
Harriet, James B., Catherine, Charles F., George W., Weaker M. 
and Philip. November iq, 1846, the parents came to Marshall 
county, Ind., and settled on a farm in German township. The 
father was a farmer by occupation, and on coming to this country, 
settled in the woods, for at that time this vast domain of north- 
ern Indiana was in a wilderness state. The parents were of the 
Albright church faith, and enjoyed the esteem of a wide ac- 
quaintance. The father died, but the mother still survives and 
resides in the township. William H., the subject of this sketch, 
was raised on a farm and given a fair education in the country 
schools, which were in his day, very poor. By more or less read- 
ing, and by a wide experience, he has gained a knowledge of the 
world and of business, and is conversant with such subjects as 
concern the education of to-day. He remained under the 
parental roof till near twenty-two years of age, and then with a 
•limited capital, began the battle of life as a farmer. In 1876 he 
was united in marriage with Caroline Paige, who was born April 19, 
1S54, in Marshall county. This union has been blessed by the 
birth of the following children: Myrah, Olive, Arthur W. and 
Alice. Mr. Huff farmed but a short time, and then engaged in 
saw-milling and lumbering, in which he has been engaged for 
over twelve years. In this pursuit through his practical ability 


as a business man, he has been very successful, and from a man 
of Hmited means he has grown to be prosperous, and is now one 
of the foremost business men of Bremen. In connection with 
Jacob Carbiener he has operated at Bremen a stationary saw- 
mill, of an annual capacity of one and a half million feet of 
lumber. Mr. Huff is a self-made and progressive citizen. He is 
a member of the Bremen lodge. No. 414, F. & A. M., and in 
politics an ardent democrat. He enjoys the esteem of his fellow 
townsmen, and is one of their leading and enterprising citizens. 
Jacob C. Kaufman, one of German township's leading citi- 
zens, was born in Canton, Ohio, October 28, 1S3S, and is a son of 
John Kaufman, a pioneer settler of German township. John 
Kaufman was born in Grand Duchy of Baden, Germany, June 15, 
1801. October 21, 1825, in his native land he was united in mar- 
riage with Catherine Adler, who was born in the same locality. 
This marriage resulted in the birth of the following offspring: 
John, Mathias, Caroline, Catherine, George, Jacob C, Elizabeth, 
Maria L., Margaret and Amelia. The first two were born in 
German}', the others in Canton, Ohio. In 1832, the parents and 
the first two children immigrated from Germany to America, 
and settled in Canton, Ohio, and in 1849 the father purchased a 
land warrant for 160. acres in German township, Marshall Co., 
Ind., from a Mexican soldier, and after visiting the land deter- 
mined upon removing his family to the same, which he did in 
1850, locating in the woods. Here he spent the remainder of his 
life as did also his wife. She died April 15, 1872, aged sixty- 
three years, six months and twenty-eight days. He died June 2, 
1881. The father was a turner by trade, and in his native coun- 
try followed his trade as a journeyman. He resided in Canton, 
Ohio, nearly eighteen years, devoting his time to his trade, and 
on coming to Marshall county he followed his trade in connection 
with farming. He and wife were universally respected. He was 
an honest and industrious citizen, and in politics either a staunch 
whig or republican. His old homestead is still owned and culti- 
vated by his son, Jacob C, who is the direct subject of this 
sketch. Jacob C. was but twelve years of age when his parents 
settled in German township, where he was reared to farming, re- 
ceiving a fair country school education for his day. He remained 
under the parental roof till September 13, 1862, when he enlisted 
as a private in Company C, Twentieth Indiana volunteer infantry. 
He was discharged at Camp Alexandria, Va., as a private in 
Companj' F, of the same regiment, on the 31st of May, 1S65. 
Among the several engagements in which he participated were 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettj^sburg, Locust Grove, 
Spottsylvania Court House and others. After being honorably 
discharged by reason of the close of the war, he returned to 
Marshall county, and October 13, 1866, was married to Gather- 


ine Casper, born in Stark count}-, Ohio, Marcli 5, 1839. After 
the marriage Mr. Kaufman settled down in life as a renter upon 
his father's farm, which farm he purchased in 1872. He is a 
practical and successful farmer, and a representative citizen. In 
politics he is a republican. In iSSS the people of German town- 
ship elected him for their township trustee, and he has just 
closed a successful term in this capacit)'. He is a member of the 
G. A. R., of the Bremen post, and is a member of Bremen lodge, 
No. 414, F. & A. M. 

Alasalom Keyser, a native of Tuscarawas, Ohio, was born 
February 18, 1841, and is one of the following children born unto 
Solomon and Sarah (Domer) Keyser: Lydia, Elizabeth, Jacob, 
Absalom, Sarah, and others that died in early life. The 
father and mother were born in Pennsylvania in the years 1805 
and 1806, respectively, both of German descent. The father 
was a farmer by occupation, and in 185 1 removed his family to 
Indiana, and settled in German township, this county. He set- 
tled in the woods and brought into a state of cultivation the 
present homestead of the subject of this sketch, where he lived 
till his death in 1875. I" 1851, in partnership with Philip Huff, 
he built the first steam saw-mill in German township, and con- 
tinued to operate the same for eleven years, when it was pur- 
chased by Martin Kelley. This pioneer settler was a well- 
known and respected citizen, was a moral, sober and industrious 
man, and a zealous member of the United Brethren church. 
His widow, also a member of this church, is now past eighty-six 
years of age, and resides with our subject. Mr. Keyser was about 
ten years of age when his parents came to this count3^ and he 
was raised and educated on the farm, and his entire life has been 
devoted to farming as an occupation. As a farmer he is consid- 
ered very successful, and he owns a well improved place. 
April 28, 1878, he married Elizabeth Boyer, who was born in 
Marshall county, April 7, 185S. Unto this marriage have been 
born three children, namely: Oscar, Franklin and Floyd. 

Zachariah Keyser was born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, 
March 14, 1S34, and is a son of Daniel and Sarah (Fisher) Key- 
ser. Both the father and m.other were born in Pennsylvania, of 
Dutch descent, the former in 1798, and the lafter in 1806, and in 
an early day they came with their parents to Ohio, where their 
marriage was consummated. To this marriage there were born 
the following children: Rosann, Benjamin, Jonathan, Mary, 
Zachariah, Eliza, Peter, Daniel, Jeremiah and Annie, all of 
whom, excepting Jonathan, Mar}', Zachariah and Eliza, are de- 
ceased. Benjamin, Peter, Daniel and Jeremiah were soldiers in 
the civil war, in which they lost their lives. The father was a 
farmer by occupation, and in February, 1849, settled on a farm 
in the woods of German township, where he lived a long and 


useful life, dying in a ripe old age, respected by all who knew 
him. Our subject was born and raised on a farm and here he 
has spent his life at hard work tilling the soil, and although he 
began in life without a dollar, he has gained a good home and 
established a good name and character. In 1861 he was united 
in marriage with Jane Medcalf, who was born near Bremen, Ind., 
in 1845. Unto this marriage there have been born these cjiild- 
ren: William, Phila, Ella, Clinton, Elveretta, George and Delia. 
Mr. Keyser is a well respected citizen and a representative 
farmer, owning and cultivating a good farm of 150 acres in Ger- 
man township. He is a staunch democrat in politics. 

Harmon Knobloch, a resident farmer of German township, 
was born in Stark county, Ohio, September 29, 1842. He is a 
son of Jacob Knobloch, who was born in Alsace, Germany, in 
1803. Jacob was reared in his native country where he learned 
the stone-mason's trade and plastering. In 1823, in company 
with his brother Frederick, he emigrated to the United States, 
and subsequently settled in Canton, Ohio, where he was married 
to Margaret Keller, a native of Switzerland. She became the 
mother of the following children, and then her death occurred: 
Henry; Josephine, deceased; Jackson, Benjamin, Harmon, Frank- 
lin and Elnora. Subsequently the father married a second time, 
and his widow now lives in Bremen. This second marriage re- 
sulted in the birth of the following children: Caroline, Charles, 
Louis, Edward, James and Clara. Jacob Knobloch worked at 
his trade in Canton, Ohio, where he resided, until the fall of 1850, 
when he removed his family to Indiana, and located in the woods 
of German township, this county. After coming to Indiana he 
followed his trade and farming until 1865, when he removed into 
Bremen and built a hotel which he kept until 1869, when his 
death occurred. He was a Free Mason, and a charter member of 
the Plymouth lodge. He being a stone-mason, he cut the head- 
stone that marks his resting place in the Bremen cemetery, and 
on it he carved the square and compass, the emblems of his 
order. He was a worthy and well respected citizen, in politics a 
staunch democrat, and held in life several positions of honorand 
trust in the county. Harmon Knobloch, the immediate subject 
of this sketch, was reared and educated on a farm. June 16, 1864, 
he was united in marriage with Sarah Mathes, born in New York, 
December2S, 1848. The followingare the names of their children: 
Nella, Lillie, deceased, and Arthur. Since his marriage Mr. 
Knobloch has remained on the old homestead where his father 
settled in the county, and has led a successful life in farming. 
Besides farming he was also, from 1866-74, engaged in saw-mill- 
ing. He and wife are members of the German Presbyterian 
church, and are among the highly respected families of the com- 
munity. In politics he is a zealous democrat. In the spring of 


18S4 he was elected township trustee, and was re-elected in 1SS6. 
He is a member of the Bremen lodge, No. 414, F. & A. M., and 
is one of the well respected farmers and citizens of German 

Christian Knoepfle, one of Bremen's enterprising business 
men, was born in Wurtemburg, Germany, April 23, 1835, and re- 
ceived a fair German education in his native schools. In early- 
youth he learned the cabinet-maker's trade, and in 1872, at the 
age of seventeen years, he emigrated to the United States alone, 
coming direct to Bremen, Ind., where he has since resided. At 
once he secured a situation at his trade with Christian Seller, for 
whom he worked six years; after which he worked for John J. 
Wright, in the bending factory for six years, and in 1884 formed 
a partnership with Jacob Vollmer, and began the manufacturing 
of laths, shingles and dressed lumber. In 1S7S he married Miss 
Caroline Vollmer, born in Bremen, August i, 1856, of German 
parentage. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Knoepfle there have been born 
five children, namely: Charles F. W., Doretha, Otto, Annie and 
Meina. Mr. and Mrs. Knoepfle are members of the German 
Lutheran church, in Bremen, of which he is elder and a trustee. 
He is one of the representative citizens of Bremen, being one of 
its board of councilmen, and he is also one of the charter mem- 
bers of the excellent fire department, and a well respected citizen. 

Adam Koontz was born in Alsace, France (now Germany), 
April 22, 1838, and is a son of Adam and Elizabeth (Parson) 
Koontz. Both parents were born in Alsace, where they were 
raised and married. The following are the names of their chil- 
dren: Elizabeth, Caroline (deceased), Dorotha, Catherine (de- 
ceased), Margaret, Adam, Magdaline, John (deceased), and 
Peter. In 1847 the parents emigrated to the United States and 
settled in German township, Marshall count3^ Ind., on a tract of 
land, a part of which is now the Koontz addition in the town of 
Bremen, where they lived and died. They were members of the 
German Evangelical Association church, and the father was a 
farmer by occupation. The mother died at Bremen in 1855, 
aged fifty-two years. The father died in 1887. aged ninety-one 
years. Adam was only eight years old when his parents came 
to this country. He was raised on a farm, and learned both Eng- 
lish and German languages. He worked on the farm with his 
father up to the beginning of the civil war, and on January 16, 
1862, he enlisted in the Fifteenth Indiana battery as a private. 
Briefly stated, the following is his military record: Harper's 
Ferry, Va., there taken prisoner, and on the following morning 
was paroled and taken to Chicago, where he was exchanged. 
Then at Indianapolis received a new outfit and was armed and 
placed back in the service, assisted in the chase and capture of 
Morgan, marched through Kentucky, on to east Tennessee, 


joining Burnside and taking part in tlie defense of Knoxville 
when besieged by Longstreet; and after the east Tennessee 
campaign was in the Atlanta campaign under Sherman. Then 
under Thomas to Nashville, fighting at Columbia, Franklin and 
Nashville, and was sent to Washington and on to Wilmington 
and Raleigh, N.C., and from Raleigh was sent to Indiana, where 
he was discharged June 30, 1865, as a second lieutenant. On 
leaving the service he returned to Marshall, where he has since 
lived, following farming for an occupation. In October, of 1871, 
he was united in marriage with Kate Allen, born in Pennsylvania, 
January 2Q, iSsi. The following are their children: Mabel A., 
John R. S., Ida A. M., Milton G. N., Burt O. L., Clarence A., 
George W., and Milo C. E. Mr. Koontz began life with no cap- 
ital other than willing hands, but he has been successful, and 
owns a well-improved farm of eighty-nine acres. He is a fair 
and liberal minded man, and in politics a republican, and is one 
of the leading citizens of German township. He gives consid- 
erable attention to bee culture, in which he is quite proficient, 
and at this time has an apiary of about fifty hives. 

Rev. C. H. Lueker, pastor of the Bremen German Lutheran 
church, was born in Prussia, Germany, October 12, 1843, and is a 
son of Gottlieb and Sophia (Hagemier) Lueker. The parents 
were born, reared and married in Prussia, and unto their mar- 
riage there were born the following children: Frederick, 
Charles H., Gottlieb, Sophia, Henry, Louisa, William, and An- 
nie L. Lueker. In 1857 the parents immigrated to the United 
States and settled in Madison county. 111. Here the father died 
in 1881, aged si.xty-six years. The mother still resides in that 
count}' and state. When his parents immigrated to this country 
our subject was about fifteen years of age. In Germany he had 
gained a fair German education, and in 1S63 he entered the Con- 
cordia Theological college of the German Lutheran church, 
at St. Louis, where he graduated in 1867. From 1867 to 1869 he 
had charge of a congregation in Cape Girardeau county. Mo., and 
then from 1869 to 1888, had charge of a congregation in Dickin- 
son county, Kas. In November of 1888 he took charge of the 
church at Bremen, and beside the Bremen congregation he has 
charge of others at Woodland and near Plymouth. In Madison 
county, 111., in 1867, he was united in marriage with Sophia 
Lueker, born in Prussia, Germany, June 30, 1S48. Unto the 
marriage there have been born Martin, Clarrie, Bertha, Henry, 
Louis, Carl, Sophia, Adolph, deceased, August and Lydia. 

William B. Macomber, a citizen of German township, is the 
subject of the following biography. Sometime prior to the 
French and Indian war (1754-63) there emigrated to America 
from Scotland three brothers, one of whom settled near Boston, 
Mass., one near Concord, N. H., and one near Niagara Falls, in 


Canada. A son of the Massachusetts settler became the father 
of several children, among whom was Elijah IMacomber, the 
father of the following children: Stephen, Adams, Eliza, Wash- 
ington, Horatio, Julia, Leonard and John. The father settled in 
Durham, Androscoggin county, Me., and here, July 26, 1808, his 
son Adams was born. Adams Macomber was united in mar- 
riage with Betsie Briggs, who was born in Auburn, Me., Octo- 
ber 7, 1805. She was a daughter of William Briggs, a native of 
Massachusetts and of English lineage. Unto the above mar- 
riage there were born: William B., Elijah A., Hiram J., John L. 
and Zebina A. Macomber. The father was a shoemaker by trade, 
and resided in Maine till 1845, when he removed his family to 
Winnebago county, 111., where he engaged in farming. In the 
spring of 1850 he settled in Elkhart county, Ind., where he died 
November 3, 1853. The mother died in Bremen, February 15, 
18S4. The parents were of the Universalistic church faith. 
William B., their oldest son, is our subject. Elijah A. became a 
second lieutenant in Company B, Twenty-ninth Indiana volun- 
teer infantry, and at the battle of Chickamauga, Tenn., received 
a wound that caused his death at New Paris, Ind., September 20, 
1864. Hiram J., of South Dakota, is a resident minister of the 
gospel in the Congregational church. John L. is farming in Kan- 
sas, where he went in 1882; he left Indiana in 1876, as did also 
Zebina A., who is now farming in Missouri. William B. was 
born in Parkman, Piscataquis county. Me., November ig, 1833. 
He was aged seventeen when he located in Elkhart county, 
and he resided there till 1866, since when he has lived in German 
township of this county. He received a limited common school 
education, but has gained a fair knowledge of general subjects 
through the general reading of books and papers. At the age 
of eighteen he began life for himself, by daily labor at various 
things, but principally carpentering, in which he worked for 
about nine years. Since that time farming has been his principal 
occupation, but for over twenty years, in connection with farm- 
ing, he was engaged in saw-milling. September 16, 1861, he 
married Miss Belinda Hess, born in Elkhart county, Ind., Sep- 
tember 12, 1838. The marriage has resulted in the birth of the 
following children: Charles A., Tremella J., Mary E., Julia E., 
Ira L., Lewis E. and Betsie C. Mr. and Mrs. Macomber are 
members of the United Brethren church, and are highly re- 
spected. He is a republican politically, and Is one of the repre- 
sentative and progressive citizens of the count}'. 

W^ F. Mensel, station agent, telegraph operator and express 
agent at Bremen, was born in Marshall county, Ind., October 13, 
1862, and is a son of August and Barbara Mensel, earl}- settlers 
of Bremen. He was born and reared in Bremen, and received 
a common school education in the schools of the town. In 1880 


(December) he went Into the B. & O. railway office at Bremen, 
and here learned railway office work, together with telegraphy, 
and in February of 18S2 he took charge of the office, and has 
continuously held the position since. In December, 1S83, he 
married Miss Laura M. Bowman, a native of Indiana. The 
children are Harry and Frank. He is a member of the 
K. O. T. M. of Bremen. 

Prof. Henry H. Miller, who has been the popular principal 
of the Bremen schools for over twelve years, was born in Tus- 
carawas county, Ohio, March 6, 1S51, and is a son of Philip and 
Catherine (Maurer) Miller. The father and mother were born in 
Bavaria, Germany, in the years 1819 and 1827, respectively. The 

father was a son of Philip and (Hettesheimer) Miller, 

natives of Bavaria, Germany, emigrating to America in 1835. 
Unto them were born: John, Philip, Frederick and Catherine, 
whose births occurred in Germany. Our subject's parents were 
married in about 1846, and to their union were born the following 
children, viz.: Catherine, Frederick, Henry H., Caroline L., 
Philip P., Charles W., George W., Adam, Frederick C. and 
Mary M. The father, who was a farmer bj^ occupation, died in 
Ohio, in 1885. The mother survives and resides in Ohio. 
Henry H., the subject of this sketch, was reared on the farm, 
and he gained a fair common school education, which in after 
years he broadened by graduation, in 1877, from the Northern 
Indiana normal school of Valparaiso. He completed the scien- 
tific course, receiving the degree of B. S. He taught five 
terms in the district schools, and in 1879, took charge of the Bre- 
men schools, in which he has won the esteem and confidence of the 
patrons who regard him as a very able and successful teacher. 
In 1877 he was united in marriage with Harriet Ringle, born at 
Bremen, May 3, 1853. The marriage has been blessed by the 
birth of three children, namely: Ada M., Verne A. and 
Charles O. Mr. Miller is a member of the Bremen lodge, No. 
414, F. & A. M. He has been chief of the Bremen fire depart- 
ment since 1878, and was one of its charter members. In poli- 
tics he is a democrat. He is insurance agent for four good com- 
panies, and is a leading and progressive citizen. 

Daniel Ringle, one of the pioneers of German township, was 
born in Westmoreland county, Penn., September 12, 1809. He 
is a son of Daniel and Mary (Baum) Ringle. The father was born 
in Lehigh county, Penn., in 1869, and died in Stark county, Ohio, 
in 1834. He was a son of Mathias Ringle, who was born in Old 
Philadelphia, of German extraction. Mathias Ringle was the pro- 
genitor of the following offspring: Abraham, John, Joseph, Adam, 
Jacob, Eve, Margaret, Elizabeth, Daniel and Mary. The father 
was married a second time. He was a wagon master in the col- 
onial army during the American revolution for seven years, un- 


der the command of Gen. Washington. Daniel Ringle, his son, 
was united in marriage with Mary Baum, who w^as born in Le- 
high count}', Penn., in 1772, and died in Stark county, Ohio, in 
1856. Unto the above union there were born the follow- 
ing children: ■ Elizabeth, Margaret, Adam, Mathias, Mary, 
John, Susannah, Daniel, Nancy, Barbara and Sarah. The 
father served in the early Indian wars. He was a blacksmith 
by trade and also farmed for some years, and moved from 
Pennsylvania to Ohio in 1816. His son Daniel, was but a 
boy at this time. He was reared on a farm and given a meager 
education in reading, writing and arithmetic. He worked on the 
farm with his father till he was past twenty-four years of age, 
and then with a very limited capital began the battle of life. He 
started on boat down the Ohio, passed up the Mississippi, thence 
to Peoria, 111., then walked to Chicago, then to St. Joseph county, 
Ind., where he arrived in 1835. After purchasing lands, he visited 
Ohio, then returned to Indiana and purchased in German town- 
ship, this county, a tract of land. In 1837, in Ohio, he was united 
in marriage with Eliza Carus, who was born in Stark county, 
Ohio, May 15, 1818. She is adaughter of John and Hannah Carus, 
the former a native of Pennsylvania, and of Irish descent. The 
above marriage resulted in the birth of the following children: 
Sarah Ann, Mary M., Martha E., John C, William C, Elizabeth, 
David C, Wesley, Harriet, Harrison and Ellsworth. In 1839, 
Mr. Ringle located on his purchase in German township, where 
he farmed till 1856. In 1854, he built the first saw-mill of Bremen, 
and subsequently spent nine 3'ears in saw-milling, together with 
farming, which he discontinued in 1863, since which time he has 
resided in Bremen. At this period he embarked in merchandis- 
ing, which he continued for about twenty-two years. Since then 
he has lived somewhat of a retired life. He is one of the oldest 
and best respected early settlers of Bremen, and has held several 
offices, among which were township clerk under the old law, 
and that of justice of the peace, which office he now holds. In 
politics he is an ardent republican. He is a member of the 
United Brethren church, but formerly was a member of the Evan- 
gelical Association. 

Jacob Schlosser was born in Bavaria, Germany, March 29, 
1829. He is a son of Jacob and Doretha (Ritchie) Schlosser, 
both natives of Bavaria, unto whom were born five children, 
Jacob being the oldest. He came to America in 184S, with his 
brother Philip, was reared to farming to the age of thirteen, and 
then was taught the trade of a locksmith. Upon reaching the 
United States he landed in the city of New York, where he fol- 
lowed the baker's trade, and in 1857, nearly ten years later, he 
was united in marriage in that city to Margaret Karrer, who was 
born in Baden, Germany, October 18, 1829. She is the daughter 





of George and Elizabeth (Oblender) Karrer, unto whom there 
were born thirteen children, Margaret being the oldest but one. 
The mother died in the old country, and in 1855 the father and 
eleven children (two having died) emigrated to the United 
States and located in New York city. The father, subsequently, 
lived and died in New Jersey. Unto the marriage of Jacob and 
Margaret Schlosser there have been born the following children: 
Frederick, Philip, George, Henr3% Jacob, Doretha E., Gustav, 
William and Samuel, all living. In June, 1S57, Mr. and Mrs. 
Schlosser came to Marshall county from New York city, and set- 
tled in the woods on their present homestead in German town- 
ship, and here they have continued to reside ever since, Mr. 
Schlosser following farming for an occupation. Mr. and Mrs. 
Schlosser are members of the Evangelical church and enjoy a 
high social station. Near their home, and one mile from Bre- 
men, is situated the Cottage Grove creamery, which is owned 
and operated by two of their sons, Henry and Jacob, with whom 
Philip was formerly associated. The creamery was established 
in 18S4, and is one of the valuable enterprises of German town- 
ship. Here is manufactured a fine grade of creamery butter, 
which finds a market largely in Baltimore, New York, Chicago 
and other cities, to where the enterprising proprietors also ship 
large amounts of eggs. Henry, the senior member of the firm, 
was born March 28, 1863, and Jacob was born May 15, 1865, and 
both are young and practical business men of energy and 

Frederick Schlosser, a young and energetic farmer of Ger- 
man township, was born in the township February 23, 1S5S, the 
son of Jacob Schlosser, an early settler of the county. He was 
reared and educated on a farm, working with his father until he 
was past twenty-one years of age, then he left home and became 
a hired hand at farm work, which he continued for three years. 
In 1883 he was united in marriage with Alice Alberts, who was 
born in German township, July 12, 1862. She is a daughter of 
John Alberts, who died a Union soldier in the civil war. Unto 
Mr. and Mrs. Schlosser's marriage there have been born two 
children, namely: Harriet Etta and Hazel Margaret. Mr. 
Schlosser, after his marriage settled down in life on his father's 
farm and took up the pursuit of agriculture, which he has since 
continued as an occupation. In 1889 he purchased his present 
homestead of eighty acres near Bremen, and here resides, mak- 
ing dairy farming somewhat of a specialty'. He is an industrious 
man, a well respected citizen, and in politics is a firm republican. 

Christian Seller, Jr., the subject of this sketch, first saw the 
sun rise on the morning of March 18, 1838, on the shore of 
Lake Brienz, near Interlaken, Canton Berne, in Switzerland. 
His father was born in the same house on August 10, 1806. His 


mother was Anna Fentz, born August 15, 1810, in Gstelgwyler, a 
romantic spot within two miles of Interlaken. Her father was 
a farmer. In the year 1798, when the French generals took 
Berne, the capital of Switzerland, and demanded all the money 
that had been hoarded up there, in the national treasury, for ages, 
Grandfather Fentz was called on as a militiaman to help defend 
his countrj'. Perhaps the first and only duty he performed was 
to obey the orders of some French commander to watch the 
money that was boxed up and ready on the sidewalk in front of 
the treasury building for shipment to Paris. Afterward the old 
man often said that he was a fool for not taking a box of the 
gold and walking away with it. He was in that day considered 
a wealthy man, as he owned a great deal of land, cows, horses 
and sheep. In the summer season he was always up in the Alps 
herding his stock and making cheese and butter. In the spring 
of 1S37 Christian Seller, Sr., and Anna Fentz were united in 
marriage, and to them six children were born, viz.: Christian; 
Frederick, born October 12, 1839, and Anna, January i, 1841, both 
dead; Anna (now Mrs. Freese, living in Bremen), born March 18, 
1843; Susan and Margaret (twins), born October 11, 1849, all in 
the same house in Switzerland. In the year 1853 the Seller 
family determined to emigrate to America to better their fortunes, 
having heard and read much of this fruitful land and the oppor- 
tunities it offered to those who were seeking homes. So on the 
13th day of October, 1853, the entire family started from their 
native home for the western world. They made their way 
across Switzerland, through F"rance to Paris, and thence to Havre 
where they took passage in a PVench sailing ship, and after a 
voyage of twenty-eight days arrived safely in the harbor of New 
York. They remained there over Sunda}', and then proceeded 
west by way of the Erie railroad to Buffalo, by boat to Cleve- 
land and Toledo, thence by the Lake Shore to South Bend, Ind., 
where they arrived on the ist of December. On the 5th of that 
month they rode on an ox wagon, owned by Uncle John Dietrich, 
to the town of Bremen, which was their destination. Christian 
Seller, Sr., bought of his brother-in-law eighty acres of land one 
mile west of Bremen, for $700, of which $300 was paid in cash. 
The subject of this sketch was bound out to his uncle, John 
Dietrich, for the period of five years to earn the $400 that 
was unpaid on the land. About June ist, 1854, Dietrich with his 
family moved to Bremen into a log house, and in the spring of 
that year erected the first cabinet shop, in which our subject 
learned his trade and served his time, which ended January ist, 
1859. In 1859 young Seller went to Olney, 111., where he 
worked as a carpenter in summer and as a cabinet-maker in 
winter. He received for wages $1.25 a day and board. Return- 
ing to Bremen Mr. Seller continued to work at his trade with 


good success until the breaking out of the civil war in 1861. In 
the fall of that year he enlisted in Company K, Twenty-ninth 
Indiana volunteer infantry. He took part with his regiment in 
the battles of Shiloh, Stone River, Chickamauga, and siege of 
Corinth. During several months of the year 1S63 Mr. Seiler 
occupied the honorable position of color-bearer of his regiment. 
In October, 1863, he received an injury that compelled him to 
lay off for a while, and a month later was discharged by reason 
of expiration of service. Returning to Bremen he resumed 
work at his trade. On the 15th of February, 1866, Mr. Seiler 
was united in marriage to Mary Ann Beyler, who was born in 
German township in 1S46. To their union were born the follow- 
ing children: Frederick William, Margaret Ellinore, Eda Annie, 
Edward Clayton, Clara Erclina, Jennetta May, Emma Estalla, 
Josephine and two sons who died at birth. Of the above men- 
tioned ten children, the six girls are all living and the four boys 
are all dead. Mrs. Seller's father was George Beyler, a native 
of Alsace, France, who came to this country in 1S33, first settling 
in Ohio, and later in Marshall county, Ind. In 1837 he married 
Rebecca Lehr, a native of Lancaster, Penn. Mr. Beyler cleared 
land and was very successful in business, accumulating a great 
deal of property during his useful life. He was a good Chris- 
tian man, holding membership with the Evangelical association 
for thirty-five years. He lived respected and loved by all who 
knew him, and died in 1881, aged nearly seventy years, sincerely 
lamented by the whole community. His wife still survives him. 
The subject of our sketch worked at his trade until 1871 
when he built a shop and storehouse and went into the furniture 
and undertaking business, in which he remained and prospered 
until 1882, when he sold out to John Miller, of La Porte. He 
has held the positions of assessor of German township, member 
of the town school board, clerk and treasurer of Bremen and 
justice of the peace. He filled all these offices conscientiously 
and gave satisfaction to the people who had conferred the honors 
upon him unsolicited. Mr. Seiler built a house in Bremen for 
his aged father, when he retired from farming in 1873 on account 
of old age. He died there December 17, 1873, aged over sixty- 
seven years, and was followed by his gcod wife on the i5th day 
of March, 1887, aged seventy-six years. Mr. Seiler is not a 
member of any church, but belongs to the Masonic fraternity, 
and the G. A. R. post of Bremen, Ind. In 1881 he took a run 
over to the old country, revisiting beautiful Switzerland, the 
scene of his birth and childhood, and visited other countries, 
remaining abroad about three months. 

Rev. Daniel Showley was born in Fairfield county, Ohio, Janu- 
ary 23, 1846, and his paternal great-grandfather was Jacob Show- 
ley, a native of Switzerland, and the father of one son, Jacob by 


name. His wife's given name was Susannah, and she was also a 
native of Switzerland, where their son was born. This Swiss 
family emigrated to the United States in 1S04, and settled in 
Liberty township, Fairfield Co., Ohio, where they afterward 
lived and died. The father was a farmer by occupation, and 
continued upon the farm where they settled till his death, De- 
cember 25, 1810, aged sixty-eight years. His wife died March 7, 

1814, aged fifty-three years, and they both lie buried on the old 
homestead. Their son was eleven years of age when his parents 
came to this country, and he grew to manhood on the farm in 
Ohio, where his marriage was consummated with Ursilla Salada, 
a native of Switzerland, coming to America with her parents in 
about 1 80S. To the above marriage were born nine children, of 
whom only two sons, Samuel and Jacob, reached maturity, the 
others dying in early life. The parents, late in the fifties, re- 
moved from Ohio to Fulton county, Ind., where they continued 
till called away in death. The father died December 3, 1864, 
aged seventy-one years, seven months and twenty days; the 
mother died April 10, 1870, aged seventy-six years and three 
months. Their son, Samuel, was born in F"airfield county, Ohio, 
January 12, 1S21, and February 28, 1841, was united in marriage 
with Ann M. Burkhardt, who was born in Switzerland, March 25, 

181 5, coming with her parents to the United States in about 1830. 
Unto her marriage with Samuel Showley there were born eleven 
children, of whom four reached maturity, namely: Sarah A. 
(deceased), George who died a Union soldier in the civil war), 
Daniel and Jacob B. The father was a shoemaker by trade and 
a farmer by occupation. He and family came to Fulton county, 
Ind., in 1853, where he died November 17, 1SS4. The mother's 
home is now with Daniel, the subject of this biography. Our 
subject was reared on a farm and given a fair common school 
education in the country schools. He worked on the farm with 
his father till twenty-two years of age, and January 2, 1868, in 
Wayne county, Ind., his marriage was consummated with Cath- 
erine E. Urbin, who was born in Fairfield county, Ohio, May 15, 
1848. The above marriage has resulted in the birth of ten 
children, of whom the following are living: Minnie E., Nor- 
ma O., Samuel M. J., Jesse Ray, Bartmas and Otis Earl. For 
about nine years after Mr. Showlej^'s marriage he farmed in Ful- 
ton county. February 24, 1877, he became a licensed preacher 
of the gospel in the United Brethren church, and since contin- 
ued an active life as a minister. He is now serving his third 
term as pastor of the United Brethren congregation of Bremen, 
where he resides. Mr. Showley is a faithful worker in his church, 
and enjoys the esteem and confidence of all. The Showley 
family have all been reared in the United Brethren church faith, 
from the Swiss emigrant on down to the present generation, and 


our subject Is regarded as an able man in his profession, and be- 
fore him lies a bright future. 

D. C. Smith, the present postmaster of Bremen, was born in 
Stark county, Ohio, May i, 1S41, and is a son of James and Susan 
(Tschupp) Smith. The father was born in Allegheny county, 
Penn., January 27, 1818, and the mother in Stark county, Ohio, 
April 30, 1S19. They were the parents of the following children: 
Sarah, David, Annie, Jacob, Maria, Lydia, Susan, Daniel, Cath- 
erine, Emaline, Samuel and Hannah. The immediate subject 
of this mention was raised and educated on a farm. Septem- 
ber 15, 1S64, he enlisted as a private in Company B, Seventeenth 
Indiana volunteer mounted infantry, with which he participated 
in the battles of Nashville, Anselma, and other engagements. 
At Anselma he received a wound, losing his left arm. He was 
honorably discharged at Indianapolis, August 28, 1865, by reason 
of the close of the war. Just before enlisting in the army, 
August 14, 1S64, Mr. Smith was united in marriage with Susan A. 
Hopkins, who was born in Stark county, Ind., February 22, 1S40. 
To this union there have been born the following children: 
Dora E., Lydia M., Etta M., Elmer G., Charles E., Eva J. and 
Bessie. After the close of the war, Mr. Smith returned to his 
wife in St. Joseph county, and at South Bend took a course in 
commercial education. For two years he served in South Bend 
as constable and deputy marshal, and two years as assistant post- 
master. Then for eight years he was traveling salesman for 
reapers, binders, mowers and general wrapping paper, and from 
1884 to 1886 he was engaged in the farm implement business at 
South Bend. In 1886 he came to Bremen, and engaged in the 
implement business. In the spring of 1887 he was elected town 
marshal in Bremen, and in the same spring was elected constable, 
and re-elected in the spring of 1889. In 1888, in the republican 
county convention at Plymouth, he was nominated candidate for 
sheriff, and in the fall election reduced a majority of near 700 to 
240 votes, and this may be cited as an evidence of his popularity 
throughout the county. October i, 1889, he was appointed post- 
master at Bremen and still holds this office. Mr. Smith is a 
staunch republican in politics, and is a member of the G. A. R., 
Hardzog post, of Bremen, and of the K. O. T. M., of Bremen. 

Simon Snyder, an old and well-known resident of Marshall 
count}', is a native of Lancaster county, Penn., born September 23, 
181 1, the son of Henry and Mary (Restler) Snyder. The fam- 
ily is of German descent, the paternal grandfather, John .Snyder, 
having come to America from Saxony, Germany, prior to the 
revolution, in which struggle he took a part. The following are 
the names of the children born to Henry and Mary Snyder: 
Henry, Simon, Catherine, Mary, Salome and Elizabeth. The 
mother died in Lancaster county, Penn., and the father departed 


this life in Kosciusko county, Ind. Simon Snyder early learned 
the carpenter's trade, and at the age of sixteen removed with his 
parents to Ohio, and in 1S44 became a resident of Indiana, locat- 
ing in Marshall county. He was married in Stark county, Ohio, 
May 9, 1841, to Salome Schmachtenberger, a native of the same 
county and state, whose birth occurred October 14, 1S17. To 
this union w^ere born the following children, viz.: Martin, Benja- 
min, Henry, William (deceased), Margaret, James B. and Simon 
(deceased). Mr. Snyder has been a resident of Marshall over 
forty-tive years, and during his long period of residence has built 
up an enviable reputation as an honest, intelligent and progres- 
sive citizen. He has undergone many hardships and trials inci- 
dent to a life in a new country, but has lived to see his labors 
crowned with abundant success, being at this time one of the 
substantial and well-to-do farmers of the township in which he 
resides. He is a democrat in politics, and has held several minor 
official positions at different times. 

Peter Voegeli was born in Switzerland, February 21, 1839. 
He is a son of Ulrich and Barbara (Schild) Voegeli. The father 
and mother were born in Switzerland, and both died at Bremen. 
Ulrich Voegeli was born March 14, 1S02, and died March iS, 
1S66; Mrs. Voegeli was born November 29, 1805, and died in 
May of 1885. They were blessed in their marriage by the birth 
of the following offspring: Barbara, Elizabeth, Ulrich, Mar- 
garet, Mary and Peter, all of whom were born in Switzerland. 
The family immigrated to America in 1850, leaving their native 
land April 16, and locating in Marshall county, Ind., July 5, 1850, 
settling on a farm near Bremen. The father, who followed 
farming here, was a drill master of recruits in the Swiss army. 
His later years were spent operating a meat market in Bremen. 
He and \v\ie were members of the German Reformed church, and 
were well-respected citizens. Peter Voegeli was reared on a 
farm and educated in both the English and German languages. 
In 1857 he took up the cooper's trade, which he has followed all 
his life. October 22, 1861, he enlisted as a musician in the band 
of the Thirty-fifth Indiana volunteer infantry, and September 9, 
1862, was discharged by reason of Gen. Buell's order No. 43, or- 
dering all volunteer regiment bands to be discharged. Jan- 
uary 2, 1864, he re-enlisted as bugler in the Twenty-first Indiana 
battery of light artillery, with which he served until honorably 
discharged, June 26, 1S65. December 29, 1868, he was united in 
marriage with Annie Hardzog, born in Marshall county Septem- 
ber 26, 1845. The marriage has given issue to the birth of three 
children: Frank L., Charles N. and Clemens O. Mr. and Mrs. 
Voegeli are members of the German Reformed church. She oper- 
ates the leading millinery store In Bremen, and he follows his 
trade for a livelihood. He is a member of the G. A. R., Hard- 


zog post, No. 400, of Bremen, and in politics he is a stauncli re- 
publican. He is a natural musician, and is a leading member of 
the excellent Bremen cornet band. 

G. F". Wahl, M. D., a practicing physician of Bremen, was 
born in St. Joseph county, Ind., April 23, 1S59. He is a son of 
Michael and Mary A. (Fink) Wahl. In 1836 the father was born 
in Alsace, German}', the second of the following children: F"red- 
erick, Michael, Philip, and Eve, children of George and Mar- 
garet (Wander) Wahl, natives of Germany. They emigrated 
with their family to America in 1S40, and settled in Canton, Ohio, 
and later in St. Joseph county, Ind. Michael Wahl was one of 
the early lumber men of northern Indiana, and later in life fol- 
lowed farming, and finally merchandising. He now resides in 
Bremen. Mary A., his wife, was born in Pennsylvania in 1839, 
of German descent. Her marriage with Michael resulted in the 
birth of seven children, namely: George F'., Ida M., Josephine V., 
Elvira }., Harmon, Bertha, and Martin. George F. was reared 
on a farm, where he worked till about eighteen years of age. He 
received a fair education in the countrj' schools; then completed 
a course in the Bremen schools, and later took a special course in 
the Northern Indiana Normal at Valparaiso. In the spring of 
1879 he began the study of medicine at Bremen under the in- 
struction of Dr. H. M. Bishop, and in September of 18S0, entered 
the Rush Medical college, of Chicago, where he graduated in 
the spring of 1882. In January of 1883, he located at Bremen, 
where he has since continued an active and lucrative practice. 
He is among the leading physicians of the county, and is a mem- 
ber of the Marshall County Medical association, of the Indiana 
State Medical society, and also of the American Medical associ- 
ation. He is a member of the Bremen lodge, No. 414, F. & A. M., 
and in politics is an ardent democrat. At Bremen he is a mem- 
ber of the board of health, and of the fire department, of which 
he is treasurer. In 1884 he was married to Ellen P. Diedrich, 
a native of Bremen. The marriage has resulted in the birth of 
one child, named Lulu. 

Solomon Weaver was born in Lehigh county, Penn., Novem- 
ber 10, 1S34. He is the third of the following children born 
unto Solomon and Catherine (Hunsicer) Weaver: Polly, 
Jonathan, Solomon, Annie, John, Catherine, Lydia, Mary J. 
and Susan E. The parents were born in Lehigh county, Penn., 
of German ancestry, the father in 1805, and the mother in 1808. 
They were married in their native county, and in 1836, with their 
family, came by way of wagon to Ohio, and settled in the wilds 
of Mahoning county, where they continued to reside for nearly 
thirty years. In the spring of 1864 they removed to Marshall 
county, Ind., where they lived near Bremen till 1875, when they 
returned to Mahoning county, Ohio, where the father died in 


1877, aged seventy-two years, and the mother in 1883, aged 
seventy-six years. The father was a weaver, mason and plas- 
terer by trade, and a farmer by occupation. Our subject was 
reared and educated on a farm in Mahoning county, Ohio, where 
he grew to manhood, and he remained under the parental roof 
till he was united in marriage with Susannah Lynn, in 1S59. 
Mrs. Weaver was born in Mahoning county, Ohio, August 14, 
1841. Unto the above union there have been born the following 
children: Emma A. (deceased), Mary M. (deceased) , Orrie E. 
(deceased), Clarrie E. and Delia A. After his marriage Mr. 
Weaver resided in Ohio till 1863, when he came to Indiana.